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Full text of "1st to 27th Annual Reports of the Dairy Bureau of the Massachusetts Board of Agriculture (1891-1917)"

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FIRST ANNUAL EEPORT 



OF THE 



JHsss DAIRY BUREAU 

OP THE 



Massachusetts boaed of ageiculture. 



Required under Chapter 412, Acts of 1891. 



January 15, 1892. 




BOSTON : 

WRIGHT & POTTER PRINTING CO., STATE PRINTERS, 
18 Post Office Square. 
1892. 



MAR 15 1940 



STATE HOHSE, BOSTOft , 



• t * * 
• . • • « • 



3 



EEPORT OF THE DAIRY BUREAU. 



To the Senate and, House of Bej^resentatives of the Commonwealth of 
Massachusetts. 

The law creating this bureau went into eftect Sept. 1, 
1891, and requires a report to the legislature not later than 
January 15, consequently the bureau's first report — to 
Jan. 1, 1892 — covers a period of only four months. But 
not all of even that 1)rief time has been available for active 
work, .^-everal weeks were unavoidal)ly consumed in the 
appointment, confirmation and organization of the bureau. 
Considera1)le time has also been necessarily consumed in 
making plans and getting ready for work, the delay being- 
increased by the fact that the law and the office were new, 
and that, therefore, there were no traditions or precedents 
to go by. Consequently not much active field work Avas 
done before the middle of Noveml)er. 

As the law under which the bureau operates is, in the 
popular mind, intimately associated with restricting the sale 
of oleomargarine, there is danger that it may be considered 
a mere j)olice or detective provision ; and in order to show 
clearly the duties of the bureau we copy a portion of the 
law. 

Chapter 412, section 7, of the Acts of 1891, says that the 
bureau is " subject to the general direction and control of 
the board of agriculture," but its particular duties are 
defined in section 11 of the same cha[)ter as follows : — 

" To investigate all dairy products and imitation dairy products 
bought or sold within the Commonwealth ; 

"To enforce all laws for the manufacture, transfer and sale of 
all dairy products and all imitation dairy products within the 
Commonw^ealth, with all powers needed for the same ; 

"To investigate all methods of butter and cheese making in 
cheese factories or creameries ; and 

"To disseminate such information as shall be of service in 
producing a more uniform dairy product of higher grade and better 
quality." 



4 



A careful reading of this law shows that it is very broad 
and comprehensive. Not only does it relate to the illegal 
sale of imitation butter, but it covers the whole range of 
dairy pro])lems. 

For instance, all questions relating to sale milk come 
within the province of this l)ureau, which can investigate 
the proper feeding and sanitary conditions of cows, the milk 
standard, and the transportation and delivery of milk. The 
bureau is also charged with an investigation of all methods 
of butter and cheese making. Further than this, the l)ureau 
is charged with the dissemination of information on these 
topics. 

The law is not an example of class legislation, but is of 
vital interest to every one who buys a pint of milk or a pound 
of butter. At the same time, it is a protection to the farmer 
against an unfair comi)etition with imitation dairy products 
and may l)e a source of nmch education. 

The executive Avork of the bureau was placed by the 
statute in the hands of the secretary of the Board of Agricult- 
ure, but as he was already a very busy person, the legis- 
lature gave him an assistant for this work, to be appointed 
by the Governor. The Governor appointed to this position 
George M. AVhitaker. The bureau has also authority to 
appoint such additional assistants as may be necessary, and 
in accordance with that provision it has secured the services 
of J. W. Stock well. Professor Goessmann has been 
appointed chemist to the bureau. 

The duties imposed by the statute seem naturally to divide 
themselves into two classes : those of an educational and 
those of a police nature. Mr. AA^hitaker has been assigned 
to the first, in addition to assisting in the general executive 
work ; he has been instructed to inspect the creameries of 
the State and to respond to calls for institute work. A 
Babcock milk tester has been placed at his disposal. Mr. 
Stockwell has l)een api)ointe(l an agent for securing evidence 
. of the violation of the laws in relation to the sale of oleo- 
margarine. Polariscopes have been ])rocured for the use of 
each of these gentlemen in testing oleomargarine. 

The actual work accomplished so far, as stated above, 
includes much of a preliminary character. The first thing 



5 



that was done was to codify, print and distribute the dairy 
laws of the State for the information of all persons interested 
or concerned. 

Interviews have been held with the State Board of Health 
and also the milk inspectors of Boston and other cities, rela- 
tive to working in unison with them (section 10, chapter 
412) and also to avoid unnecessary duplicating of the same 
work. 

In almost every case we have been met with the utmost 
courtesy and with assurances that we could work in unison 
with these different officers. 

Interviews have also been had with the collector of inter 
nal revenue and a list of persons holding United States 
licenses has been secured. In some States the dairy com- 
missioner has had trouble in ol^taining this list and has 
sharply criticised the United States officials fgr such failure. 
This Inireau has found no trouble whatever in this matter. 
The United States laws very emphatically forbid the com- 
missioner of internal revenue from furnishing any lists of 
licensed parties. At the same time, they provide that a 
general alphabetical list shall be kept open for public inspec- 
tion at all times, and from this public list was copied the 
names of those holding oleomargarine licenses. 

Interviews have also been held with Dr. Goessmann rela- 
tive to analyses of suspected samples of oleomargarine ; and 
with both him and Dr. Davenport relative to microscopic 
tests of the same. 

Most of the work done so far toward suppressing the ille- 
gal sale of oleomargarine has been that done by the bureau's 
agent appointed for that purpose, although in Boston Dr. 
Harrington, the milk inspector, has done much work in that 
direction. September 1 he detailed a special inspector to 
look up the illegal sales of oleomargarine, and has taken 
several cases into court for violation of the laws relating to 
marks, signs, wrappers, and also for violation of chapter 58 
of the Acts of 1891, relative to sales of any articles which 
shall be in imitation of yellow butter. These were the first 
cases tried under the law and its constitutionality was at 
once questioned ; two test cases were taken to the supreme 
court where they were argued l)efore the full bench at the 
November session. The decision has not yet been rendered. 



6 



The milk inspector of Lowell has also done some good 
work in warnino; the would-be dealers of oleomar«:arine and 
restricting its illegal sale. 

The assistant to the secretary has also made a number of 
calls of inspection in the markets in Boston and many 
samples have l)een taken. In several case she found the 
letter of the law violated in regard to marks upon the open 
tubs, although the spirit of the law was complied with ; and 
in those cases letters of warning were sent to the parties. 

Mr. StockwelFs work thus far has largely consisted in visit- 
ing parties who hold United States licenses and who are openly 
selling oleomargarine, in order to see that they are comply- 
ing with all laws on the subject. When in a town or city 
he has also made other visits of inspection. He has visited 
.Worcester, Uxbridge, Whitinsville, Northampton, Holyoke, 
Springfield, Athol, Amherst, Lawrence, Lowell, Fall River, 
Millbury, Millville and Blackstone. He has made over 
three hundred visits, and sent thirty-two samples to Profes- 
sor Goessmann. Out of these he has twenty-seven cases 
ready for entry in court, some of them having several 
counts. Prosecution would have been begun on all before 
this had it not l)een for his sickness. As the least line is 
one hundred dollars we hope and expect that the law will be 
self sustaining and no expense to the State. 

Although active work has l)een in progress for so short 
a time, the wisdom of the law is already proven. This 
department of the work is in efficient hands and with the 
start already made we may expect good results during the 
year now entered ui)on. We believe that this work so fav- 
orably begun will prove, before the close of another year, to 
be a great blessing, not only to the Massachusetts dairy 
farmers, but to all who desire to purchase and use real 
butter without fear of fraud and deception and at no increase 
in price. 

The report of the assistant to the secretary is herewith 
appended in his own language and made ;i part of our report : 

" Since receiving the instructions of the dairy l)ureau to 
inspect the creameries of the State, there has been time to 
visit only a little over one-half of the number, owing to the 
way they are scattered over the whole State and to the 



7 



season of the year. The work will be pushed as fast as pos- 
sible . 

" It is often said that when food supplies are prepared in 
large quantities, the work is necessarily done under con- 
ditions which are not particularly appetizing, and that peace 
of mind would l)e promoted by eating what is set before 
us — asking no questions. This is not true so far as cream- 
ery butter making in Massachusetts is concerned. With 
possil)ly two exceptions, all the creameries visited were 
found so sweet and clean as to add zest to the readiness with 
which their product could be eaten. 

Some statistics for the creameries visited are as follows 
for the months of N()veml)er and Decem])er : — 

1. Pounds manufactured per day — from 80 to 600. 

2. Wholesale prices, delivered — from 28 to 34 cents. 

3. Spaces of cream to pouud of butter — from 5.70 to 6.80. 

4. Fat in buttermilk — from only a trace to 0.3 per cent. 

5. Fat in cream — from 13.2 to 15.85 per cent. 

6. Travel of cream gatherers — from 10 to 45 miles. 

The butter is sold largely in towns or cities near the place 
of manufacturing ; some of the creameries in the western 
part of the State report a growing demand from New York 
city for unsalted butter. All of the creameries seemed to be 
doing well, with a brisk demand for all the butter they could 
make. The ratio of miles of travel to number of i)atrons is 
an important factor in the success of the creamery. One 
reported twenty miles travel for fourteen patrons ; another 
twenty miles for twenty ; and another twenty miles for 
thirty-two. The expense in each case would be the same, 
but in the one case it would l)e shared l)y fourteen persons 
and in another l)y thirty-two persons. To each of the latter 
it would be less than one-half what it would be in the for- 
mer case : a suggestive point of the value of co-operation 
and the need of its being thorough to l)e most effective. 
The highest cost of making butter reported was eight cents 
per pound. The creamery reporting the most number of 
spaces of cream per pound of butter explained the fact by 
saying that none of the farmers were feeding grain and 
many of their cows were nibbling on frosty grass during the 
middle of the day ; but coupled with this is the strange fact 



8 



that the next largest number is reported by a creamery 
which lias the largest number of carefully fed pure-bred 
Jerseys. The creameries generally allow cotton-seed meal to 
be fed but restrict the quantity. 

' ' I have also be^^un the work of visiting: institutes and 
explaining the work of the bureau and testing milk for butter 
fat. The range of samples tested was from 2.2 to 5.40. 
The lowest was from a cow that had recently l)een trans- 
ported in the cars a long distance and then driven several 
miles in a cold storm. The latter was a grade of no pre- 
dominating l)reed, l)ut selected by the owner as a family cow 
for the quality of her milk. 

This department of the dairy l)ureau's work has great pos- 
sibilities of benefit to the farmers and the consumers of 
dairy products, the full scope of which does not appear at 
first thought but which ])roadens every day one is engaged in 
the work. We l^elieve it will help the farmer and improve 
the quality of his stock and his products, and thereby bene- 
fit every consumer." 

The financial report of the Dairy Bureau is appended. 



Financial Report of the Dairy Bureau. 
Appropriation by Legislature of 1891, . . 1 4,000 00 



C. L. Hartshorn, Chairman, 




Travelling and necessary expenses, 


fl2 00 


G. L. Clemence, 




Travelling and necessary expenses, 


23 40 


D. A. Horton, 




Travelling and necessary expenses, 


30 00 


Ct. M. Whitaker, Assistant Executive Officer, 




Travelling and necessary expenses. 


GO Gl 


J. W. Stockwell, Agent, 






275' 00 


Travelling and necessary expenses. 


149 54 


Sundries, 


18 69 




147 00 




72 66 


Stationery and postage, .... 


5 35 


Microscopes, rolariscopes,Babcock Tester, 


108 80 




$4,000 00 $903 05 


C. 


L. HARTSHORN, 



G. L. CLEMENCE. 
D. A. HORTON, 

Dairy Bureau. 



SENATE No. 10. 



SECOND ANNUAL REPORT 

OF THE 

_A\.&ss.; DAIRY BUREAU 

OF THE 

Massacliusetts Board of Agriculture. 

Eeqdired under Chapter 412, Acts of 1891. 



January 16, 1893. 



3 



REPORT OF THE DAIRY BUREAU. 



To the Senate and House of Bepresentalives of (he Commonwealth of 
Massach?isetts, 

The law creating the dairy bureau went into effect Sept. 
1, 1891, and is therefore only one year and four months 
old. 

During this brief period much time has been necessarily 
expended in the details of organization, in the making of 
plans, and in other matters of preliminary routine ; for the 
dair}^ bureau was an entirely new department of the State 
machinery, without traditions or precedents to aid it in 
getting into operation. In addition to this, the members 
of the bureau, with their executive officers, were unfamiliar 
with the class of duties imposed upon them by the statute ; 
consequently this first record of a full year's work cannot 
report as great achievements as we hope will be possible 
with more experience and greater familiarity with our duties 
and responsibilities. 

Chapter 412, section 7, of the Acts of 1891, says that the 
bureau is subject to the general direction and control of 
the Board of Agriculture," but its particular duties are de- 
fined in section 11 of the same chapter as follows : — 

To investigate all dairy products and imitation dairy products 
bought or sold within the Commonwealth ; 

To enforce all laws for the manufacture, transfer and sale of all 
dairy products and all imitation dairy products within the Com- 
monwealth, with all powers needed for the same ; 

To investigate all methods of butter and cheese making in 
cheese factories or creameries ; and 

To disseminate such information as shall be of service in 
producing a more uniform dairy product of higher grade and 
better quality. 



4 REPORT OF DAIRY BUREAU. [Jan. 

This very comprehensive law incUides educational and 
police duties, and can be enforced in such a broad manner 
as to enhance the interests of consumers and producers of 
dairy products, of dwellers in both city and country. It 
has been the aim of the bureau to make its work of service 
to the whole community. 

The executive department of the bureau remains the same 
as at the time of its report a year ago. Wm. R. Sessions, 
secretary of the Board of Agriculture, is by statute the 
responsible executive officer; but most of the actual ex- 
ecutive work falls upon his assistant, — appointed by the 
governor, — Geo. M. Whitaker. In addition to these ex- 
ecutive duties, Mr. Whitaker has also been placed by the 
bureau in immediate charge of the educational department 
of the work. el. W. Stockwell continues an agent of the 
bureau for securing evidence of the violation of the laws in 
relation to the sale of oleomargarine. 

The Police Department. 
The statute gives the bureau authority to enforce all the 
laws relating to all dairy })roducts, but in the brief time 
the law has been in operation, and with the means at our 
disposal, there has been opportunity to take up onl}^ the 
oleomargarine laws. These laws are in brief as follows : — 

1. Requirements for branding boxes and tubs and for marking 
wrapping paper, with a penalty for false marking or branding. 

2. A proliibiLion of the use of the word "dairy " or " creamery " 
on any tub or package. 

3. A requirement for licensing a dealer and a conveyer. 

4. A penalty for selling oleomargarine as butter. 

5. Requirements for signs on stores and wagons. 

6. A prohibition of the sale at hotels and restaurants without 
giving notice. 

7. A prohibition of the sale of any imitation of yellow batter. 

Laws reofulatino; the sale of oleomargarine were first 
passed in this State in 1881, and, as experience showed the 
need of more and more restrictive measures, additional 
legislation was enacted in 1884, 1885, 1886 and 181)1. The 
al)solute prohibition of the sale of any imitation of yellow 



1893. j 



SENATE — No. 10. 



5 



butter is the most important, as it is the most restrictive, 
of all this legishition. This measure was hotly contested in 
the Legislature for several years, and it has been opposed 
with equal vigor since its enactment. The first cases brought 
under it (chapter 58 of the Acts of 1891) were rapidly 
advanced to the supreme court. In point of time this law 
was passed before chapter 412 of the same year, which had 
other restrictive measures, though both went into effect at 
the same time. It was argued that the anti-color law 
(chapter 58) was repealed by implication by the enactment 
of chapter 412. The supreme court refused to sustain this 
point. The claim was also made that the law in question 
was unconstitutional, as interfering Avith interstate com- 
merce, the oleomargarine in question l)eing the product of 
other States, and sold in the original package. This point, 
too, was overruled by the supreme court, on the ground 
that it is within the police powers of the State to pass laws 
prohibiting the sale of an imitation article, in the interest of 
honesty and fair dealing. The court said, " The question 
is, may a State protect itself against articles so [)repared as 
to deceive the public?" To this question the court said, 
"Yes." 

This is in accordance with the spirit of the decision of the 
United States supreme court in the case of a prohibitory 
oleomargarine huv in Pennsylvania, by which it was declared 
that a proper exercise of the police power of the State is 
not an unlawful interference with interstate commerce. This 
decision of the State supreme court sustaining the law was 
not rendered till early in May, and not until aliout the first 
of June would district and municipal courts entertain com- 
plaints for selling an imitation of 3"ellow butter. Hence for 
nine months of the existence of this law it has been inopera- 
tive l)y reason of its status being uncertain. Although this 
has greatly interfered with our work, it has .not prevented 
its prosecution with what vigor was possi])le. The detective 
officer of the bureau kept faithfully at work, getting evidence 
of the violation of this and the other oleomargarine laws. 
The decision of the court was received so late that complaints 
for earlier infractions of the law were dropped for new ones 
on fresher evidence. Our work in this department has been 



6 



REPORT OF DAIRY BUREAU. [Jan. 



largely confined to places outside of Boston, as, under the 
provisions of law allowing us to work in hannony with milk 
inspectors, we liave practically left the Boston field to Dr. 
Harrington, as, with his wide experience, the more liberal 
funds at his command, and a disposition impartially and 
thoroughly to enforce all the laws within his jurisdiction, we 
felt he could do better tlian we could, and that it would ])e 
a more economical use of our appropriation to expend it in 
other parts of the State. 

The clause of the law suggesting that the bureau may act 
in hannony and unison wnth the Board of Health and milk 
inspectors has worked excellently, so far as the Boston milk 
inspector is concerned. We are indebted to Dr. Harrington 
for many valuable suggestions, growing out of his long- 
experience, and in return we hope we have been of some 
help to him, particularly in furnishing him in court with 
needed tec hni'^.al evidence on dairy matters. An oflacer of 
the bureau has appeared in court as a witness for him in 
about twenty cases. Such reci})rocal favors have, w^e trust, 
helped both sets of officers, and increased the efficiency of 
the enforcement of the law. 

The decision of the Massachusetts supreme court, sus- 
taining the anti-color law, was appealed to the national 
supreme court ; and this action, it was claimed by the oleo- 
margarine lawyers, continued to keep the law in suspense. 
But our legal advisers did not coincide with this view, and, 
as a result of the entry of several cases in court, a bill in 
equity was brought in the United States court of ai)peals 
for an injunction to restrain Dr. Harrington from enforcing 
the law. This has been postponed from time to time, and 
has not l)een argued yet. 

In enforcing these laws, the greatest number of cases has 
been brought for selling an imitation of yellow butter, and 
these cases have been stubbornly contested in New Bedford, 
Boston, Springfield, Holyoke, Uxbridge, Worcester and 
elsewhere. The defence has been that oleomargarine is an 
independent article of commerce, and hence that it is not an 
imitation of butter or any other commodity ; that motive 
should ])e proved to prove imitation : also that the standard 
set up — yellow butter made from unadulterated milk or 



1893.] 



SENATE — No. 10. 



7 



cream — does not exist commercially, lacks fixity of shade, 
is hypothetical rather than actual. In spite of these con- 
tests, ably made, convictions have been secured in all the 
lower courts, all of which have been appealed. Only one 
appealed case has been tried before the superior court. At 
the Suffolk County session held last month one was tried ; 
the decision of the lower court was aflSrmed by the jury, 
who found the defendant guilty. The case was then 
appealed to the supreme court, on law points, and another 
attempt will be made to break down this statute. 

The law relative to marks on tubs or boxes requires the 
word '* oleomargarine " or *'butterine" to be stamped, 
labelled or marked in a straight line in printed letters of 
plain, uncondensed Gothic type, not less than one-half inch 
in length, so that said words cannot be easily defaced, upon 
the top, side and bottom of every tub, firkin, box or pack- 
age containing any of said article, substance or compound." 
This law was evaded by placing th^ tubs in groups, so that 
the marks on the bottom and side would not show, and then 
removing the cover, for the alleged purpose of displaying 
the goods. For a while the Boston milk inspector required 
a card bearing the words "oleomargarine" or "butterine" 
to be placed upon the open tubs in such cases. But eventu- 
ally the supreme court decided that such a construction of 
the law was unwarranted. Hence section 2, chapter 412, 
of the Acts of 1891, was enacted, which provides for an 
additional sign ''upon every opened tiih.^'' But the dealers 
now place the opened tubs on their sides, in pigeon-hole- 
like receptacles, with this extra sign upon the opened tub ; 
it is, however, concealed by the receptacle, so that there is 
still nothing visible to show the nature of the contents 
of the tub. In several cases municipal court judges have 
decided that the letter of the law has thus been complied 
with. Consequently this law is inoperative, and will need 
amendment if the intended restriction is to be preserved. 
We recommend that this law be amended so as to read 
as follows, the words in italics being those that should be 
added : — 

Skct. 2. Whoever exposes for sale oleomargarine, butterine or 
any substance made in imitation or semblance of pure butter, not 



8' 



REPORT OF DAIRY BUREAU. [Jan. 



marked and distinguished by all the marks, words and stamps 
required by existing laws, and not having in addition thereto con- 
spicuously upon or across the surface of the exposed contents of 
every opened tub, package or parcel thereof a placard with the 
word *' oleomargarine " printed thereon in plain, uncondensed 
Gothic letters, not less than one inch long, shall be fined not less 
than one hundred dollars for each offence. 

The bureau has also had a few cases for selling oleo- 
margarine when butter was called for, one for sale in a hotel, 
one for lack of signs on a wagon, and several for improperly 
stamped wrapping paper. 

The detective officer of the bureau has made four hundred 
and eighty-six visits of inspection to stores or places where 
oleomargarine is sold ; in these he has purchased one hundred 
and eighty-four samples. The chemical analyses have been 
made by the State Experiment Station, Dr. B. F. Daven- 
port and Professor Kinnicutt of the Worcester technical 
school. 

Although our work has been hampered by our inexperi- 
ence, l)y the newness of the laws, and by the anti-color law 
l)eing inoperative during a considerable portion of the year, 
we feel that the legislation under which we act has been of 
much value in preventing dishonest practices and in restrict- 
ing the sale of "oleomargarine, which is deceptive, and 
which is designed and is likely to be passed oft' for some- 
thing different from what it is." The clause in quotations 
is the language of the JNIassachusetts supreme court. Much 
oleomargarine is still sold, however; a system of selling 
upon orders has been devised, by which a licensed whole- 
saler sends out trusty salesmen to take orders from only 
knoAvn parties, the goods being delivered and billed from 
the main store. We have reason to believe that the oleo- 
margarine dealers in the State are banded together in a 
strong organization, which receives material sympathy from 
the large manufacturers. In nearly all of the cases which 
have ])een tried, from ]N^ew Bedford to Holyoke, the same 
attorney has appeared for the defence, showing that they 
are associated together in order to defy and if possible break 
down the law, and, if defeated, share the costs and penalties 
when a member is convicted. 



1893.] 



SENATE — No. 10. 



9 



One of the arguments advanced for the passage of the law 
creating the dany bureau was that such a body could arrive 
at authoritative and official information as to the extent and 
nature of the oleomargarine business ; for many apparently 
contradictory statements were made in the arguments before 
legislative committees and in the Legislature itself. On the 
one side were many scientific gentlemen, who testified as to 
the wholesomeness of oleomargarine and its desirability as 
a food product ; on the other hand were those interested in 
the prosperity of agriculture, asking for relief from what 
they considered an unjust competition with honest butter. 

The facts as they appear to the bureau after its brief expe- 
rience are that there is some truth in both claims. To a 
certain extent the old story of the shield is repeated. 

We are not prepared to dispute the statements of honest 
scientists in relation to the value of oleomargarine ; we are 
ready to admit that there is a theoretical oleo, which, if put 
upon the market honestly, on its merits as an independent 
article, might have proved an important addition to the 
world's food products. But the ordinary commercial oleo- 
margarine with which we have to deal seems in many cases 
to exert a benumbing influence on the moral sensibilities of 
those who handle if;. There seems very little disposition to 
sell it "in a separate and distinct form, and in such a man- 
ner as will advise the consumer of its real character." Every 
attempt to secure, by legislation, such a manner of selling 
oleomargarine has been vigorously opposed. From the 
start it has been made to look like butter, has been sold in 
butter stores, and given all the nomenclature of the dairy. 
" Butter-ine " is even now a popular name for it, and, until 
the law prevented, " dairy butterine " and " creamery but- 
terine " were common terms. Even now some manufactur 
ing companies are incorporated as dairy companies, and we 
have seen in some stores such a sign as " Butterine from the 
Wooddale Dairy Company sold here." It is put up in but- 
ter tubs or in prints, it is colored with the article of com- 
merce known as " butter color," and sold in butter stores, 
with the tubs of oleo and the butter tul)s side by side. In 
Massachusetts it is a food product of great merit and value 
(*'zc), but in Pennsylvania it is " not sold as an article of 



10 EEPORT OF DAIRY BUREAU. [Jan. 



food," because a judge there had decided that the govern- 
ment must prove that the defendant intended to sell it as a 
food. 

So far as we are called upon, inferentially, to express any 
opinion upon the laws, we believe that the facts warrant 
their existence. The supreme court of Pennsylvania, in a 
decision quoted with evident approval by the supreme court 
of this State, says that when an article is put upon the market 
in such way that it may deceive the public, the Legislature 
of a State is not exceeding its police powers in even prohibit- 
ing the sale of that article, though it might under other 
circumstances be a harmless and even desirable article of 
benefit to the public. 

The law is to be defended on the broad statement of uni- 
versal application that imitation is closely allied with deceit, 
and that any imitation product should be side-tracked if it 
gets in the way of the regular original article. 

The Educational Work. 
This work has been extended in several directions, with a 
view of a broad foundation for the future and doing a present 
«food to all classes of citizens of the State. 

City Supply. 
Considerable has been done in a study of questions relat- 
ing to the milk supply of large cities, Boston in particular. 
This has no great results to show as yet, but we believe that 
a ffood besrinninof has been made. The followinof statements 
will show something of the importance, need and possil^le 
methods of such work. Early in the year there appeared in 
a medical journal an article by Prof. W. T. Sedgwick of the 
Institute of Technology, on the amount of bacteria in city 
milk and the dangers which might result therefrom. His 
attention was immediately called to the dairy bureau and the 
powers given it by law, and he was invited to make some 
suggestions. From this correspondence we make these 
extracts : — 

Geo. M. Whitaker, Esq., Assistant Executive Officer, Dairy B?ireau. 

Dear Sir: — The bureau might well investigate more full}^ the 
origin and history of the milk regularly sold in Boston, and some 



1893.] 



SENATE — No. 10. 



11 



other large cities and towns, with especial reference to the place 
and method of its production, its pollution at the stable and en 
route ^ its freshness or staleness when delivered, and its keeping 
qualities as marketed. The object of such an investigation would 
be to learn where the milk comes from, under what conditions, 
good or bad, of temperature, exposure, etc., under which it is pro- 
duced and transported ; how long it is upon the railroad, how long 
in the hands of the peddlers. ... It seems to me tliat it is the 
duty as well as the privilege of the bureau to inform the producers 
of milk of the fact of the dissatisfaction of physicians and the 
consumers with the present conditions of the milk purchased in 
the cities ; of the reasons for^such dissatisfaction, and of the 
remedies. 

The fact is that city milk is often filthy . . . and always 
more or less stale. This is a fact of prime consequence to the 
makers of milk, and they should know of the dangers which 
threaten to injure their business. They should be told that the 
keeping qualities of milk depend almost wholly upon cleanliness ; 
that short-lived milk is usually dirty milk ; and they should be 
made to understand the value of chilled milk, and exactly why it 
preserves the keeping qualities. . . . The bureau might equip 
and send out a speaker who, being thoroughly informed, should 
visit and address societies, meetings, granges, etc. . . . They 
should urge the practical remedial measures of greater cleanliness 
and quicker transportation and delivery. 

Pursuing plans already partly matured, and carrying out 
the suggestions of this letter, twenty-five meetings have 
been attended by an officer of the bureau, and addresses 
made on questions relating to the milk supply and other 
dairy topics. The assistant executive officer has l)een in- 
structed to study these questions, and hold himself in readi- 
ness to respond to all calls from farmers' clubs, granges and 
agricultural societies so far as possible. 

Creameries. 

Something has been done by the bureau in the inspection 
of creameries. Some thirty such visits have been made ; 
one cheese factory has also been visited. Cheese manufact- 
uring in the State has about died out, but butter-making is 
on the increase. Most of the creameries are owned by co- 



12 



KEPORT OF DAIRY BUREAU. 



[Jan. 



operative associations, although there are a few which are 
proprietary. Most of the creameries are in a prosperous 
condition ; those which are weak are suffering from purely 
local causes. The expense of manufacturing butter may 
range from eight to four cents per pound, dependent largely 
upon the amount manufactured and the location of those 
who furnish cream. If the cream gatherer has to drive past 
the residences of A, B, C, D and E to get F's cream, the 
expense of gathering is too great. It would not cost much 
more to stop at every house. Co-operation can be made a 
success only by co-operating. , 

In addition to this work, the bureau has placed its execu- 
tive force at the service of the creameries of the State, as a 
clearing house of general information, and for such clerical 
work as may be of service and desired by them in collecting 
and tabulating statistics. 

Dairy Schools. 

Further work has been done by the dairy bureau in con- 
ducting dairy schools or conferences. This kind of educa- 
tional work was a novelty in New England until inaugurated 
by this bureau. The idea was first suggested by the Bay 
State Agricultural Society, which set the ball in motion by 
paying one-half of the expense of two schools, — those held 
at Greenfield and Barre. Following these a school was held 
at the Agricultural College, for the benefit of the senior 
class; and later in the season four more were held, — at 
Framingham, Charlton, Cheshire and Gardner. At these 
meetings many kinds of the latest devices in dairy ma- 
chinery were exhibited in actual 0[)eration. As the separa- 
tors, the churns, the butter workers, the coolers and the 
aerators were operated, practical explanations were made 
and questions answered. Mr. James Cheesman had charge 
of the technical work, and the meetings seemed to be very 
profitable and interesting. Many travelled a considerable 
distance to attend them, and much good seemed to l)e done. 
The sight of the various forms of apparatus in actual op(ira- 
tion gave the meetings an object-lesson value far beyond 
what would be possible from a mere lecture or discus,^ ion. 



1893.] 



SENATE — No. 10. 



13 



Babcock Milk Tester. 
Another department of work in which much has been done 
has been the popularizing of the Babcock milk tester (which 
readily shows the amount of butter fat in milk), and testing 
milk and cream. This tester is one of the most important 
dairy implements of recent invention. One authority says 
that, if the experiment stations had done nothing but pro- 
duce the Babcock milk tester, this one result would have been 
a good return for all the expense. By enabling the farmer 
readily to test the quality of the milk of each cow, he can 
weed out those which are unprofitable, and thus make his 
business more successful. He can also detect wastes in his 
dairy. The creameries will eventually pay for the cream 
they receive by this test. The bureau has made two hundred 
and ninety-eight tests of milk, cream, buttermilk and skim- 
milk. 

Tests of cream showed a range of from 12 to 33 per cent 
of butter fats. The first was commercial cream, purchased 
in the open market in Boston, the last a sample of separator 
cream made at a dairy school at Greenfield. 

Samples of buttermilk have been tested, with a range of 
from 3 per cent down to a mere trace of butter fat. About 
.30 is considered a good average. 

The samples of skim-milk examined varied from .10 to 
.50 per cent of butter fats. The lowest samples of skim- 
milk were taken from the separator at the dairy schools. 

The whole milk of individual cows examined showed a 
variation of from 1.80 to 9.80 per cent of butter fats. Sam- 
ples testing 9.80 per cent and 9.20 per cent were from 
farrow Jerseys which had been in milk over a year, — one 
owned in Southbridge and one in Baldwinville. Both of 
these extremes are abnormal ; from 3 to 6 per cent of 
butter fats will cover the majority of specimens, those below 
3 and above 6 being about equal in number. Four tests 
were made of milk at different stages of milking. In one 
case the strippings contained as high as 11 per cent of but- 
ter fats. In two cases the result was as follows : — 

First of the milking, 2 per cent ; strippings, 8 30 per cent. 
First of the milking, 1.40 per cent; strippings, 5.30 per cent. 
First of the milking, 1.10 per cent; strippings, 7.80 per cent. 



14 EEPOET OF DAIRY BUREAU. [Jan. 



The following table shows 
mal milk, as classified : — 

Below 3 per cent butter fats, . 
From 3 to 4 per cent butter fats, . 
From 4 to 5 per cent butter fats, 
From 6 to 6 per cent butter fats. 
Six per cent and over butter fats, . 



results of the tests of nor- 

.17 per cent of the samples. 
.25 per cent of the samples. 
.32 per cent of the samples. 
.13 per cent of the samples. 
.12 per cent of the samples. 



the 



Large interests in the State are involved in the production 
of sale milk, and to these the law requiring 13 per cent of 
total solids is of interest and importance. As the solids 
other than fat are comparatively constant in all kinds of 
milk, and as the only element that changes very much is the 
fat, the Babcock test has a practical interest in the infor- 
mation it gives the farmer as to the total quality of his 
milk. The solids other than fat seldom vary more than 
three-quarters of one per cent, usually ranging from about 
8.75 to 9.50. Usually milk testing from 3.70 to 3.80 per 
cent of fat is on the line of safety. Of the above samples, 
33 per cent were below 3.80; 66 per cent were 3.80 or 
above. 

The range of variation in individual animals is much wider 
than it is in the mixed milk of several animals. Any one 
producing milk for market will have a more uniform article, 
and be less liable to furnish milk below the standard, if he 
mixes the milk of several animals. 

The samples of the mixed milk of herds tested by the 
officer of the bureau had a range of from 2.30 to 6.10 per 
cent of butter fats. Avoiding the violent extremes, the 
range was from 3.30 to 5 per cent. 

Of all these samples of herd milk there were : — 

Per Cent. 

Below 3.50 per cent, dangerously below the standard, , . 9 
3.50 and 3.60 per cent, possibly below the standard, . . .19 

28 

3.70 and 3.80 per cent, on the line, 17 

Above 3.80 per cent, undoubtedly above standard, ... 55 

72 

Two samples bought in the open market in a Massachusetts 
city tested 1.60 and 1.70; these were probably watered or 
skimmed, and are not included in the above. 



1893.] 



SENATE — No. 10. 



15 



The bureau has also made some investigations as to the 
accuracy of mathematical formulae, published by the Vermont 
and Wisconsin experiment stations, for ascertaining the total 
solids in milk by the Babcock test and the specific gravity 
as shown by the lactometer. 

One formula is : — 

Total solids equal lactometer divided by 4 plus fat. 

The results have been very satisfactory, so far as we have 
been able to carry them. 

The following is the result of six experiments made by 
chemist J. R. Blair, employed by the C. Brigham Com- 
pany : _ 





Specific 


Fat. 


Total Solids 
by 
Analysis. 


Total Solids 
by 

Calculation. 




Gravity. 


Sample No. 1, . , . 


1.0317 


-2.60 


11.24 


11.04 


SamjDle No. 2, . 


1.0322 


3.00 


11.66 


11.62 


Sample No. 3, . . . 


1.0317 


2.90 


11.60 


11.50 


Sample No. 4, , 


1.0322 


2.90 


11.58 


11.50 


Sample No. 5, . . . 


1.0322 


2.90 


11.52 


11.50 


Sample No. 6, . . . 


1.0322 


2.50 


11.14 


11.04 



Finally. 

It has been the aim of the bureau to carry out the instruc- 
tions of the law in a broad spirit. We have endeavored in 
the time given us to do our best to enforce the criminal laws 
placed under our charge, and to carry out our public duties. 
But we have given equal attention to the broad educational 
field. We have endeavored to exert such an influence for 
better and purer dairy products as to remove from the laws 
any stigma of class legislation, and to place them upon the 
broad plane of valuable provisions for the welfare of the 
whole people. We believe that our work has been of some 
value in this direction. We know it has given us valuable 
experience which leads us to hope for better results as time 



16 



EEPORT OF DAIRY BUREAU. [Jan. '93. 



goes on. The importance of our work can hardly be over- 
estimated. To protect the agricultural interests, to check 
fraud and to enhance the quality of leading food products, 
is a labor as great as it is necessary and valuable. 

The financial report of the dairy bureau is appended. 

CALVm L. HARTSHORN, 
GEO. L. CLEMENCE, 
D. A. HORTON, 

State Dairy Bureau. 



FINANCIAL REPORT OF THE DAIRY BUREAU. 



Appropriation by Legislature of 1892, . . $4,000 00 

C. L. Hartshorn, Chairman : — 

Travelling and necessary expenses, . . $39 00 

Eleven days' services, .... 55 00 
G. L. Clemence : — 

Travelling and necessary expenses, . . 86 95 

Twelve days' services, .... 60 00 

D. A. Horton : — 

Travelling and necessary expenses, . , 42 00 

Services, 35 00 

G, M. Whitaker, Assistant Executive Officer: — 

Travelling and necessary expenses, . . 308 74 
J. W. Stockwell, Agent: — 

Salary, 1,075 00 

Travelling and necessary expenses, . . 619 96 
James Cheesman, Expert : — 

Services, 80 00 

Analyses and tests, . * 778 50 

Printing 70 86 

Legal services and court attendance, . . 150 00 

Supplies, 26 50 



$4,000 00 $3,427 51 



Massachusetts 
Board of Agriculture. 

THIRD ANNUAL KEPORT 

i 
i 

. I 

OF THE 

DAIRY BUREAU. 

i 

Required under Chapter 412, Acts of 1891. 



January, 1894. 



BOSTON: 

WRIGHT & POTTER PRINTING CO., STATE PRINTERS, 
18 Post Office Square. 
1894. 



THTKD AKKUAL EEPOKT 

OF THK 

iUs;.DAIRT BUREAU 

OP THE 

Massachusetts Boaed of Ageictiltuee, 

RBQUIREW 

Under Chapter 412, Acts of 1891. 



January 15, 1894. 



MAR 15^ 

STftiE Hom^, Bestow 




6 M. 32/13 

1^93 
3 



EEPORT OF THE DAIRY BUREAU. 



To the Senate and House of Bepreseniatives of the Commonwealth of 

Massachusetts. 

The past year was the second complete year of the exist- 
ence of the Dairy Bureau ; and its labors have been con- 
tinued along the general lines reported a year ago, with such 
increased eflSciency as would result from increased experience. 
The personnel of the Bureau and its executive staff has been 
unchanged ; the governor reappointed the retiring member, 
Mr. Clemence, and also the working executive officer, Mr. 
Whitaker ; the Bureau has continued the services of Mr. 
Stock well in the detective and court departments. Hence 
the work has received the full advantage not only of accumu- 
lating experience, but also of the concerted action of those 
becomino; more and more accustomed to labor toojether. 

As we advance in the work and more fully realize its possi- 
bilities, the meagreness of the appropriation becomes more 
apparent. The Bureau is given both educational and police 
duties, covering the whole State, with an appropriation less 
than one-half of what the city of Boston places at the disposal 
of its milk inspector for only police work. This small sum 
restricts us to one detective agent, where the Boston milk 
inspector has four or five, and it also limits our expenditures 
for expert assistance in the educational field. As the dairy 
laws of the State relate more to commercial frauds than to 
the public health, possibly at some time our funds may be 
increased, and by friendly arrangement with the Board of 
Health our field of operations may be enlarged without 
encroaching on theirs. They could then be relieved of the 
compulsion of expending three-fifths of their appropriation 
on dairy products, and could be unhampered in the field of 
health work ; while we, in harmony with them, would have 
the dairy laws under our more especial charge, with particu- 
lar reference to commercial frauds. 



4 



The educational work of the past year has consisted in 
studying the problems peculiar to both the consuming and 
producing dairy interests of this State. It has sixty -three 
cities and towns of over five thousand population, with a 
million and a half people to be supplied with fresh and 
pure milk each day ; thirty co-operative creameries and five 
proprietary creameries; a cow population of 186,806 
animals and the commercial centre of New England in its 
midst ; within a radius of twelve miles is a population of 
three-quarters of a million people. In connection with 
this educational work thirty meetings have been addressed, 
bulletins have been issued, fourteen creamery inspections 
have been made, and a butter exhibition has been held. 
Much has been done to acquaint milk producers and milk 
consumers with the varying qualities of milk, and the easy, 
ready method of investigating them by the Babcock milk 
tester, — a modern invention of untold importance, which 
will revolutionize many practices. 

The police work has been mostly confined to an enforce- 
ment of the oleomargarine laws. The appropriation pre- 
cludes attention to both the milk and oleomargarine laws ; 
and, as the Board of Health does more with the former, we 
attend to the latter. Our work has been largely outside of 
Boston. In this city the laws are so well executed by Dr. 
Harrington, milk inspector, that it would be a waste of efibrt 
to attempt much in this field. 

The following is a more detailed report of our work. 

Co-operation with the Boston Milk Inspector. 
Section 3, chapter 58, Acts of 1891, and section 2, chapter 
310, Acts of 1884, give inspectors of milk authority to enter 
all places where butter or imitations thereof are kept for 
sale, and to take samples. These statutes say nothing about 
the deputies or agents of milk inspectors, and attorneys have 
questioned the authority of these agents. The law creating 
the Dairy Bureau gives all needed power *'to such agents, 
and counsel as they shall duly authorize." Therefore, Dr. 
Harrington, the Boston milk inspector, and all his deputies 
and collectors, have been made agents of the Dairy Bureau. 
This has also helped them in enforcing the milk laws, as. 



5 



being State officers, they can, to catch a lawbreaker, follow 
an offending milk peddler beyond the city lines, if necessary. 

The Anti-color Laav. 

Our work in enforcing the oleomargarine laws has been 
curtailed by proceedings in the higher courts relative to the 
constitutionality of chapter 58, Acts of 1891. This is the 
law which prohibits the sale of any imitation of yellow but- 
ter, and which our State supreme court has once declared 
constitutional. To the oleomargarine interest this law is the 
most obnoxious of all the statutes relative to imitation but- 
ter, and is fought by them with the utmost persistency. As 
soon as the decision of the supreme court was rendered, the 
enforcement of the law was entered upon. An appeal was 
taken from this State decision to the United States supreme 
court, and it was contended that this act rendered the State 
law inoperative, pending the decision at Washington. But, 
as those entrusted with the enforcement of the law held an 
opposite view, an attempt was made to secure an injunction 
in the United States circuit court, to restrain the Boston milk 
inspector from acting under this statute. Attorney-General 
Pillsbury appeared for the Commonwealth, arguing that such 
interference l)y a circuit court of the United States is for- 
bidden by the constitution and the laws of the United States. 

The petition for an injunction was never granted ; but, as 
a new appeal was taken to the State supreme court, the 
status of the law continued in such doubt that no cases have 
been brought under it for several months. In the case now 
before the State supreme court the defendants raised seven- 
teen points on which they wished the' judge to rule and 
instruct the jury. The judge refused, but did rule on three 
other points, to all of which exception was taken. 

Detective and Court Work. 
In spite of the principal law being *' tied up," much work 
has been done, which may be statistically summarized as 
follows : — 



Stores inspected, 
Samples taken, . 
Cases entered in court, 



882 
113 
48 



6 



The result of these forty-eight cases has been as fol- 
lows : — 



Convictions, 23 

Plead guilty, 7 

— 30 

Acquitted, 12 

Not prosecuted, 6 



48 

Of the above six, three were withdrawn on account of 
informality in complaint or lack of evidence, and three in 
order to secure a plea of guilty in other cases. In one 
instance, having five cases against one person (a young 
lady) , we consented to nol pros two in consideration of a 
plea of guilty being entered in the remaining three. Six 
of the acquittals were in cases where oleo was sold when 
butter was called for, because the statute omits to include 
*' by himself or agents" in the prohibition ; and the courts 
decided — on the basis of an intoxicating liquor decision — 
that, in view of this decision, the statute omitting " by him- 
self or agents," the principal w^as not holden for the acts of 
the agent who acted contrary to orders. The person who 
actually makes the sale is now complained of. 

The cases in court were under the following complaints : — 



No sign in store, 5 

Hotel and restaurant, 6 

Selling imitation of j^ellow butter, 6 

No mark on wrapper, 13 

Selling oleo when butter was called for, 20 

48 



This department of the Dairy Bureau's work has been more 
beneficial and restraining than a mere list of court cases 
would signify. The prevention of crime is as important as 
the punishment of lawbreakers. The occasional unexpected 
visits of an agent of the Dairy Bureau in the various parts 
of the State has, we believe, deterred many would-be law- 
breakers, and promoted honesty in the sale of oleomargarine. 
Although much is still sold in the State, especially since the 
system of selling on orders was devised, our labors have 
done much to increase honest dealings and to curb fraud. 



7 



Need of Legislation. 



That forty-two per cent of the cases, almost one-half, 
were for absolute fraud, is significant. 

As regards the need of these laws, the experience of 
another year only confirms and emphasizes what we said a 
year ago. While the oleomargarine manufacturers claim to 
have discovered a new food product of great value to the 
public, a separate and distinct food product," " a distinct 
and valuable food product, which sells on its own merits," 
the way in which it is too often sold at retail has a strong 
flavor of deceit and misrepresentation. The following is a 
photographic reproduction of the trade mark of one manu- 
facturer, — omitting his name. It is not suggestive of an 
independent food product, selling on its intrinsic indi- 
viduality. 



The largest butter store in Boston. Try our fancy Jer- 
eey Butterine Prints," was a sign recently displayed on 
Blackstone Street in this city, urging people to buy that 
independent and separate food product, sold on its intrinsic 
merits." Butter tubs, butter color, dairy nomenclature, 
prominent butter signs, opposition to all laws for honest 
wrappers and marks, are familiar features in the history of 
this independent and separate food product, sold on its in- 
trinsic merits. 




8 



We reproduce below the market quotations of oleomar- 
garine in the style in which they appear daily in the Chicago 
papers. This also does not appear like an individual inde- 
pendent food product, like cheese or eggs. 



THE PRODUCE MARKET. 

BUTTEK— Firm. Receipts, 395.011 lbs; ship- 
ments, 511.100 lbs. Fancy creamery, 28i4@.2yc 
per lb-, fine. 27®-8c; fair to good, 23(g^25c; 
choice to tancy oooleys, 24@26c; choice dairies, 
22@24c; fair to good, 17<(?!20c; ladles. No. 1, 
18c: No. 2. 16'/2@17c: packing stock, 16@17c. 

BuTTERiNE— Steady. Fancy creamery, 19c 
ver lb. Illinois creamery and extra dairy, 17c; 
Empire and Diamond dairy. 16c; Eastiake and 
Lakeside dairy. 144c. Rolls, wints and 10-lb 
pkgs. '/"C per lb additional. 

Cdeese— Receipts. 298.284 lbs; shipments, 
340.850 lbs. Firm. Full cream, choice, 10^ 
lie per lb; twins, sharp. 7@9c; Young Ameri- 
cas. 7@llc: sour and out of condition, 4@6c; 
brick. 10@llc; Limburger, 10H@llc: Swiss, 

io'/2@imc. 

GiLiFORNXA Fruits — Offei'lngs liberal. 
Peaches. 20-lb boxes 80c@Sl 15: pears, 40-ll> 
boxes. S2@3.50: grapes. Sl-40@,1.60 per H case. 

Eggs— Receipts. 4.028 pkgs: shipments. 3.903 
pUsa, Firm.. Fresh northern, 20c per doz. 



We are not opposed to any valuable food product which 
is or may be put upon the market ' * in a separate and distinct 
form, and in such manner as will advise the consumer of its 
real character." We repeat what we said last year : — 

We are not prepared to dispute the statements of honest 
scientists in relation to the value of oleomargarine ; we are 
ready to admit that there is a theoretical oleo, which, if put 
upon the market honestly, on its merits as an independent 
article, might have proved an important addition to the 
world's food products. But the ordinary commercial oleo- 
margarine with which we have to deal seems in many cases 
to exert a benumbino: influence on the moral sensibilities of 
those who handle it." 

In the above we do not overlook the fact that there are 
degrees of digestibility, and that butter is superior to oleo- 
margarine on this score. 

At Chicago, Armour & Co. displayed a bulletin announcing 
Massachusetts as one of the States where its sale is pro- 
hibited ; and yet it is claimed that the receipts of oleomar- 
garine in Boston for the year were 228,554 packages, against 
188,380 packages in 1892, — an increase of 40,174 packages. 
Armour & Co. also made this assertion : The United States 
has approved of its sale by its acts of inspection, regulation 



9 



and taxation." Thus they perverted an act aimed against 
them into an endorsement of their goods. 

Needed Amendments to Laws. 
The experience of the past year fias shown where several 
amendments might add to the efficiency of the laws. Add 
the words in italics in the first four paragraphs : — 

Chapter 412, Acts of 1891, section 1. Whoever by himself or 
agents sells or offers for sale, etc. 

Chapter 412, Acts of 1891, section 2. Whoever exposes for 
sale oleomargarine, butteriue or any substance made in imitation 
or semblance of pure butter, not marked and distinguished by all the 
marks, words and stamps required by existing laws, and not hav- 
ing in addition thereto upon the exposed contents of every opened 
tub, package or parcel thereof a conspicuous placard with the word 

oleomargarine " printed thereon in plain uncondensed, etc. 

Chapter 58, Acts of 1891, section 1. No person, by himself or 
his agents or servants, shall render or manufacture, sell, offer for 
sale, expose for sale, take orders for the future delivery of^ or have 
in his possession with intent to sell, any article, product, or com- 
pound made wholly or partly out of any fat, oil or oleaginous 
substance or compound thereof, not produced from unadulter- 
ated, etc. 

Chapter 317, Acts of 1886, section 3. Whoever, by himself or 
his agents, sells, exposes for sale, or has in his possession with 
intent to sell, any article, substance or compound, made in imita- 
tion or semblance of butter or as a substitute for butter, and not 
made exclusively and wholly of milk or cream, or containing any 
fats, oils or grease not produced from milk or cream, contained in 
any box, tub, article or package, marked or labelled with the word, 
— dairy, — or the word, — creamery, — or the name of any breed 
of dairy cattle^ — shall for every such offence forfeit to the city or 
town where the offence was committed one hundred dollars, and for 
a second and each subsequent offence two hundred dollars. 

Also prohibit the use of the word dairy, or creamery, or 
the name of any breed of cattle on any sign, placard or 
advertisement. 

Add to section 9, chapter 412, Acts of 1891, " Whoever 
hinders, obstructs, or in any way interferes with an officer 
or duly authorized agent of the Dairy Bureau in the perform- 
ance of his duty shall be punished by a fine of fifty dollars 



10 



for the first ofience and of one hundred dollars for each sab- 
sequent ofience." 

Section 4, chapter 412, Acts of 1891, which provides for 
a placard upon the wagon of "whoever peddles, sells or 
delivers from any cart, wagon or other vehicle, upon the 
the public streets or ways, oleomargarine, etc.," should be 
amended by striking out the words ' ' upon the public streets 
or ways." 

The municipal license fee should be increased from fifty 
cents to not over twenty-five dollars. 

Butter Exhibition. 

A successful butter exhibition was held by the Dairy 
Bureau in connection with the winter meeting of the Board 
of Agriculture at Great Barrington. Every butter maker 
in the State was invited to contribute to the exhibition ; no 
prizes were awarded, but all the specimens were examined 
and scored by experts, — Mr. E. A. Harris of Hovey & Co., 
Boston, who was one of the three judges at the World's Fair 
at Chicago, and Mr. James Cheesman, the well-known dairy 
expert. The exhibits were all made by number, and in 
order to increase the educational value of the exhibition, 
the judges were requested to use the utmost frankness in 
criticising. These criticisms were entered on the score 
cards, — the anonymous features being maintained, — and 
the public was invited to test the specimens and catechise 
the judges. 

The entries included : — 

Creameries, 12 

Private dairies, 49 

Unsalted samples, 2 

Granular samples, 4 

67 

The season was not propitious for high scores. It was so 
near the border line between fall and winter that many of 
tJie specimens showed wintery imperfections, effects of frosty 
feed, milk of strippers, or other defects incident to the cattle 
not being fully settled on a winter basis of food and other 
conditions. 



11 



On the point of flavor (45 being perfect) : — 

40 was scored by 1 

39 was scored by 2 

38 was scored by 6 

37 was scored by 2 

36 was scored by 8 

35 was scored by 8 

34 was scored by 7 

33 was scored by 8 

32 was scored by 8 

31 was scored by 4 

30 and below was scored by 9 

63 

Twenty-five were perfect as to ''grain," and thirty-eight 
were cut from one-half to five points. 

Nineteen were perfect in color, and forty-four were cut 
from one-half to five points. 

Only thirteen were imperfect in salt. 

Thirty-two were perfect as to package. 

After the exhibition, most of the samples were analyzed. 
The water content ranged from 7.20 to 15.80 per cent. 
6 samples had below 9 per cent of moisture. 



8 samples had between 
17 samples had between 
13 samples had between 

8 samples had . 



9 and 10 per cent of moisture. 

10 and 11 per cent of moisture. 

11 and 12 per cent of moisture. 

12 per cent or over of moisture. 

The amount of salt ranged from 1.40 to 6.95 per cent. 

The amount of casein ranged from .49 to 8.24. The 
sample having the extraordinary amount of 8.24 per cent of 
casein was terribly rancid. Thirty-six of the fifty-two 
samples had less than 1 per cent of casein. 

The amount of butter fat in the samples analyzed ranged 
from 79 per cent to 88.90. 



3 samples had from 

2 samples had from 
1 sample had 

6 samples had from 

5 samples had from 

6 samples had from 
10 samples had from 

8 samples had from 
8 samples had from 

3 samples had 



79 to 80 per cent. 

80 to 81 per cent. 
81.40 per cent. 

82 to 83 per cent. 

83 to 84 per cent. 

84 to 85 per cent. 

85 to 86 per cent. 

86 to 87 per cent. 

87 to 88 per cent. 
88 per cent and above. 



62 



12 



Tests of Milk and Cream. 
During the year three hundred and six samples of whole 
milk, cream, buttermilk and skim-milk have been tested for 
the amount of butter fat they contained, using the Babcock 
milk tester. Many of these tests have been made at public 
meetings, as an object lesson on the varying quality of milk. 
The following is the result from testing the milk of individual 
cows : — 



Ter Cent 


Per Cent 


Per Cent 




Per Cent 


of Fat. 


of the Tests. 


of Fat. 




of the Tests. 


1.80 


1 


5.20 to 5.40 


3 


2.40 


2 


5.40 to 5. 


60 


2 


2.60 


1 


5.60 to5.80 


2 


2.80 


0.5 


5.80 to 6. 


00 


1 


3.00 


2 


6.00 




0.5 


3.20 to 3.40 


4 


6.20 




4 


3.40 to 3.60 


9 


6.40 




1 


3.60 to 3.80 


7 


6.60 




1 


3.80 to 4.00 


10 


6.80 




2 ' 


4.00 to 4.20 


9 


7.60 




2 


4.20 to 4.40 


7 


7.80 




5 


4.40 to 4.60 


6 


8.20 




5 


4.60 to 4.80 


6 








4.80 to 5.00 


10 






100 


5.00 to 5.20 


6 








3ts of herd milk resulted 


as follows : — 






rer cent 


Per Cent 


Per cent 




Per Cent 


of Fat. 


of the Tests. 


of Fat. 




of the Tests. 


2.80 


3 


4.40 




20 


3.20 


3 


4.60 




10 


3.40 


3 


4.80 




10 


3.60 


6 


5.20 




10 


3.80 


12 


5.80 




6 


4.00 


11 








4.20 


6 






100 



Cases where the milk was known to be abnormal have been 
omitted from the above tabulation. For instance, one sample 
tested 8.40 per cent of fat, which proved to be the milk of a 
high-grade eJersey which had been milked a year, and was 
giving only two and a half quarts per day. Tests have been 
made of the same milk under different conditions which are 
not included in the above tabulation : milk from the top of a 
can which had been standing less than half an hour tested 
4.20 per cent, and from the bottom of the can 4 per cent; 



13 



from a can which had been standing four hours, milk from 
the top tested 5.40 per cent of fat and fromtlie bottom 4.80. 
The bottom of a can from which the top had been poured as 
needed for domestic use tested only 1.60 per cent of fat. 
Several specimens of strippings tested from 8.20 to 14 per 
cent ; and samples from the first of several milkings went as 
low as 1.20 per cent of fat. 

Sixty-four per cent of the samples of individual milk stood 
between 3.40 and 5 per cent of fat, and 85 per cent of the 
samples were unquestionably above the standard of 13 per 
cent of total solids. 

In the case of herd milk the extremes of 2.80 and 5.80 
lead us to point to them as object lessons of the tendency of 
breeding for a definite purpose, to wit, in the one case 
quantity and in the other quality. One represents the ten- 
dency in producing sale milk for a city market, and the other 
the result of producing milk for a butter or cream trade. 
With such contradictory motives influencing the producer, 
the importance of some standard for the protection of the 
consumer is evident. 

The specimens of cream tested showed an amount of butter- 
fat ranging from 10.60 per cent to 42 per cent. With the 
increasing demand for cream by the city trade, it is apparent 
from the above range that the door is open for much dis- 
honesty. A legal standard — as in the case of milk — may 
become necessary. But much better would be the introduc- 
tion of the system of selling on quality, the producer or 
dealer guaranteeing on the label of the bottle or can a certain 
per cent of richness. The extreme figures given above are 
outside the ordinary limits ; the majority of the samples 
tested between 15 and 20 per cent. Minnesota has a law 
prohibiting the sale of any cream having less than 20 per 
cent of fat. 

Samples of buttermilk tested ranged from 2.80 per cent of 
fat to a mere trace, hardly measurable by the Babcock tester. 
Over two-thirds of the samples had .20 per cent or under. 

Samples of skim-milk ranged from 2.60 per cent of fat to an 
immeasurable trace. Over half were ,10 per cent or below. 

In the above cases of skim-milk and buttermilk where too 
great an amount of fat was going to waste, the educational 
work of the Bureau was of o:ood service. 



14 



Milk Standard. 
The question of the milk standard was before the last 
Legislature, and the House passed an act to reduce the 
standard, but it was killed in the Senate. The Massachusetts 
standard of 13 per cent is higher than that of a majority of 
the States. But is not higher than an average of the analy- 
ses of many thousands of samples of milk in all parts of the 
country. But an average implies that there may be quite a 
considerable number of cows which do not come up to the 
mark, and possibly much trouble and loss would result if the 
law were to be literally enforced. But laws are not enforced 
in such a manner. Courts will not entertain cases in which 
the evidence is not positive enough to render conviction 
reasonably certain. A shrewd lawyer, sharp at cross- 
questioning, may throw a little uncertainty on a chemical 
analysis within narrow limits. No man could be convicted 
whose milk analyzed 12.99 per cent of solids, nor 12.90. 
The analysis must show a result enough below the standard 
to convince the court l^eyond a reasonable doubt that the 
milk was adulterated actually or constructively. But this 
leeway lets in so many more herds that it reduces very 
materially the possibility of oppression. If, however, the 
legal standard should be reduced, in the practical operation 
of the law the minimum for standard milk Avould be conse- 
quently reduced. Many plausible arguments can be adduced 
against an arbitrary statute standard, and possibly in the 
future it will be so modified that all milk will be sold on a 
guarantee of actual quality. But that time is not yet ; and 
the practical question for consideration is, whether under 
existing conditions the advantages of the present standard do 
not more than offset the evils. The present law and its 
efficient enforcement — so far as Boston is concerned — 
means more confidence on the part of the consuming public, 
and hence a greater consumption. If the standard were 
lowered, it is more than probable that much milk would be 
correspondingly extended so as to bring it down to the 
standard, thereby increasing the surplus just so much, while 
popular confidence might be correspondingly weakened and 
the demand decreased. 



15 



Supreme Court Oleomargarine Decisions. 

The Statute of 1891, chapter 58, which makes a distinction 
between oleomargarine which is an imitation of yellow butter and 
that which is not, and which statute is directed only towards 
oleomargarine of the former class, is not repealed by the Statute 
of 1891, chapter 412, section 1, which is directed to the distinct 
fraud of selling or offering to persons calling for butter something 
besides butter. The fact that two statutes, similar in their nature 
and purpose, were both passed at the same session of the Legis- 
lature, and took effect on the same day, is strong evidence that 
they were intended to stand together. 

The enactment of a statute which forbids the manufacture and 
sale of oleomargarine which is made in imitation of yellow butter, 
though such oleomargarine has been imported from another State, 
is a valid exercise of the police power which remains in the several 
States, and it is not in violation of the constitutional provision 
giving to Congress the power to regulate commerce among the 
several States. (Commonwealth v. Huntley et al. ; Benjamin A. 
Plumley's case, 156 Mass. 236.) 

The Statute of 1886, chapter 317, section 4, requires that every 
person who conveys oleomargarine or butterine in carriages, or 
otherwise, for the purpose of selling the same in any city or town, 
shall be licensed by the inspectors of milk of such city or town to 
sell the same within the limits thereof. But the remainder of the 
section makes it clear that it was intended to apply only to sales 
from carriages or other vehicles. As the present complaint has 
no allegation that the defendant carried or exposed the articles in 
a carriage or other vehicle, it could not be sustained as a com- 
plaint under the Statute of 1886, chapter 317, section 4, and we 
consider it as based upon the Public Statutes, chapter 68, section 
16. So considered, it cannot be sustained. Oleomargarine and 
butterine are provisions. The word includes all articles of food. 
The articles with which it is charged the defendant went about, 
and exposed and sold, are, therefore, included among those which 
any person may go about selling or exposing for sale under the 
authority of the Public Statutes, chapter 68, section 1 ; and the 
acts charged are not prohibited by the Public Statutes, chapter 68, 
section 16. (Commonwealth v. Lutton, 157 Mass. 392.) 

A complaint on the Statute of 1886, chapter 317, section 1, 
charging the defendant with selling imitation butter at retail 
without a descriptive wrapper, need not allege that the sale was 
actually made by the defendant's agent. At the trial of such a 
complaint there was evidence that the sale was made by the 



16 



defendant's agent, acting within the scope of his employment, and 
that he was supplied with wrappers properly marked for covering 
the article sold ; and the presiding judge refused to instruct the 
jury, as requested by the defendant, that, if tlie agent's failure to 
use the wrappers was the result of inadvertence on his part, and 
not intentional, the jury would not be justified in convicting the 
defendant. Held, that the defendant had no ground of exception. 
(Commonwealth v. Gray, 150 Mass. 327.) 

The defendant had for sale in his provision store oleomargarine 
colored in imitation of yellow butter. It was in a closed and cov- 
ered refrigerator, and could not be seen by customers, but there 
was in the store a sign to the effect that oleomargarine was sold 
there. Upon the occasion to which the complaint relates none of 
the substance was sold or produced to view, except that a sample 
was taken from the refrigerator by an agent of an official inspector. 
The defendant was found guilty in the superior court. The 
supreme court ordered the verdict set aside, for the following 
reason: The case turns upon the meaning of the words expose 
for sale " in the statute under which the complaint was drawn. 
The purpose of the statute is to prevent deception in the manu- 
facture and sale of imitation butter, and the statute provides that 
no person " shall Vender or manufacture, sell, offer for sale, expose 
for sale or have in his possession with intent to sell" certain 
articles. The phrase to be construed is perhaps susceptible of 
more than one meaning. Whenever goods are placed for conven- 
ient delivery upon expected sales they are put out and in one 
sense exposed for sale, whether visible to customers or not. But 
in our opinion the words are not so used in the statute under con- 
sideration. The prohibited articles are designed and adapted to 
deceive the eye ; and, because their appearance is likely to induce 
those who see them to buy them as the genuine butter of which 
they are in imitation, there is special reason for prohibiting their 
exposure to view. The language is so full that it is not necessary 
to give it a strained construction in order to make the statute 
effective. Offering to sell, and having in possession with intent 
to sell, are likewise prohibited in the same clause and under the 
same penalty, so that it is easy for the pleader to select language 
which describes the offence with reasonable accuracy. Similar 
words are used in the statutes relating to milk and to intoxicating 
liquors ; but as in such cases the charge of exposing for sale is 
uniformly joined with that of illegal keeping, and as such a com- 
plaint charges but one offence and is supported by proof of either 
act (Commonwealth v. Nichols, 10 Allen, 199 ; Commonwealth v, 
Dolan, 121 Mass. 374), it has not been necessary for this Court to 



17 



construe the phrase. Some of the decisions, however, intimate 
more or less clearly that in the statutes concerning liquors it means 
"expose to view." (Commonwealth'?;. McCue, 121 Mass. 358; 
Commonwealth v. Atkins, 136 Mass. 160.) 

Under the English statute (50 and 51 Vict. C. 29, S. 4) it has 
been held that margarine kept for sale upon the counter of a shop, 
but behind a screen hiding it from the view of the customers, is 
not exposed for sale (Crane v. Lawrence, L. R. 25 Q. B. D. 152) ; 
and that parcels of margarine placed upon a counter or shelf, in 
view of customers, are exposed for sale, although so wrapped in 
paper that the margarine cannot be seen. (Wheat v. Brown, 1 
Q. B. D. 1892, 418.) 

Whether, if the defendant had kept the prohibited article in 
closed tubs or in paper, so that the packages were visible as articles 
of merchandise on sale in his store, although the oleomargarine 
itself could not be seen, he would thereby have exposed it for sale, 
we do not decide. The contention that the article was not pro- 
hibited because it was in imitation of artificially colored butter, as 
well as of genuine butter, at its best needs no consideration. 
(Commonwealth v. Byrnes, Suffolk, ss., 158 Mass. 172.) 

The statute requires a placard to be placed " on both sides " of 
the vehicle. The defendant's wagon was a covered one, with the 
front and rear ends open. On the inside of the cover on each side 
was a placard, in form and size such as the statute requires. 
These placards could be seen from the front and rear of the wagon, 
but could not be seen from the sides thereof. There were no 
placards on the outer sides of the wagon. The supreme court 
said : "We are of opinion that placing the placards on the inside 
of the cover of the wagon was a mere device to evade the manifest 
intent of the Legislature." 

The defendant also contended that the commissioner of internal 
revenue has made certain regulations which require the place of 
business of a person intending to sell oleomargarine to be stated, 
and that the license issued to him states the place ; and it stated 
that selling from a wagon is not allowed. Hence it was argued 
that, as our statute compels a man to do that which is illegal and 
criminal under the federal law, our statute is unconstitutional and 
void. 

The court said : " There are several answers to this argument. 
The regulations of the commissioner of internal revenue are not 
made part of the report in this case ; and we cannot assume the 
facts to be as stated by the defendant. There is nothing in the 
act of Aug. 2, 1886, which is inconsistent with our law. The 
authority given to the commissioner of internal revenue to make 



18 



all needful regulations for the carrying into effect of the act does 
not authorize the imposition of a penalty by a regulation where 
none is imposed by the act. (United States v. Eaton, 12 Sup. Ct, 
Rep. 764.) If the defendant had a license under the act of Aug. 
2, 1886, and has paid a tax, this affords him no immunity. Sec- 
tion 3 of that act, by incorporating section 3,243 of the U. S. 
Revised Statutes into it, expressly repels the inference that the 
payment of such a tax will legalize the traffic, and implies that the 
prohibition or regulation of such traffic by State legislation is per- 
missible." (State V. Newton, 21 Vroom, 534 ; Commonwealth v. 
Crane, Suffolk, ss., March, 1893, 158 Mass. 218.) 

The Statute of 1891, chapter 412, section 5, requires every per- 
son who furnishes, or causes to be furnished, to a guest in a 
restaurant or a hotel, or at a lunch counter, oleomargarine or 
butterine in the place or stead of butter, to notify him that the 
substance furnished is not butter. The defendant was the pro- 
prietor of a restaurant at which oleomargarine was furnished to 
one Quinn, in the place or stead of butter. No oral notice was 
given to him. There were signs in conspicuous places in the 
restaurant bearing the words, " Butterine used only here," and on 
the tables were bills of fare on which were printed the words, 
" Only fine butterine used here ;" but Quinn saw neither of the 
signs, and did not examine the bill of fare, and so had no actual 
notice that the substance furnished him was not butter. Upon 
these facts the jury returned a verdict of guilty ; the defendant 
excepted and the supreme court overruled the exception, saying : 
"If he had read the signs, or the statement printed on the bill of 
fare, he would have had sufficient notice ; for, if knowledge that 
the substance furnished is not butter is in any way effectually 
communicated to the guest, the law is complied with. The 
statute does not require a distinct statement, either oral or written, 
to be given to each guest on every occasion when he is furnished 
with oleomargarine or butterine in the place or stead of butter, but 
is satisfied if, by any act of the person who furnishes it or causes 
it to be so furnished, the guest is made aware of the fact that the 
substance furnished is not butter." (Commonwealth v. Stewart, 
Suffolk, ss.. May, 1893, 159 Mass. 113.) 

Dealers in oleomargarine in this Commonwealth may often re- 
ceive packages of oleomargarine from manufactories in other 
States marked according to the laws of the United States and 
not according to the laws of this Commonwealth. If, on receiving 
such packages, they store them with the intention of marking them 
as required by our statutes before they either expose them for sale, 
or sell them or intend to sell them, there is no violation of our laws. 



19 



It was a question of fact, then, whether the defendant had in his 
possession, with intent to sell, packages of oleomargarine not marked 
as required by cur statutes. The exceptions recite that " the tub 
in question was not on the date of the offence alleged in the com- 
plaint exposed for sale, nor was it so situated that it could be seen 
by customers of the defendant ; " and that " it also appeared from 
the evidence that the defendant had bought said package for the 
purpose and with the intention of selling the said oleomargarine 
contained therein at retail in said store, but that he did not intend 
to sell the oleomargarine contained in this tub, or expose the same 
for sale until the marks had been examined, and if not marked in 
accordance with law to mark the tub before opening the same." 
Taking these facts to be true, we are of opinion that the jury 
were not warranted in finding the defendant guilty. They show 
that the defendant had no intention of selling the oleomargarine 
in the form which it was in, but was storing it with the intention 
of properly marking the package, if it was not already properly 
marked, before he offered the oleomargarine for sale or intended 
to sell it. Under complaints for keeping intoxicating liquor with 
intent unlawfully to sell it, the intent is a question of fact to be 
proved (Commonwealth v. Ham, 150 Mass. 122) ; but because of 
the absolute prohibition against selling without a license, the intent 
to sell may be often inferred from facts which would not warrant 
the inference of an intent to sell other merchandise in the form in 
which it was found, when defendant had a right to sell it if it was 
properly marked, and had the right to so mark it after receiving it 
and before he exposed it for sale or intended to sell it. Common- 
wealth V. Mills, Bristol, ss., November, 1892, 157 Mass. 405.) 

The only contention made in the argument before this court on 
the motion to quash the complaint is that the complaint should 
have been made by an inspector of milk or by the treasurer of the 
town in which the offence was committed. The Legislature has 
prohibited unqualifiedly the sale, exposing for sale, or having in 
possession with intent to sell, oleomargarine, except under certain 
conditions ; and it is to be presumed that it has done this to pro- 
mote the welfare generally of the inhabitants of the Common- 
wealth. (See Statute of 1890, chapter 440, section 57 ; Statute of 
1890, chapter 416, section 1.) But it is not to be inferred that 
the Legislature, merely by making it the duty of certain officers, 
to enforce penal laws of general application, intended that the 
enforcement should be dependent upon the discretion of these 
officers. The motion to quash the complaint was rightly over- 
ruled. (Commonwealth v. McDonnell, Bristol, ss., November, 
1892, 157 Mass. 407.) 



20 



Oleomargarine was exposed for sale in the original package, 
namely, a tub, the top of the cover of which had been duly marked, 
as well as the side and bottom, but from which the cover had been 
removed, disclosing the superficial surface of the oleomargarine 
without any mark. Held^ that the terms of the Statute of 1886, 
chapter 317, section 1, had been complied with. (Commonwealth 
V. Bean, 148 Mass. 172.) 

Supreme Court Milk Decisions. 

The fact that a collector of samples makes a purchase of milk in 
a restaurant and retains a portion thereof for analysis, without dis- 
closing that he is such a collector, and without giving to the person 
from whom it was purchased an opportunity to ask for a sealed 
sample, will not render evidence incompetent to show that the milk 
so purchased was below the legal standard. (Commonwealth v. 
Coleman.) 

The provisions of section 2, chapter 318, Statute of 1886, apply 
to the keeper of a hotel who supplies milk to his guests to be drunk 
by them on the premises. 

A principal is responsible under the statute for a sale made by 
his servant, although he was not present, and did not consent to or 
know of the particular sale, the servant not acting in violation of 
orders. (Commonwealth v. Vieth, 155 Mass.) 

Under the Public Statutes, chapter 57, section 5, as amended 
by the Statutes of 1886, chapter 318, section 2, relating to the 
adulteration of " milk," it is equally an offence to have in one's 
possession skimmed milk containing a foreign substance with intent 
unlawfully to sell the same. (Commonwealth v. Wetherbee, 
155 Mass.) 

On a complaint for the sale of milk not of good standard quality, 
evidence ihat the milk was delivered under a special contract is 
immaterial. 

If a buyer of milk takes a portion to a milk inspector, the latter 
may testify on the trial of such a complaint as to the results of his 
analysis. (Commonwealth v. Holt, 146 Mass. 38.) 

At the trial of a complaint, on the Statute of 1886, chapter 318, 
section 2, for selling milk not of the standard quality, there being 
evidence that the milk was skimmed milk, and sold from a measure 
duly marked, the jury were instructed that the defendant would be 
liable unless he sold the milk not as pure milk, but as skimmed 
milk, and, further, that he would be liable unless the buyer had 
notice or knowledge that the milk was skimmed milk. Held^ that 
the instruction was erroneous. (Commonwealth v. Smith, 149 
Mass. 9.) 



21 



Dennis J. Quinn, a duly appointed agent of the Boston inspector 
of milk, purchased a half-pint of cream, which was delivered to 
said Quinn by the defendant. The analysis of said substance so 
sold and delivered as cream showed that it contained an added 
foreign substance, to wit, boracic acid, a compound of boron. 

The jury returned a verdict of guilty, and defendant excepted. 
The Supreme Court overruled the exception, saying: *'The word 
milk in the Public Statutes, chapter 57, 'of the inspection and sale 
of milk,' is shown by section 7 to include milk from which no part 
of the cream has been removed ; and we are of the opinion that it 
is used as a general name, and in a sense broad enough to include 
cream. The olTence under section 5, of having in one's possession, 
with intent to sell, milk to which a foreign substance has been 
added, is committed by having, with that intent, cream to which 
boracic acid has been added." (Commonwealth v. Gordon, Suffolk, 
ss., April, 1893.) 

Public Statutes, chapter 57, section 2, so far as it authorizes 
inspectors of milk to enter all carriages used in the conveyance of 
milk, and, whenever they have reason to believe any milk found 
therein is adulterated, to take specimens thereof for the purpose 
of analyzing or otherwise satisfactorily testing the same, is consti- 
tutional. (Commonwealths. Carter, 132 Mass., 12.) 

1. A person may be convicted of selling adulterated milk, 
under Public Statutes, chapter 57, section 5, although he did not 
know it to be adulterated ; and an averment in the indictment that 
he had such knowledge may be rejected as surplusage. 

2. It is not necessary in such indictment to aver that the milk 
was cow's milk. 

3. An indictment alleging a sale of adulterated milk to a 
woman is not defeated by proof that she was married and was 
acting as agent for her husband, if the seller had no notice, 
express or implied, of these facts. 

4. An indictment under Public Statutes, chapter 57, section 5, 
which charges that the defendant sold a certain quantity of 
"adulterated milk, to which a large quantity — that is to say, 
four quarts — of water had been added," is not bad for duplicity. 
(Commonwealth v. Farren, 9 Allen, 489.) 

1. An indictment which alleges that the defendant "did 
unlawfully keep, offer for sale, and sell" adulterated milk, charges 
but one offence. 

2. In support of such indictment, one who in a great many 
instances has used a lactometer for the purpose of testing the 
quality and the purity of milk may testify to the result of an 
experiment made by him with the same lactometer upon the milk 



22 



in question, although no evidence is offered as to the character of 
the instrument. (Commonwealth v. Nichols, 10 Allen, 199.) 

At the trial of an indictment on Public Statutes, chapter 57, 
section 5 (Statute of 1868, chapter 263), for selliog " adulterated 
milk, there was evidence that the defendant [who was a son of the 
owner of a milk route], with a companion who was in the same 
employment with himself, knowingly adulterated milk on its way 
for distribution to his father's customers, and then having charge, 
with his companion, of its distribution from the wagon on which 
it was conveyed upon the route, caused a can of it to be delivered 
to one of the customers by the hand of his companion. Held, 
that he had no ground of exception to instructions to the jury ; 
that in the absence of proof of any previous contract to supply milk 
to the customer, the delivery might be deemed an act of sale ; nor 
to an instruction framed on a supposition that the jury might find 
that he was in the employment of his father, although there was 
no averment in the indictment to that effect." (Commonwealth 
V. Haynes, 107 Mass., 194.) 

A person may be convicted of selling adulterated milk, upon a 
complaint under Public Statutes, chapter 57, section 5 (Statute 
of 1880, chapter 209, section 3), without allegation or proof that 
he knew it to be adulterated. (Commonwealth v. Evans, 133 
Mass., 11.) 

A complaint, under Public Statutes, chapter 57, section 5, alleg- 
ing that the defendant, at a time and place named, had in his 
possession a certain quantity, to wit, one pint of adulterated 
milk, containing less than thirteen per cent of milk solids, with 
intent then and there unlawfully to sell the same, is sufficient, 
without further alleging that the milk was analyzed and found on 
analysis to contain less than thirteen per cent of milk solids. At 
the trial of a complaint, under Public Statutes, chapter 57, section 
5, alleging that the defendant had in his possession adulterated 
milk, to wit, milk containing less than thirteen per cent of milk 
solids, with intent to sell the same, it is immaterial in what man- 
ner the quantity of milk solids has been reduced below thirteen 
per cent, if the intent is to sell the milk as pure milk, and not as 
skimmed milk. (Commonwealth v. Bowers, 140 Mass., 483.) 

Public Statutes, chapter 57, section 9 (Statute of 1880, chapter 
209, section 8), providing that "in all prosecutions under this 
act," for selling adulterated milk, "if the milk shall be shown 
upon analysis to contain more than eighty-seven per centum of 
watery fluid, or to contain less than thirteen per centum of milk 
solids, it shall be deemed for the purpose of this act to be 
adulterated," is constitutional. (Commonwealth v. Evans, 132 
Mass., 11.) 



23 



A complaint, under the Public Statutes, chapter 57, sections 5, 
9, alleging that the defendant, at a time and place named, had in 
his custody and possession a certain quantity, to wit, one pint, of 
adulterated milk, to wit, milk then and there containing less than 
thirteen per cent of milk solids, with intent then and there unlaw- 
fully to sell the same, is sufficient. (Commonwealth v. Keenan, 
139 Mass., 193.) 

The Public Statutes, chapter 57, section 10, do not prohibit any 
person not an inspector of milk from making a complaint for a 
violation of the provisions of the chapter. 

A complaint, under the Public Statutes, chapter 57, section 5, 
alleging that the defendant sold one pint of adulterated milk, to 
wit, milk containing less than thirteen per cent of milk solids, is 
not supported by proof that he sold the milk as skimmed milk out 
of a tank marked as required by section 7, although the milk was 
watered. 

A complaint under Public Statutes, chapter 57, section 5, alleg- 
ing a sale of adulterated milk, to wit, milk containing less than 
thirteen per cent of milk solids, is supported by proof of a sale 
of milk which, by the removal of a part of the cream, has been 
reduced in solids below thirteen per cent, unless the milk was 
sold as skimmed milk, and out of a vessel, can or package marked 
as required by section 7 ; and it is not necessary that a complaint 
charging such an offence should be drawn under section 6. (Com- 
monwealth V. Tobias, 141 Mass., 129.) 

At the trial of an indictment on Public Statutes, chapter 57, sec- 
tion 5, charging the defendant with having adulterated milk in his 
possession, with intent unlawfully to sell the same, an analyst in 
the employ of the inspector of milk may testify to the result of his 
analysis of the milk taken from the defendant from memory, 
using a memorandum made by him at the time of analysis to 
refresh his memory, without further proof that the requirements of 
the Public Statutes, chapter 57, section 2, as amended by the 
Statute of 1884, chapter 310, section 3, have been complied with. 
(Commonwealth v. Spear, 143 Mass. 172.) 

At a trial of an indictment on the Public Statutes, section 5, 
charging the defendant with having adulterated milk in his posses- 
sion, with intent to unlawfully sell the same, an analyst in the 
employ of the inspector of milk, who analyzed the milk taken 
from the defendant, testified that he reserved a portion of the milk 
so taken, by putting it into a bottle, which he corked and sealed. 
A chemist, to whom the analyst delivered the portion of the milk 
so reserved, testified, for the defendant, that the bottle was not 
sealed. The defendant asked the judge to rule that, if the bottle 



24 



was corked only, it was not a compliance with the requirement of 
the Statutes of 1884, chapter 310, section 4, as to the sealing of 
such reserved portion. The judge declined so to rule, and in- 
structed the jury that they might consider the evidence as bearing 
upon the credibility of the government witness. Held^ that the 
defendant had no ground of exception. 

If, at the trial of an indictment on the Public Statutes, chapter 
57, section 5, charging the defendant with having adulterated milk 
in his possession, with intent to unlawfully sell the same, an analyst 
in the employ of the inspector of milk of a city testifies that he added, 
for the purpose of preserving it, a few drops of carbolic acid to the 
sample reserved from milk delivered to him for analysis, it is a 
question of fact for the jury whether the reservation of the sample 
was in accordance with the requirement of the Statute of 1884, 
chapter 310, section 4. (Commonwealth'?;. Spear, 143 Mass. 172.) 

At the trial of a complaint, under Public Statutes, chapter 57, 
section 5, alleging that the defendant had in his possession adul- 
terated milk, with intent unlawfully to sell the same, the evidence 
showed that a wagon with the defendant's name and number on it 
was standing upon a public street in a city at an early hour in the 
morning; that the defendant's servant was on the wagon, and 
there were several eight-quart cans in the wagon ; that a collector 
of samples in the employ of the inspector of milk for the city took 
a sample of milk from one of the cans, which was not marked 
" skimmed milk," and that an analysis of the milk taken showed 
that it was below the legal standard. Held^ that there was evi- 
dence of an intent on the part of the defendant to sell the milk, 
which was properly submitted to the jury. (Commonwealth v. 
Smith, 143 Mass. 169.) 

A complaint on the Statute of 1886, chapter 318, section 2, 
alleging that on tlie first day of July, 1886, the defendant had in 
his possession "one pint of milk not of good standard quality, 
that is to say, milk containing less than thirteen per cent of milk 
solids, with intent then and there unlawfully to sell the same 
within this Commonwealth," is suflftcient, without negativing the 
exception of the months of May and June. 

The Statute of 1885, chapter 352, section 6, provides that sec- 
tion 9 of the Public Statutes, chapter 57 (which relates to the sale 
of adulterated milk), *' is hereby amended so as to read as fol- 
lows." The Statute of 1886, chapter 318, section 2, provides 
that section 9 of the Public Statutes, chapter 57, "is hereby 
amended so as to read as follows." In each section, after the 
words quoted, there follows a sentence which covers the whole 
subject of the original section. Held^ that the Statute of 1886, 
chapter 318, section 2, was a valid enactment. 



25 



The Statute of 1884, chapter 310, section 4, providing for the 
reservation and sealing, before commencing the analysis, of a por- 
tion of the sample of milk taken for analysis, is impliedly repealed 
by the Statute of 1886, chapter 318, sections 1 and 3. (Common- 
wealth i'. Kenneson, 143 Mass. 418.) 

The Statute of 1885, chapter 352, section 8, provides that no 
person shall sell, or have in his possession with intent to sell, 
skimmed milk below a certain standard, and enacts that whoever 
violates the provisions of this section shall be punished by the 
penalties provided in the Public Statutes, chapter 57, section 5. 
Held^ on a complaint made under the Statute of 1885, chapter 
352, section 8, for an offence committed after the Statute of 1886, 
chapter 318, section 2, took effect, that, even if the last-named 
statute repealed by implication the Public Statutes, chapter 57, 
section 5, the complaint could be maintained. (Commonwealth v, 
Kendall, 144 Mass. 357.) 

Placing wax upon the top of the cork in a bottle containing a 
portion reserved from a sample of milk taken for analysis, and not 
extending the wax over the mouth of the bottle and thus rendering 
the bottle air tight, is not a sufficient compliance with the require- 
ment of the Statute of 1884, chapter 310, section 4, that such 
reserved portion shall be ''sealed." (Commonwealth v. Lock- 
hardt, 144 Mass„ 132.) 

An indictment on the Statute of 1886, chapter 318, section 2, 
alleging that the defendant had in his " possession milk to which 
a certain foreign substance had been added, to wit, annatto color- 
ing matter," with intent unlawfully to sell the same, is sufficient 
without naming the quantity. Evidence offered at the trial of such 
an indictment as to two samples of milk taken from the defend- 
ant's possession at substantially the same time is competent, and 
the government cannot be required at the same time of the offer, if 
ever, to elect which sample it will rely on. The addition of the 
annatto coloring matter, whether injurious to health or not, is pun- 
ishable under the statute. Evidence that the ''milk was of low 
grade " is competent, although it may tend to prove another 
offence. (Commonwealth v. Schaffner, 146 Mass. 512.) 

An averment in a complaint under the milk acts, that the 
defendants were " partners," is mere surplusage, and need not be 
proved. On such a complaint, evidence that the defendant was 
on a wagon with a license number on it, and containing milk cans, 
from one of which was taken adulterated milk, is competent on the 
issue that he was in possession of the milk to sell it. (Common- 
wealth v. Rowell, 146 Mass. 128.) 



26 



Financial Statement. 
Appropriation by Legislature of 1893, . . $4,000 00 

C. L. Hartshorn, Chairman : — 

Travelling and necessary expenses, . , $40 00 

Twelve days' services, .... 60 00 

G. L. Clemence : — 

Travelling and necessary expenses, . . 68 00 

Twelve days' services, .... 60 00 

D. A. HoRTON : — 

Travelling and necessary expenses, . . 35 00 

Seven days' services, .... 35 00 

G. M. Whitaker, Assistant Executive Officer : — 

Travelling and necessary expenses, . . 280 38 

J. W. Stockwell, Agent : — 

Salary, 1,140 00 

Travelling and necessary expenses, . . 73176 

C. C. Hall, Agent : — 

Services and expenses, .... 57 34 

James Cheesman, Expert : — 

Services and expenses, .... 26 08 

E. A. Harris, Expert : — 

Services and expenses, .... 29 10 

Analyses and tests, 579 00 

Legal services, 43 00 

Printing, ........ 95 78 

Supplies, 56 46 

$4,000 00 $3,336 90 

Kespectfully submitted, 

GEO. M. WHITAKER, 

Assistant Executive Officer. 

Approved and adopted as the report of the Dairy Bureau. 

C. L HARTSHORN. 
GEO. L. CLEMENCE. 
DWIGHT A. HORTON. 

Boston, Jan. 11, 1894. 



FOUETH ANNUAL EBPOET 

OP THE 

DAIRY BUREAU 

OF THE 

Massachusetts board of ageicultuee, 

REQUIRED 

Under Chapter 412, Acts of 1891. 



January 15, 1895. 



STAT 



Commanrocaltl) of ilta00acl)U0cU0* 



Office of the Secretary, Boston, Jan. 15, 1895. 

Hon. George v. L. Meyer, Speaker, House of Representatives. 

Sir : — I have the honor to transmit herewith, for the use 
of the Legislature, the fourth annual report of the Dairy 
Bureau of the Massachusetts Board of Agriculture, required 
under chapter 412, Acts of 1891. 

Very respectfully, 

WxM. M. OLIN, 

Secretary. 



2) 



Daiky Bureau — 1894-1895. 



C. L. HARTSHORNT, Worcester, Chairman. 
GEO. L. CLEMENCE, Southbridge. 

D. A. HORTON, Northampton. 



Execuiive Officer. 
W. R. SESSIONS, Secretary of the State Board of Agriculture. 



Assistant and Acting Executive Officer^ appointed by the Governor. 
GEO. M. WHITAKER, Boston. 



4: 



EEPORT OF THE DAIRY BUREAU. 



To the Senate and Rouse of Rei^resentatives of the CommonweaUh of 

Massachusetts. 

The third year of the existence of the Dairy Bureau has 
witnessed no change in the membership of the Bureau or its 
executive officers. The work has continued along the 
general lines indicated by previous reports, but extended 
and broadened as a result of increased experience. Ad- 
ditional workers have been employed in both the educational 
and police departments. But there comes a time when the 
expansion due merely to the increased effectiveness of 
greater experience must cease. It costs money to employ 
lecturers, agents, chemists and others. As we said last 
year, $4,000 is a very small sum for the duties imposed on 
us by statute. In the educational field there is need of 
additional work, particularly at the present time, when the 
Cattle Commissioners are doing so much to prevent the 
spread of tuberculosis ; their work is only half done if it is 
not supplemented by the gospel of cleanliness, pure air and 
plenty of sunlight. In our report for 1892 we said that the 
keeping qualities of milk depend on cleanliness ; but besides 
this the germs of disease are kept in abeyance by wholesome 
food, air, sunlight and clean stables. Then in our police work 
we can keep several agents profitably employed all of the 
time. We have been unable to give any attention to the en- 
forcement of the milk laws, but could do much in this direc- 
tion, to the ultimate advantage of the consumer and producer. 
We renew our suggestion of last year, that the appropria- 
tion for the Bureau be increased, with a repeal of the 
requirement that the Board of Health expend a majority of 
its funds on dairy products, — with this object in view : that 
the Bureau should prosecute commercial frauds, while the 



5 



Board of Health should be unhampered in its health work. 
An increased appropriation will not mean necessarily 
increased burden on the tax payers, because much will be 
returned in fines. At present nearly half of our appropria- 
tion goes back to the public in that way. If we are given 
more funds for enforcing the dairy laws, there will be more 
fines. We have expended all our appropriation this year, 
and yet have seen much which ought to have been done, but 
which we were obliged to omit. We recommend that the 
amount be increased to $7,000. 

Colored Oleomargarine *' an Offence against Society." 

The great event of the year has been the decision of the 
national supreme court that the Massachusetts " anti-color" 
law is not repugnant to the commerce clause of the con- 
stitution." The court said : — 

It is within the power of a State to exclude from its markets 
any compound manufactured in another State which has been arti- 
ficially colored or adulterated so as to cause it to look like an article 
of food in general use, and the sale of which may, by reason of 
such coloration or adulteration, cheat the general public into pur- 
chasing that which they may not intend to buy. The constitution 
of the United States does not secure to any one the privilege of 
defrauding the public. The deception against which the statute 
of Massachusetts is aimed is an offence against society ; and the 
States are as competent to protect their people against such offences 
or wrongs as they are to protect them against crimes or wrongs of 
more serious character. And this protection may be given without 
violating any right secured by the national constitution and with- 
out infringing the authority of the general government. A State 
enactment forbidding the sale of deceitful imitations of articles of 
food in general use among the people does not abridge any priv- 
ilege secured to citizens of the United States, nor, in any just 
sense, interfere with the freedom of commerce among the several 
States. 

The judiciary of the United States should not strike down a 
legislative enactment of a State — especially if it has direct con- 
nection with the social order, the health and the morals of its 
people — unless such legislation plainly and palpably violates some 
right granted or secured by the national constitution, or encroaches 
upon the authority delegated to the United States for the attain- 
ment of objects of national concern. 



6 



This case was an appeal from the decision of the Massa- 
chusetts supreme court. This Commonwealth was repre- 
sented before the national supreme court by ex- Attorney - 
General Hon. A. E. Pillsbury, who made a remarkably able 
argument, — one which has attracted much attention in other 
States as well as in Massachusetts. The chances were con- 
sidered somewhat against his contention, because the court 
had decided that local laws could not prohibit the sale of in- 
toxicating liquors in the original package as brought from 
some other State. On this decision the oleomargarine inter- 
ests expected to defeat our law. Mr. Pillsbury maintained 
that, as this law prohibited the sale of an imitation product 
rather than a distinct or original article, the cases were not 
parallel, and that the fundamental law of the land has enough 
of State rights to allow States to regulate and even prohibit 
the sale of imitations. The national supreme court took this 
view of the case. The decision is not only of much impor- 
tance in this State, but is of inestimable value in many other 
States ; they are thanking Massachusetts for her pioneer 
work and for the ability of her legal representative. The 
decision is also of importance in establishing a valuable prin- 
ciple in the interplay of State and national governments. 
As this decision was not handed down until December 10, 
it has as yet been of little advantage to us, and there has not 
been enough time for the oleomargarine interest to decide on 
a definite policy. 

Some seem disposed to accept this decision, and are put- 
ting on the market an article so light in color that it is not 
an imitation of the average of butter, though it is an imita- 
tion of very pale butter. Others are inclined to fight the 
law yet further by quibbling over the expression pure 
butter" and its color. They claim that pure butter is butter 
without any artificial coloring matter, that its natural color 
is very light ; that the natural color of oleomargarine is a 
bright yellow, and therefore that oleomargarine is not an 
imitation of pure butter. If this argument of a part of the 
oleomargarine people is sound, it proves that the light-col- 
ored goods of the other part are an imitation of pure butter, 
and hence illegal. It has been seriously maintained that 
butter from fancy cows fed unusual and costly foods may be 



7 



bright yellow, but that such an article is so exceptional and 
rare that it could not have been meant by the Legislature in 
alluding to pure butter." 

Other Decisions. 
In a case against Charles H. Russell, for exposing for sale 
an imitation of yellow butter, his defence was that he ex- 
posed for sale the oleomargarine in such a manner as to 
advise all consumers of its real character. The State 
supreme court says : — 

The proviso that allows the sale of oleomargarine *'ia such 
separate and distinct form and in such manner as will advise the 
consumer of its real character, free from coloration or ingredient 
that causes it to look like butter," only saves such oleomargarine 
as is free from coloration or ingredient that causes it to look like 
butter. The statute did not intend to allow oleomargarine to be 
made or sold when so colored, whether the particular purchaser 
was advised of its real character or not. 

In a case for delivering oleomargarine made in imitation 
or semblance of pure butter from a wagon without the 
proper signs, the defence claimed that there are two kinds 
of oleomargarine, as recognized by the anti-color law, and 
that the kind delivered was not in imitation of pure butter. 
The court decided : — 

This statute was not intended to draw fine distinctions between 
kinds of oleomargarine which all resemble each other, but it re- 
quires that every one who thus delivers oleomargarine of whatever 
sort shall carry along with him upon his vehicle a public notice 
that he is licensed to sell oleomargarine, — in other words that he 
shall go under his true colors. 

Enforcement of the Law. 
This work has been hampered by the uncertainty during 
most of the year about the anti-color law ; but the other 
laws have been prosecuted with vigor, as two agents have 
been at work most of the time collecting evidence. As 
heretofore, we have done nothing in Boston, that field being 
so well worked by Dr. Harrington, the city milk inspector, 
and nothing has been done with the milk laws. 



8 



The following is the statistical report of our work : — 



Number of inspections, 716 

Number of samples taken, 388 

Number of cases in court, 10-i 

Of these the results were as follows : — 

Guilty, 68 

Acquitted, 32 

Nolo, 3 

Nol. pros., 1 

Total, 104 

Of the 32 cases acquitted, 10 were lost by contradictory 
evidence, 11 on technicalities. 

The causes for action were as follows : — 

Serving oleomargarine for butter in restaurants, . . 28 

No signs in stores, 21 

Selling oleomargarine when butter was called for, . 17 

Lack of proper signs on tubs, 15 

No mark on wrapper, 14 

No municipal license, 9 

Total, 104 



This is twice as much as we have done in any previous 
year. Our policy has been to secure compliance with the 
laws with as little distress or seeming persecution as pos- 
sible ; and no objections have been raised to putting cases 
on file when the judge was satisfied that good reasons there- 
for existed. Fines aggregating nearly $2,000 have been 
imposed. 

Milk Inspectors. 
The statutes give town and city milk inspectors concur- 
rent jurisdiction with the Dairy Bureau ; but the report of 
their work is only to the local authority, and hitherto there 
has been no means of presenting this information to a larger 
constituency. In many cases these local inspectors get only 
a nominal salary, and hence do but little aggressive work. 
We have endeavored to co-operate and work with them to 
mutual advantage, and we are indebted to many inspectors 
for much information and assistance. Their work is for the 



9 

most part confined to the milk laws. The best work is done 
in Boston, where ample funds warrant the securing of ex- 
cellent ability. From Dr. Harrington's last published 
report we extract the following information : — 



Number of samples of milk examined, .... 13,623 

Number of samples of butter and oleomargarine, . . 899 

During the year complaints were entered in court as 
follows : — 

For milk not of good standard quality, 142 

For milk not of good standard quality (restaurant cases), . 125 

For skimmed milk not of good standard quality, ... 3 

For adulterating milk with annato, caramel or boracic acid, . 23 

For violating license law, 18 

For sales of oleomargarine not properly marked, . . . 48 

For violation of the oleomargarine license law, ... 17 

For oleomargarine wagons not properly marked, ... 9 

For exposing oleomargarine in stores without signs, . . 5 

For sales of oleomargarine as butter, 51 

For sales of imitation butter, 3 

For serving oleomargarine in restaurants without notice to 

guests, 109 



The Cambridge inspector, Dr. F. A. Dunbar, reports 
1,882 samples of milk collected, of which 262 were below 
standard quality; 179 warnings w^ere sent out; 75 samples 
of butter were purchased, of which 3 proved to be 
oleomargarine. The inspector reports that the quality of 
milk procured from stores and teams is on the whole im- 
proving ; skimming and watering constitute the usual forms 
of adulteration. 

The Lowell inspector, Thomas O. Allen, reports 1,258 
milk inspections, with 26 warnings, and 17 complaints for 
having in possession, with intent to sell, milk not of good 
standard quality ; convictions, 15. 

The Lynn inspector reports 2,236 inspections of milk, 
with 18 complaints in court, resulting in 17 convictions. 

The Holyoke inspector, James K. Morrill, reports 58 
inspections of milk and 1 prosecution. 

H. M. Hartshorn of Maiden reports 136 inspections of 
milk and 1 prosecution. He recommends a law which 
should establish a legal standard for light cream to be sold 



10 



in packages of not less than one gallon, and another for 
small packages of heavier cream for family use. He reports 
a continual increase in the cream business. 

The Worcester inspector, J. P. Streeter, reports 138 
samples of milk taken, of which only 3 were below 
standard. 

In New Bedford Dr. D. C. Ashely took 650 samples of 
milk, and 1 complaint was made after a warning. Another 
conviction was for feeding swill. 

In Chelsea the milk inspector took 950 samples ; issued 
30 warnings ; 15 cases were taken into court and 9 convicted. 

Need of Law. 

Another yearns experience convinces us more than ever of 
the need of laws to regulate the sale of imitation butter, 
and we renew the suggestions of previous reports. The 
word *' imitation" conveys the idea of deceit and imposi- 
tion, and the actual business comes as close as is possible to 
the line between honesty and dishonesty when it does not 
actually cross over. The temptation to deceive is strong 
and always present. Butterine," the name now coming to 
be generally used (although the national law uses the word 

oleomargarine ") , is significant of deception. The gradual 
abandonment of the word "oleomargarine" and the sub- 
stitution therefor of butterine" speaks volumes for the 
nature of the business. In England the use of the word 
''butterine" is prohibited by law, and we recommend it 
here. In one large English city the Board of Trade con- 
demned the use of such affixes as " ette " and " ine " for 
textile fabrics, because of their deceptive nature. For the 
purpose of uniformity in existing laws, and to prevent the 
raising of any question growing out of an apparent lack of 
harmony, we recommend that section 21 of chapter 56 of 
the Public Statutes be declared applicable to all subsequent 
legislation. 

Educational. 

The assistant executive officer has spoken at public meet- 
ings 37 times, — chiefly upon milk, its composition, varia- 
tion, keeping qualities and kindred topics. When the im- 



11 



portance of the meeting would warrant, additional speakers 
have been employed. Professor Conn of Connecticut, one 
of the most advanced bacteriologists of the age, came to 
Massachusetts under the auspices of the Bureau, to explain 
to a meeting of butter makers his experiments and con- 
clusions. Experiments have been tried at the West Dudley 
creamery with some of his culture, at the suggestion of the 
Bureau. 

Babcock Milk Tester. 

Work in illustrating the importance of the Babcock milk 
tester has continued. Much effort has been expended in 
impressing the fact that milk should be valued by the 
amount of solid matter that it contains, — the Babcock 
tester furnishing an accurate, cheap and simple means of 
ascertaining this information. As a result of this influence, 
several agricultural societies have based their milch-cow 
premiums in a measure on the quality of the cow's product. 
During the year the acting executive officer has tested 448 
samples ; 5 more have been referred to a chemist for fuller 
examination. Most of these tests were made publicly, as 
object lessons in the course of addresses on the character of 
milk. 

Some of these samples were taken for the purpose of 
studying abnormal conditions. For instance, a sample from 
a sick heifer from a fine butter family tested as low as 1.8 
per cent, of fat. The milk from the top of a can tested 8.2 
per cent, of fat, while that from the bottom of the same can 
tested only 2 per cent. Milk from strippings and the last 
of milkings ranged from 7 to 12 per cent. The following is 
the result of the ordinary samples : — 

2.6 and 3.0 i^er cent, of fat, .... 1 per cent, of samples. 
3.2 and 3.4 per cent, of fat, .... 8 per cent, of samples. 

[Below the legal standard, 9 per cent, of samples.] 
3.6 and 3.8 per cent, of fat, on the line of the 

legal standard, 20 per cent, of samples. 

4.0 and 4.2 per cent, of fat, .... 18 per cent, of samples. 
4.4 and 4.6 per cent, of fat, .... 13 per cent, of samples. 
4.8 and 5.0 per cent, of fat, . . . .13 per cent, of samples. 
6.2 and 5.4 per cent, of fat, . . . . 14 per cent, of samples. 
5.6 and 5.8 per cent, of fat, .... 7 per cent, of samples. 



12 



5.8 and 6.0 per cent, of fat, .... 3 per cent, of samples. 
6.1 and 6.2 per cent, of fat, .... 3 per cent, of samples. 
6.4 and 6.8 per cent, of fat, .... 2 per cent, of samples. 
[Above the standard, 73 per cent, of samples.] 

Samples of cream tested have ranged from 14.6 per cent, 
to 20 per cent, of fat. The buttermilk tested averaged .3 
per cent, of fat, and the skimmed milk ranged between .8 
and .6 per cent. 

In one instance a visit was made to a farm whose proprietor 
was having trouble with the Boston milk contractors because 
the milk produced by him was below the standard. Each 
cow in the herd was tested, with the following result : — 



No. 1, . . . 2.4 per cent. 

■ No. 2, . . . 2.6 

No. 3, . . .2.8 

No. 4, . . .2.8 

No. 5, . . . 3.0 

No. 6, . . .3.0 " 



No. 7, . . . 3.2 per cent. 

No. 8, . . .3.3 

No. 9, . . .3.6 

No. 10, . . .3.8 

No. 11, . . . 4.0 

No. 12, . . . 4.0 



The average of the mixed milk of the herd was 3.1 per 
cent. 

The Bay State Agricultural Society in June offered a 
prize for the milch cows which would produce the greatest 
amount of milk solids in two days. The testing was to be 
done at home, free from the distracting influences of the 
average cattle show. This was a decidedly advance step in 
agriculture, and one in keeping with the aims of the Bay 
State Society. The Massachusetts Society for Promoting 
Agriculture offered to help out on the expense of the pre- 
miums, and the assistant executive officer of the Dairy 
Bureau offered to do the work of testing the milk. This 
novel and educational offer did not attract as much attention 
as its merits deserved, and it was hard work to secure five 
entries ; only one was ready for examination during the 
summer and fall before the executive officer's increasing 
duties of the early winter precluded the attention to this 
extra work. The Guernsey herd of Herbert Merriam, Esq., 
of Weston, was tested, with the following result : — 



13 





Pounds Milk. 


Per Cent. 
Solids. 


Pounds Fat. 


Pounds 
Total Solids. 


Polly of Concord, . 


32.81 


15.50 


1.82 


6.09 


Golden Lily, . 


37.75 


15.03 


1.97 


5.68 


Polly of Lincoln, 


37.06 


15.32 


2.00 


5.69 


Rose of Weston, 


40.64 


14.95 


2.06 


6.06 


Weston Lily, . 


43.50 


14.75 


2.15 


6.40 


Average, 




15.11 




5.78 


Total, .... 


191.76 




10.00 





The Milk Supply 
of the cities of the Commonwealth is one of the most im- 
portant branches of the food question, both commercially 
and hygienically. The milk contractors of Boston, whose 
business includes the greater Boston," and is estimated at 
three-quarters of the entire supply, report the business of 
1894 in eight and one-half quart cans as follows : — 





Eeceived. 


Sold. 


Surplus. 




768,883 


617,674 


151,209 




719,864 


564,148 


155,716 




842,882 


642,637 


200,245 




861,458 


622,907 


238,551 


May, 


969,331 


661,223 


308,108 




937,188 


696,578 


240,610 


J"iy, 


837,425 


699,692 


137,733 




779,766 


617,220 


162,546 


September, 


716,771 


634,269 


82,502 




779,015 


637,329 


141,686 




722,316 


634,792 


87,524 




770,548 


628,952 


141,596 



14 



Totals. 





Received. 


Sold. 


Surplus. 


1 CQ1 








1892, 


9,212,667 


7,315,135 




1893, 


9,263,487 


7,619,722 


1,643,765 


1894, 


9,705,447 


7,657,421 


2,048,026 



The followino^ fio^ares for other cities are taken from milk 
inspectors' reports ; — 

Springfield, 19,000 quarts daily, mostly furnished by three adjoining 
towns. 

Chelsea, 10,664 quarts daily. 
Maiden, 11,000 quarts daily. 
Holyoke, 15,387 quarts daily. 

Lynn, 24,000 quarts daily, one-half coming from Portsmouth and 
Hampton, N. H., in ears, and one-half from dairies of adjacent towns. 

Milk Standard. 

An effort has been made each winter for several years to 
have the statute standard of milk reduced. Unquestionably 
many cows in the State produce milk that is below the stand- 
ard. But it is also a fact that the milk of a great majority 
from all breeds contains 13 percent, of solids, — the legal 
standard. The practical question is, Shall the interests of 
the majority be sacrificed for the minority ? The present 
law is not perfect; under an ideal condition, all milk would 
be sold according to its quality ; but that is impracticable at 
present, although we believe that ultimately, with the Bab- 
cock test more common and the people more enlightened as 
to milk values, this result will be reached. But this is not 
the real point desired by the advocates of the change as we 
understand it. They desire to get their 12 per cent, milk 
on the market at the going pri e, — that is, the price for 
the 13 per cent. milk. 

One point against the present law that is used with much 
force is the claim that the standard hans^s like a sword of 
Damocles above the head of the innocent farmer, liable at 



any moment to descend upon him without either warning or 
mercy. Facts do not bear this out, however, as reference 
to the reports of the milk inspectors above will show. Not 
only do reports of many thousands of analyses from all 
parts of the country show that average milk contains 13 
per cent, of solids, but the results of inspections reported 
above show that even after the milk has gone to the peddler 
and the stores ninety-nine samples in a hundred stand the 
test. Mr. Clemence of the Bureau has been studying the 
question on his own herd, and gives below the result of five 
tests of the mixed milk of his cows — grade stock of no 
particular breed. 



Date. 


Cows. 


Quarts 
Milk. 


Daily Feed. 


Per Cent, 
of Fat. 


Aug. 1, 


20 


208 


Green oats and peas morning and 
night, dry hay at noon, 2 quarts 
gluten meal and 4 quarts bran. 


4.4 


Sept. 1, 


21 


212 


Sweet corn fodder morning and 
night, hay at noon, grain the 
same as alDOve. 


4.2 


Oct 1, 


21 


188 


Corn fodder and cabbage leaves 
morning and night, hay at noon, 
with grain same as above. 


4.2 


Nov. 1, 


20 


205 


Cabbage leaves in two feeds, hay 
at noon, with grain same as 
above. 


4.3 


Dec. 1, 


20 


192 


Corn and ensilage morning and 
night (forty pounds a day to 
each cow), six pounds of hay at 
noon, and grain the same as 
above. 


4.2 



When milk has 3.75 per cent, of fat it is without much 
doubt up to the standard, so that this milk, if a complete 
analysis were made, would probably test from 13.50 to 14 
per cent, solids. 

Financial Statement, 

Appropriation by Legislature of 1894, . . . $1,000 

C. L. Hartshorn, Chairman : — 

Travelling and necessary expenses, . . . . $41 00 
Services, 60 00 



16 



G. L. Clemence : — 

Travelling and necessary expenses, .... $62 50 

Services, 65 00 

D. A. Horton : — 

Travelling and necessarj' expenses, .... 63 00 

Services, 60 00 

G. M. Whitaker, assistant executive officer, travelling and 

necessary expenses, 268 18 

Agents, services and expenses, 1,870 76 

Chemical work, 1,083 50 

Court attendance, 115 00 

Educational work, 195 27 

Printing, 57 76 

Supplies, 55 03 



$4,000 00 

Respectfully submitted, 

GEO. M. WHITAKER, 

AssisLant and Acting Executive Officer. 



Approved and adopted as the report of the Dairy Bureau. 

C. L. HARTSHORN". 
GEO. L. CLEMENCE. 
DWIGHT A. HORTON. 



Boston, Jan. 15, 1895 



FIFTH ANNUAL KEPORT 

OP THE 

DAIRY BUREAU 

OF THE 

Massachusetts boaed of agricultuee, 

BEQUIRED 

Under Chapter 412, Acts of 1891. 



January 15, 1896. 



Dairy Bureau — 1895-96. 



C. L. HARTSHORN, Worcester, Chairman. 
GEO. L. CLEMENCE, Southbridge. 

D. A. HORTON, Northampton. 



Executive Officer. 
W. R. SESSIONS, Secretary of the State Board oj Agriculture, 



Assistant to the Secretary and Acting Executive Officer, appointedlby the 

Governor, 

GEO. M. WHITAKER, Boston. 



REPOKT OF THE DAIRY BUREAU. 



To the Senate and House of Representatives of the Commonwealth of 

Massachusetts. 

The membership of the Bureau has been unchanged during 
the past year, Mr. D. A. Horton having been reappointed 
by the governor as one of the three members at large of the 
Board of Agriculture, and as a member of the Dairy Bureau. 
The assistant to the secretary of the Board of Agriculture in 
the work of the Dairy Bureau, as provided for by chapter 
412 of the Acts of 1891, is the acting executive officer of the 
Bureau, the secretary of the Board being the executive offi- 
cer, ex officio, by the same statute. The present incumbent 
was reappointed last September. 

During the year the Bureau has employed permanently 
two agents who have acted as inspectors, to ascertain how 
the dairy laws are obeyed, to collect samples and to get 
evidence of violation of the law. These have been J. W. 
Stockwell and George F. Baldwin. In accordance with our 
recommendation of last year, our annual appropriation was 
increased by the Legislature of 1895 from $4,000 to $7,000. 



Oleomargarine . 

The work of the Bureau in enforcing the laws relative to 
imitation butter has been statistically as follows : — 

Number of inspections of stores and other places of 

business, 1,901 

Number of samples taken, 474 

Number of cases in court, ...... 82 

Number of convictions, ....... 42 



6 



The cases in court were brought for the following viola- 
tions of the law : — 



Serving oleomargarine in restaurants without giving 

notice, 30 

Absence of sign in store, 17 

Sales of oleomargarine when butter was called for, . 7 

Failure to mark exposed contents of opened tub, . . 7 

Sales of yellow oleomargarine, 6 

Sales without municipal license, 6 

Sales without marked wrapper, 5 

Assaults on agents of the Bureau, 3 

Delivery from wagon without sign on sides, ... 1 



82 

These violations of the law were all outside of Boston, 
as, under the provision of the law requiring us to work in 
harmony with milk inspectors and the Board of Health, we 
have left the city of Boston, as has been previously reported, 
to the milk inspector of that city, Dr. Charles E. Harrington, 
who has performed his work with great faithfulness and 
ability. 

Cases appealed from the district to the superior court have 
been settled, in every case but one, by the defendant plead- 
ing guilty. In that case the inspector had called for cook- 
ing butter and been served with oleomargarine, and the jury 
failed to agree, as the question was raised whether or not 

cooking butter" was a separate and distinct article of 
commerce by itself, and therefore not what is meant by the 
statute which prohibits the selling of oleomargarine w^hen 
butter is called for. 

The laws regulating the sale of oleomargarine are such that 
it is possible for a person, in one sale, to violate a number 
of difterent statutes. If he sells yellow oleomargarine when 
butter is called for, does it up in an unmarked wrapper, and 
has no sign in the store, four laws are violated ; and usually, 
where a person is trying to sell oleomargarine deceptively, 
in order to carry out the deception, he will violate more 
laws than one. But we find that many district court judges 
dislike to entertain more than one case based on a single 
transaction. In a few instances we have found judges who 



7 



were unwilling to entertain more than one case against the 
same person, even when the violations of the law took place 
on different days, and when there had been distinct sales. 
On this account the statistical showing of cases in court is 
not as large as it otherwise would be. 

The work of the Bureau in inspecting stores and other 
places of business, to see how the laws are complied with, 
and its growth from year to year, are seen in the following 
table : — 

1893, 382 inspections. 

1894, 716 inspections. 

1895, 1,901 inspections. 

This work has covered all parts of the State, except Boston, 
and, coupled with the efforts of Dr. Harrington * in Boston, 
has been so thorough that dealers are, for the most part, 
complying with the law, which still further reduces our 
number of court cases ; but, when a law is so enforced as 
to prevent crime, the result is more satisfactory to all 
thoughtful citizens than is the record of a long list of 
criminal prosecutions. 

Very little oleomargarine is now sold in the State illegally. 

The decision of the national supreme court, affirming the 
constitutionality of the State statute which prohibits the sale 
of any imitation of yellow butter, has been a severe blow to 
dealers in imitation dairy goods, and has virtually put an 
end to the business in this State, so far as open sales are 
concerned. The number of revenue licenses in Massachu- 
setts when the Bureau was created was 211 ; the number 
now is 35. The figures from the Boston Chamber of Com- 
merce show that the receipts of oleomargarine for the year 
1895 decreased 151,421 packages, as compared with the 
year previous. The receipts of butter show an increase of 



The cases of the Boston milk inspector for the year ending Jan. 31, 1895, were ; 

Sale of oleomargarine not properly labelled, 4 

Exposing oleomargarine for sale, not being licensed. 
Sale of oleomargarine, not being registered. 

Sale of oleomargarine as butter, 4 

Sale of oleomargarine without posting placard, .... 3 

Sale of oleomargarine from wagons not properly marked, . . 2 

Serving oleomargarine in restaurants without notifying guests, . 32 



8 



179,379 tubs, not counting the boxes, and the consumption 
of butter increased very materially. 

Although oleomargarine is a substance of great food 
value," *'a distinct, independent article," pushed on the 
merits of its individuality," we find that what the dealers 
care for, more than the nutritive elements or number of 
calories of food value, is the yellow color of butter; and, if 
they cannot have the article colored in imitation of a prod- 
uct which it is not, their occupation is largely gone. Much 
yellow oleomargarine, however, still comes into the State 
from Rhode Island, whicli has been behind all the other New 
England States in oleomargarine legislation, and is now the 
centre of operations for a large business in this State. 
Several manufacturing companies have located in Rhode 
Island, among them the Vermont Manufacturing Company 
and the Woodlawn Dairy Company. These have agents in 
Massachusetts, who leave with boarding-house proprietors 
and others in manufacturing cities and towns blank orders 
which when filled out are sent to Rhode Island. The goods 
are then forwarded to them by express or freight. Some- 
times, doubtless, the legal sale takes place in Massachusetts ; 
but to get evidence of this is difficult, and would require 
much expense for skilful detective work, and often, then, 
we might have nothing to show for the money expended. 
The following are two forms of orders used : — 

Swift & Co., 252-262 Canal Street, Providence, B. 1. 

Please send to Swift's colored butterine, price 

Ship by 

And oblige, 

189 . 

Woodlaiun Dairy Co., Pawtucket, R. L 
Dear Sir : — Please send me by express, C. O. D. : — 
Tub butterine, lbs., at cts. 
Box prints, lbs., at cts. 

and oblige, 

Yours truly, 

Our agents have in a number of cases watched the receipts 
of oleomargarine at various railroad depots, followed the 
goods to the place of consumption, and found that they went 



9 



chiefly to boarding-houses and fishing schooners. Some 
oleomargarine goes to hotels and restaurants and some to 
private families. 

Our third and fourth reports called attention to the decep- 
tive style of advertising adopted by many manufacturers of 
oleomargarine. In the former we reproduced a fac-simile 
of the trade-mark of one tirm, Avhich consisted of a pretty 
dairymaid, her left arm about a Jersey heifer, and a milk 
pail in her right hand. The inscription was " Jersey Butter- 
ine," and everything about it except the three letters "ine" 
was suggestive of the dairy. 

This wrong has been met by an important order from the 
internal revenue department at Washington, as follows : — 

No manufacturer of or dealer in oleomargarine will be permitted 
to use any private trade-mark, label, brand, picture illustration or 
other advertising or descriptive device upon any print, roll or other 
mold or design of oleomargarine offered for sale, consumption or 
use, which in any wise conceals the fact that the product is oleo- 
margarine. This rule applies as well to the wooden or paper 
package or wrapper of any print, roll or other mold or design of 
oleomargarine. 

Under this regulation it will be seen that the use of any trade- 
mark, label, brand, picture illustration, or advertising or descrip- 
tive device representing a cow, dairy farm, or in any other form 
indicating the oleomargarine to be a product of the dairy, or cal- 
culated to induce the belief that it is such dairy product, is inad- 
missible. 

The use of the word " butterine " is also inadmissible, since sec- 
tion 2 of the act of Aug. 2, 1886, prescribes that "butterine" 
shall be known and designated as " oleomargarine." 

The advance of time may have rendered the arguments for 
legislation regulating the sale of imitation butter less keenly 
realized than when the laws were enacted, and it may be 
well to restate that all of this legislation has been rendered 
necessary because : first, yellow oleomargarine is an imita- 
tion article ; second, all imitation articles are more or less 
deceptive, the very word " imitation " signifying misrepre- 
sentation ; third, the selling of these goods where no restric- 
tions exist is always attended with considerable actual fraud ; 
the dealers oppose all legislation which would require the 



10 



product to be sold honestly, and, as a rule, deceive the con- 
suming public as far as they can. 

It is also worthy of notice that, since the Massachusetts 
laws were enacted, they have been copied by a number of 
other States ; and this department is frequently requested to 
furnish copies of our laws to legislative bodies, boards of 
trade, dairymen's associations, etc., in other States. 

Process Butter. 
The attention of the Bureau has been brought two or three 
times during the year to various kinds of " process butter," 
as it is called. This is butter which has been renovated and 
reworked by some patent process. Analysis shows that it 
is pure butter, but that it contains more than the normal 
amount of moisture. One sample was found to contain: — 



Butter fat, 

Water, .... 

Suet, 

Curd and other solids not fat, 



Per Cent. 

78.18 
17.18 
2.32 
2.32 



100.00 

This fact, and the varying degrees of moisture reported in 
butter exhibited at the State fair at Worcester, alluded to 
later on, bring up again the suggestion whether or not there 
should be a statute standard for butter; and, while we do 
not favor making our government paternal beyond proper 
limits, yet there is a possibility of people being deceived 
and defrauded in their purchases of even real butter. 

Milk Laws. 

The Bureau has done more this year in the line of milk 
inspection than heretofore, having taken and analyzed 158 
samples. No cases have been taken into court, as this was 
our first year of work in this line. A number of warnings, 
however, were sent to persons whose milk was below stand- 
ard. A prominent part of our work in this line this season 
was in inspecting the milk supply at the various beaches in 
the vicinity of Boston, including restaurants. The milk in 



11 



most cases was quite satisfactory, being fully up to the 
standard. In one or two cases where milk of very poor 
quality was found, the inspector on a second visit got milk 
of much higher quality, in one case almost cream, showing 
that the dealer had been careless in mixing the milk, giving 
some customers cream from the top of the tank, while others 
o-ot skim-milk from the bottom. In such cases warnino^s 
were sent. 

Some restaurants refuse to sell milk to a guest; a few 
have skim-milk signs on their milk tanks ; and a few cases 
have been found where the proprietor of a restaurant posted 
a sign announcing that he sold pure, unadulterated milk, as 
it came from the cow, but on account of the State law, in 
order to save himself from liability to prosecution, he adver- 
tised all milk which he sold to be skim-milk. 

We give below the averages of the samples of milk taken 
by this department during the year past, the low showing 
through July and August being due to a number of samples 
of low-grade milk taken from restaurants at the beaches, to 
whom warnings were sent, which resulted in an improve- 
ment of the quality. 





No. Samples. 


Average. 




July, . . . 


. 33 


12.48 per 


cent total solids. 


August, 


. 10 


12.57 




September, . 


. 21 


13.08 


( (( (( 


October, 


. 20 


13.39 


( 


November, . 


. 8 


13.84 




December, . 


. 52 


13.09 


( 


December, . 


. 14 


4.92 


fat. 



Dr. Harrington, the milk inspector of Boston for the year 
ending Jan. 31, 1895, reports 14,203 samples of milk col- 
lected for examination. Out of this number, 142 complaints 
were entered in court and 138 convictions obtained. Of 
Dr. Harrington's cases in court, 48 were for milk of below 
11 per cent total solids ; 87 for milk below 12 per cent, but 
not below 11 ; 7 cases were for milk ranging from 12 to 12.6 
per cent. 

Of late there has been an annual agitation before the Legis- 
lature for a reduction of the statute standard. On this sub- 
ject we renew our recommendations of previous years in 



12 



opposition to any such reduction, which we believe would 
be an injury to the consuming public and also to the better 
class of producers. An abundance of evidence can be brought 
forward to prove that average milk from average cows has 13 
per cent total solids, so that the statute standard is placed at 
the average quality of milk, the milk of the distinctive butter 
breeds of cows ranging over 14 and often as high as 15 per 
cent. Should any ch inge be deemed advisable, we feel that 
the one which would be of the most value would be to add 
a fat standard of 3. 75. The study of the composition of 
milk has been carried to such an extent by experiment sta- 
tions and others all over the country that it is well known 
that the amount of solids not fat in milk is quite uniform, 
the element which shows the most variation being the fat. 
There is also, within limits, quite a constant ratio between 
the solids not fat, and fat. In a sample of milk containing 
•3 per cent of fat we should look for somewhere in the neigh- 
borhood of 11 per cent of total solids. With 3.5 per cent 
of fat we should expect the total solids to be approximately 
12 to 12.5 per cent. If milk has 3.75 to 4 per cent of fat, 
it will be up to the standard or above. The Babcock milk 
tester gives such an easy way of testing for fat that a statute 
recognition of the fact that normal 13 per cent milk has 3.75 
per cent of fat would allow every farmer to test his own milk 
and keep track of the quality he is sending to the city, with 
an assurance that the milk is up to the standard. 

Another reason for asking for this change is given in the 
following quotation from the report of Dr. Harrington, the 
Boston milk inspector, which meets the views of this depart- 
ment : — 

Another fraud which the present law does not reach, but which 
nevertheless is a serious fraud, has been discovered during the past 
year. The milk sold by certain dealers has shown a peculiar com- 
position, inconsistent with that of genuine milk, and yet conform- 
ing to the statute requirement. While containing the necessary 13 
per cent of milk solids, a decidedly low percentage of fat, with an 
abnormally high percentage of solids not fat, were noticed. On 
investigation, it was learned that a large business was being con- 
ducted with a New York house which sells condensed skim-milk ob- 
tained from the New York creameries. This skim-milk, which is in 



13 



a sense a waste product, is concentrated or ''condensed" by evap- 
oration in vacuum pans, and then sold to milkmen, who, after 
robbing their milk of a part of its cream, add enough of the 
concentrated skin-milk, containing almost wholly non-fatty sub- 
stances, to bring the yield of total solids above the statute require- 
ment. Thus a milk which has lost a valuable constituent is made 
to conform with the law. No provision in the existing law can 
reach this fraud, for two reasons : first, the removal of the cream, 
or a part thereof, can hardly be legally proven unless the opera- 
tion has been actually observed ; and, second, the substance added 
is in no sense foreign to milk. There is, however, a way to meet 
and prevent the deception, and that is, to establish a standard for 
fat; and the bill already referred to fixes this at 3.70 per cent. 
If this shall pass, there will no longer be any reason for adding 
non-fatty solids. 

Another change in the law, which might be of advantage 
both to consumers and producers, would be in relieving the 
Board of Health from the arbitrary requirement that they 
expend a certain amount for the investigation of dairy prod- 
ucts. The creation of the Dairy Bureau and the increased 
popular attention given to health matters lead to this sug- 
gestion. Our present laws relate almost wholly to commer- 
cial frauds, and have but little if anything to do with health 
matters. Under the present statute the Board of Health is 
compelled to divert a certain amount of its appropriation 
from health work to work in detectinsj commercial frauds. 
This work could be as well done by the Dairy Bureau, and 
the transfer would leave the Board of Health with greater 
resources to investigate some of the great health problems 
in connection with the milk supply which are now pressing 
upon the public attention. 

The law requiring us to work in harmony with milk in- 
spectors has produced good results, and we are indebted to 
Dr. Harrington and the milk inspectors of a number of cities 
other than Boston for much valuable information given to 
us. We wish that this department of the work of the Bureau 
could be extended and broadened, so that, without encroach- 
ing in the least upon the prerogatives of the local officers in 
the different cities, this office could be a clearing house for 
an interchange of information, and for giving to the Legis- 



14 



lature in its annual reports the best suggestions which these 
various local officers annually make to their respective city 
governments. 

In the year 1894 the annual agitation for a reduction in 
the milk standard resulted in a compromise measure, which 
appeared on the surface to be a harmless though useless 
piece of legislation, enacting into a statute certain require- 
ments as to the taking of samples which had already been in 
force through the operation of the well-established laws of 
evidence. This statute was opposed by the Bureau on the 
ground, first, that it was unnecessary, and second, that it 
might contain some loopholes through which dishonest milk- 
men would gain a point. The law was so objectionable that 
the governor refused to sign it, though he allowed it to 
become operative by the lapse of time without a veto. The 
law alluded to is chapter 425 of the Acts of 1894, and is as 
follows : — 

No producer of milk shall be liable to prosecution on the ground 
that the milk produced by him is not of good standard quality, 
unless the milk alleged not to be of such quality was taken upon 
the premises or while in the possession or under the control of the 
producer by an inspector of milk or by the agents of the Dairy 
Bureau or State Board of Health, or collector of samples duly 
authorized by such inspector, and a sealed sample of the same 
given to the producer. 

In the trial of a case where the defendant was charged with 
having in his possession milk below the standard quality, the 
evidence tended to prove that the defendant was the producer 
of the milk in question, and, at the time the sample was taken 
from his servant, was at his farm in another city. The court 
was asked to rule that there was a variance between the com- 
plaint and the proof, and that the evidence would not war- 
rant a verdict of guilty. The court declined so to rule ; the 
defendant was convicted; exceptions were taken and over- 
ruled by the supreme court. In its opinion the su[)remc 
court said : — 

It is the general rule of law that the possession of a servant is 
the possession of the master. In the present case, we think that 



15 



the evidence showed that the milk was still in the possession and 
under the control of the defendant. Statutes of 1894, chapter 425, 
was designed to exempt a producer of milk from prosecution on a 
complaint that the milk was not of good standard quality only when 
the milk was found on other premises than those of the producer ; 
or in the possession of another person than the producer, who was 
not subject to the control of the producer, and who, therefore, 
might have adulterated the milk for his own purposes ; or when 
milk, if found upon the premises or in the possession or under the 
control of the producer, was taken by some person who was not 
an inspector of milk or an agent of the Dairy Bureau or State 
Board of Health, or a collector of samples duly authorized by an 
inspector, and who, therefore, might not be trustworthy. In every 
case of a taking of milk a sealed sample of the milk taken must 
be given to the producer for his protection. There is no indication 
that the general law governing the respongibility of a master for 
the acts of his servant was intended to be affected by the statute. 

Institute Wokk. 

Nineteen farmers' meetings have been addressed by the 
acting executive officer of the Bureau during the past year. 
In most of these the Babcock tester was used in testing 
samples of milk brought to the meeting, its use explained, 
with its value to dairymen, whether producing milk for the 
market or making butter. One hundred and nineteen sam- 
ples of milk were tested in such demonstration talks. The 
following are the statistics of the samples tested : — 

3.4 per cent of fat and below% .... 13 per cent of samples, 
3.6 to 3.8 per cent of fat (on the line of the 

legal standard), 25 per cent of samples. 

4 to 5 per cent of fat, 42 per cent of samples. 

Above 5 per cent of fat, 20 per cent of samples. 

100 

The Bay State Fair. 

The annual agricultural fair at Worcester this year was a 
State fair. Being such, the Dairy Bureau was invited to take 
charge of the dairy department, and the acting executive offi- 
cer was appointed superintendent. The exhibits of butter, 



16 



cheese and the dairy machinery were grouped in one room, 
so that persons interested in dairying could find in one place 
all that the exhibition had to offer in that line. The speci- 
mens of butter were scoied by Mr. George D. Fales of 
Boston. After the scoring, samples were taken for chemi- 
cal analysis. We submit below the result of the scoring, 
and the analyses of samples which took premiums : — 



Creamery Prints. 







Analysis. 


EXHIBITORS. 


Score. 


Water. 


Fat. 


Salt. 


Curd. 


Worcester County Creamery, . 

Montague Creamery, 

E. S. Cove, Phillipston, . 


971 

97 

94f 


Per Cent. 
10.98 

10.52 


Per Cent. 

85.28 
86.42 


Per Cent. 
2.54 

2.20 


Per Cent. 
1.20 

.86 


Dairy Prints. 


F. W. Field & Son, Somers, 
Conn., ..... 
W. F. Wilder, Rindge, N. H., . 
N. I. Bowditch, Framingham, . 


961 


9.17 
7.98 
9.71 


88.49 
87.82 
87.57 


1.57 
2.40 
2.25 


.77 
1.90 
.57 


Creamery Tubs. 


Rockside Creamery, Altoona, 

N. Y., 

Worcester County Creamery, . 
Montague Creamery, 


96 

951 

95i 


8.73 
12.86 
10.08 


88.80 
84.03 
87.39 


2.12 
2.62 
1.95 


.35 
1.49 
.58 


Dairy Tubs. 


J. A. Cunningham, Bolton, 


96^ 


9.10 


88.55 


1.31 


1.04 



I 



Dairy Boxes. 



J. A. Cunningham, Bolton, . 96| 

Mrs. Mary L Sawyer, Sterling, 92^ 

N. 1. Bowditch, Framingham, . 92 

E. J. Dana, North Pomlret, Vt., 92 



17 



In the dairy building, but having no connection with the 
department under the superintendency of the Bureau, took 
place the churning of the cream from the cows contesting 
for the butter premiums. The cows were milked on the 
grounds, the milk placed in charge of a butter maker, who 
superintended its ripening, and the second day it was 
churned, each competitor being allowed to churn his own 
cream, if he desired. Samples of buttermilk were taken by 
the representative of the Bureau and tested in the Babcock 
tester. Startling amounts of fat were found in the butter- 
milk, showing that the prize was awarded for the most skilful 
manipulation of the cream, rather than for the cow producing 
the most butter. The results were so important and start- 
ling that they have attracted the attention of the dairy press 
over the whole country. The statistics are given in the 
following table : — 



18 











CO 








1—1 




o 


o 


o 


CO 




CM 




CO 






;^ 


c 






*^ 












CO 




CO 






CM 
















































GO 








CO 




00 




00 


CM 




»o 


CO 








hi 




































p-( 






































































































H 












































































































M 








o 




o 


CO 


00 


00 


CO 


CM 


o 
















•p.in 


a 














CO 


C30 








CO 






o 




O 


r-l 


(M 


















1—1 








CO 






Ol 






































































































< 




































55 












































1^ 


1—1 


00 


1—1 


»— 1 


o 




00 


o 




CO 




1—1 


»o 








V 


CM 






CO 


<M 


T— ( 


CO 






CO 




CO 


as 


CM 






1s 


O 


oo 




(M 


y—i 


CM 


CM 




o 


CM 


»— 1 


CO 


•o 


CO 


CO 










l>- 


oo 


00 


OO 




OO 


00 


oo 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 










o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 






[UU 


B 

9) 


00 










00 


CM 








CM 










C 


O 


































Butte 


Per ' 




tH 


T— ( 












CO 


CO 




T-l 


CO 


»o 
















(M 




























N 












OS 










CO 












u 

a 


O 


oo 






























<*-. 
o 






C5 




CM 




























« 


lbs 








































































O 






H« 


HO 




H« 






»o 




HN 


















OO 




1 




CO 




1—1 


Ol 




CO 




CO 


i 






































«w 




































O 


S 




00 




o 


oo 


1 


CO 


»o 


CO 


1— i 


CM 




o 












to 




to 


CO 




CO 


CM 


CM 


CO 


CO 




CO 


CM 






























































Qi 




















































a 




































« 
1^ 






• 










• 


• 


bC 

D 


• 










• 








































o 




































O 


















a 




























erd, 




oa. 












ella 




















a 


oc 


o 


c3 




CO 

o 


Oi 


en 


































rH 




w 


















































































































ow 














a 






a 






a 


a" 


















Imer, 




wo 




WS, 


wo 


o 




be 


-a 














o 

tZ! 


ndal 


ndre 


H 


Iswo 


ndre 


H 


wditi 


wditi 


Cminin 


UlUUl 


ndal 


ndal 












Ke 


Pa 


< 


o 


W 




o 


Bo 


Bo 


6 


Ke 


Ke 










td 




W 










1— 1 




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1-3 


hi 


1-5 


















t-3 





19 



On the whole, the dairy department of the fair was con- 
sidered very successful. 

Proper Testing of Cows at Fairs. 
In connection with the proper method of testing cows at 
fairs, the Bureau has used its influence to bring about a re- 
form, and to impress the dairy community with the fact that 
a cow is to be valued for the amount of milk solids she pro- 
duces, rather than for the amount of water which may be 
drawn from her udder. Growing out of our suggestion, the 
Worcester South Agricultural Society offered premiums for 
the cow producing the greatest amount of butter fat on the 
grounds of the society during twenty-four hours. This is 
virtually equivalent to a prize for the cow producing the 
greatest amount of total solids, for, the fat being the varying 
element, the cow that produces the greatest amount of fat 
will necessarily produce the greatest amount of total solids. 
The awarding of this premium was left with the representa- 
tive of the Bureau, with the following results : — 



OWNER. 




ght of 




Cent of 
.t. 


S 

1 2 


6 J 
"S ^ 


' Fat in 
.ittcr. 










a- ^ 


5 




cPQ 


L. Crawford, New Brain- ^ 




lbs. 


oz. 






lb. 


oz. 


tree, seven-year-old thor- I 


^ evening. 


10 


14 


6.0 


10.4 






oughbred Jersey, giving j 
milk three weeks. ^ 


' morning, 


10 


12 


5.8 


10.0 








21 


10 




20.4 


1 


8 


L. W. Woodis, Brookfield,^ 
grade Ayrshire, calved ' 
August 1. J 


evening, 
'morning, 


16 
16 


8 
9 


3.6 
3.8 


9.5 
10.0 










33 


1 




19.5 


1 


7 


C. D. Richardson, West^ 
Brookfield, thoroughbred 
Jersey. ^ 


^ evening, 
' morning, 


10 

8 


14 


5.0 
5.0 


8.0 
7.0 






L. Crawford, New Brain-' 




18 


14 




15.0 


1 


H 


tree, eight-year-old grade 
Guernsey, in milk since 
May 1. , 


^ evenmg. 


9 


14 


4.6 


5.9 






' morning, 


9 


15 


4.8 


7.6 








19 


13 




13.5 


1 




Geo. W. Sherman, Brook- 


' evening, 


1 


13 


4.0 


1.2 






field. 


\ morning. 


2 


8 


5.4 


2.2 
















3.4 




4 



20 



Home Dairy Tests. 

The Bay State Society, working along this same line, but 
carrying the idea a step farther, has offered prizes for cows 
producing the greatest amount of butter fat, the tests to be \ 
made at the homes of the competitors, with cows surrounded 
by normal conditions, rather than with the excitement and 
confusion of exhibition grounds. The results of this work 
are as follows : — 



Herd of Herbert Merriam of Weston, 



cows. 


Weight 

of 
Milk. 


Per Cent 
of 
Fat. 


Weight 
of 
Fat. 


Total 
(Pounds). 


Yellow Lily, 


. Thursday, p.m., . 
Friday, a.m., . 
Friday, p.m., . 
Saturday, A.ai., . 


lbs. 
12 
12 
12 
11 


oz. 
6 
4 
2 


5.0 
5.6 
4!6 
5.4 

5.15 


lbs. 
.618 
.686 
.'558 
.594 


- 

2.456 












Polly of Lincoln, 


. Thursday, p.m., . 
Friday, a.m., . 
Friday, p.m., . 
Saturday, a.m., . 


17 
13 
15 
14 


6 
12 
11 


3.8 
4.2 
4.0 
4.4 

4.10 


.660 
.577 
.627 
.561 


2.425 












Polly of Nobility, 


. Thursday, p.m., . 
Friday, a.m., . 
Friday, p.m., . 
Saturday, a.m., . 


13 
10 
12 
11 


6 
1 
14 
1 


4.6 
5.2 
4.6 
5.8 

5.05 


.615 
.523 
.592 
.642 


2.373 
2 265 


Polly of Lincoln, 3d 


, Thursday, p.m., . 
Friday, a.m., . 
Friday, p.m., . 
Saturday, a.m., . 


11 
11 
11 
10 


12 
7 
8 
1 


5.0^ 
6.0 
4.6 
4.6 

5.05 


.587 
.686 
.529 
.463 


Polly of Concord, 


. Thursday, p.m., . 
Friday, a.m., . 
Friday, p.m., . 
Saturday, a.m., . 


9 
8 
10 
9 


11 

14 
2 
8 


4.8 
4.8 
4.8 
5.6 

5.00 


.465 
.426 
.486 
.532 


1.909 












Total for herd. 















Herd of N. B, Douglas of Sherborn. 



Daisy, 


. Thursday, p.m., . 


14 


10 


4.4 


.644 




Friday, a.m., . 


12 


11 


4.2 


.533 






Friday, p.m., . 


14 


1 


4.2 


.591 






Saturday, a.m., . 


12 


14 


4.4 


.567 










4.30 




2.335 



21 



Herd of N. B. Douglas of Sherborn — Concluded. 



cows. 


Weight 

of 
Milk. 


Per Cent 
of 
Fat. 


of 
Fat, 


Total 
(Pounds). 


Hilda, 


. Thursday, p.m., . 
Friday, a.m., 
Friday, p.m., . 
Saturday, a.m., . 


lbs. 
12 
12 
13 
11 


oz. 

14 
5 
2 

12 


4.4 
4.4 
4.4 
4.6 

4.45 


lbs. 
.567 
.542 
.578 
.541 


2.228 


Biscuit, 


. Thursday, p.m., . 
Friday, a.m., . 

1^^ ri rl 5^ V "P TVf 

Saturday, a.m., . 


10 
9 

10 
8 


6 
10 


5.0 
6.4 
5.4 
4.2 

5.25 


.500 
.600 
.540 
.362 


2.002 
_ 

1.933 
1.782 


Gretchen, . 


. Thursday, p.m., . 
Friday, a.m., . 
Friday, p.m., . 
Saturday, a.m., . 


11 
10 
11 

10 


12 
1 

2 


4.6 

iJ>KJ 

4.4 

4.0 

4.50 

5.2 
5.4 
5.4 
4.4 

5.10 


.541 
.503 
!489 
.400 


Pansy, 


. Thursday, p.ji., . 
Friday, a.m., . 
Friday, p.m., . 
Saturday, a.m., . 


8 

10 

8 
7 


8 

8 
12 


.442 
.540 
.459 
.341 


Total for herd. 












10.280 



Boston Milk Supply. 
The following is the number of cans of milk received and 
sold by the milk contractors of Boston, who supply at least 
three-fourths of the milk sold in the greater Boston." The 
cans contain 8^ quarts each. 





Received. 


Sold. 


Surplus. 


January, .... 


801,457 


621,049 


180,408 


February, .... 


. 730,937 


563,039 


167,898 


March, 


860,757 


631,527 


229,230 


April 


861,524 


656,943 


204,581 


May, 


934,871 


710,823 


224,048 


June, 


918,079 


704,364 


213,715 


July 


801,285 


721,618 


79,667 


Auo;iist, 


771,628 


701,149 


70,479 


September, .... 


758,131 


699,140 


58,991 


October, 


820,454 


679,128 


141,326 


November, .... 


782,071 


687,530 


94,.541 


December, , . . . 


815,306 


664,422 


150,884 


Total, .... 


9,856,500 


8,040,732 


1,815,768 


1894, 


9,705,447 


7,657,421 


2,048,026 


1893, 


9,263,487 


7,619,722 


1,643,765 


1892, 


9,212,667 


7,315,135 





22 



Continuous Milk Tests. 

Last year we reported investigations made by Mr. Clem- 
ence of the Bureau on the quality of the milk furnished by 
his herd. These investigations have been continued during 
the year, and we regard the result as very valuable. Mr. 
Clemence is a milk dealer retailing his own production, and 
has a herd of grade cows purchased from different sources 
as necessary to keep up his supply. While he is desirous of 
having cows which give as much milk as possible, he is also 
desirous that the milk shall be of reasonable quality. Nearly 
two years of monthly tests of mixed milk of his herd show 
that it is very uniform, varying less than three-tenths of one 
per cent, regardless of the season of the year or the kind of 
feed. This proves that, under such conditions as exist in 
Mr. Clemence's case, common cows will give milk up to the 
statute standard, and that there are no mysterious variations 
from a comparatively uniform quality. The percentage of 
fat has ranged between 4.2 and 4.4 per cent by the Babcock 
test. Several samples of milk, submitted to chemical analysis 
for the purpose of verifying the Babcock test, and showing 
indisputably what such milk ought to contain of total solids, 
have resulted in a range of from 13.52 to 13.84 per cent of 
solids. This verifies what the Bureau has frequently stated, 
that milk of 3.75 per cent of fat is, if normal, up to the 
standard, and it shows that there is no difficulty in producing 
standard milk. 

Miscellaneous. 

The Bureau has been represented at two dairy conferences 
of a national nature, and in one case its acting executive offi- 
cer was invited to prepare a paper. He has also done some 
work for the milk interests of the State, as secretary of the 
Milk Producers' Union. 

Financial Statement. 

The following is the financial statement of the expenses 
of the Bureau during the past year : — 



23 



Appropriation by Legislature of 1895, $7,000 00 

Members of the Bureau, travelling expenses and attend- 
ing meetings, $326 80 

George M. Whitaker, travelling and other expenses, 624 23 

Agents' salaries, 1,807 66 

Agents' expenses, 1,434 57 

Chemical work, 1,670 00 

Educational work, 150 66 

Legal advice, 105 00 

Printing, 79 30 

Supplies, 85 23 



Total, f6,283 45 

Unexpended balance, 716 55 



17,000 00 

Kespectfully submitted, 

GEO. M. WHITAKER, 

Acting Executive Officer. 

Approved and adopted as the report of the Dairy Bureau. 

C. L. HARTSHORN. 
GEO. L. CLEMENCE. 
DWIGHT A. HORTON. 

Boston, Jan. 15, 1896. 



HOUSE .... .... No. 225. 



SIXTH AJSTIsrUAL EEPORT 



DAIRY BUREAU 



MASSACHUSETTS BOAED OF AGEICULTUEE. 



REQUIRED 



Under Chapter 412, Acts of 1891 



jA]sruART 15, 1897. 



BOSTON : 

WRIGHT & POTTER PRINTING CO., STATE PRINTERS, 
18 Post Office Square. 
1897. 



HOUSE ..... Noc 226 



SIXTH ANNUAL EEPORT 

OF THE 

^Mass.: DAIRY BUREAU 

or THE 

Massachusetts boaed op Ageiculttjee, 

BEQUIRED 

Under Chapter 412, Acts of 1891. 




» » -< » 



J AXUARY 15^ . 1897.. ^ 




1 



STATE mm' "f ^^ASSACHOSEi fS 
MAR 15 1940 

STME mm&, ■M««N 




3 



Dairy Bukeau — 1896-97. 



D. A. HORTON, Northampton, Chairman. 
GEO. L. CLEMENCE, Southbridge. 
J. L. ELLSWORTH, Worcester. 



Executive Officer. 
W. R. SESSIONS, Secretary of the State Board of Agriculture. 



Assistant to the Secretary and Acting Executive Officer, appointed by the 

Governor. 

GEO. M WHITAKER, Boston^ 



4 



DAIRY BUREAU. 



[Jan, 



EEPOET OF THE DAIKY BUKEAU. 



To the Senate and House of Representatives of the Commonwealth of 

Massachusetts. ^ 

A change in the membership of the Bureau occurred early 
in the season by the retirement of Mr. C. A. Hartshorn, 
whose term as member of the Board of Agriculture expired 
in February. Mr. J. L. Ellsworth of Worcester, who suc- 
ceeded Mr. Hartshorn as delegate to the Board from the 
Worcester Society, was appointed by the governor as a 
member of the Bureau. Mr. D. A. Horton was elected 
chairman of the Bureau, to succeed Mr. Hartshorn. 

During the year the Bureau has had in its employ four 
agents. The duties of these agents are to ascertain how the 
dairy laws are obeyed, to obtain samples in case of suspected 
violations of law and to procure evidence for use in court 
when needed. The agents employed by the Bureau, and 
their terms of service, have been as follows : — 

George F. Baldwin, 12 months. 

Charles C. Scott, 9 months. 

Fred M. Coffin, 4i months. 

J. W. Stockwell, 4^ months. 

In addition, the Board has appointed as agents Dr. Charles 
Harrington, the Boston milk inspector, and his staff, to serve 
without compensation. This was done to quiet any legal 
quibbles as to the authority of the city inspector in certain 
contingencies, and to promote harmony and efficiency of 
action. 

The active executive work of the Bureau has continued 
under the immediate charge and direction of George M. 
Whitaker, whose duties correspond somewhat to those of a 



1897.] 



HOUSE — No. 225. 



5 



State Dairy Commissioner, but whose statutory title is 
vaguely defined as " Assistant to the secretary of the Board 
of Agriculture ... to assist in the work prescribed in the 
eleventh section of this act." 

The chemical work has been done by Dr. B. F. Daven- 
port and the Hatch Experiment Station. 

Oleomargarine . 
The work of the Bureau in enforcing laws relative to 
imitation butter has been statistically as follows : — 



Number of inspections, 1,94:9 

Samples taken, 495 

Cases in court, 76 

The result of the court cases was as follows : — 

Convictions, 50 

Acquittals, 19 

Nolle pros., 6 

Nolo contendere, 1 

Total, 76 

The complaints were made for the following causes : — 

Servino^ oleomargarine in hotels and restaurants without 

giving notice, 30 

Possession of imitation of yellow butter with intent to sell, 24 

Sale of oleomargarine when butter was called for, . . 11 

Lack of sign on vragon, 3 

Interference with agents of the Bureau, .... 3 

Selling imitation of yellow butter, 2 

Failure to mark wrapper properly, 1 

Failure to have local license, 1 ■ 

Lack of proper sign in store, ...... 1 

Total, 76 



These figures represent more convictions than last year, 
with fewer cases in court. If a person is disposed to violate 
the dairy laws, he usually breaks more than one, and we fre- 
quently find that in one transaction several statutes have been 
violated. For instance, one who sells oleomargarine when 
butter is called for will doubtless fail to have proper wrappers 



6 



DAIRY BUREAU. 



[Jan. 



and signs. Hence, the 76 cases noticed above probably rep- 
resent more than twice that number of transoressions. But 
courts do not like to entertain more than one complaint 
based on a single transaction, and on account of past experi- 
ences we have l)een more conservative this year about basing 
several complaints on one sale or the taking of one sample, 
Avith the result that w^e have had, as stated above, few^er 
cases in court, but more convictions than last year. Of the 
cases appealed, all but one were settled before coming to trial 
by a plea of guilty ; that one was lost on a technical ruling 
as to the meaning of the statute. This was a case for deliv- 
ering oleomargarine from a wagon on which there was no 
sign . 

Our work has been done outside of Boston, in which city 
Dr. Harrington continues his efficient work as the local nnlk 
inspector. His last published report shows 582 samples 
taken in Boston, and lOG cases in court, of which 71 were for 
serving oleomargarine in restaurants without notifying guests. 

Statistics of court cases, however, do not adequately rep- 
resent the result of work in enforcino^ laws. Police reo^ula- 
tions are more for preventing crime than for its detection. 
And the nearly 2,000 inspections made by the agents of the 
Bureau in the principal towns and cities of the Commonwealth 
(outside of Boston) have had a healthy deterrent effect. As a 
result of this work, and the efforts of Dr. Harrington in the 
city of Boston, the sales of oleomargarine have materially 
decreased. The number of revenue taxes paid in Massachu- 
setts has declined from 211 in 1891 to 28 in 1896. The re- 
ceipts of oleomargarine reported at the Boston Chamber of 
Commerce w^ere 13,552 packages in 1896, against 28,946 in 
1895. Only 19 persons or corporations pay a revenue tax in 
this State at the present time. But 1 corporation pays a tax to 
do business (^. e., to violate Massachusetts law) at 10 different 
locations, making the 28 noticed above. The action of this 
corporation speaks louder than words in proving the falsity 
of its own claim that oleomargarine is an article of great 
food value," "sold only on its distinctive merits." This 
concern not only uses on its stationery the word " butterine " 
instead of " oleomargarine " for obvious reasons, but it \)Ye- 
fers to sell an article colored in imitation of yellow butter. 



1897.] 



HOUSE — No. 225. 



7 



rather than one which has a color of its own. For some 
reason it also prefers to use, as a part of its corporate title, 
the name of one of the distinctive dairy States of the union, 
though its place of business is Rhode Island. 

In fact, all of the oleomargarine distributed in Massachu- 
setts comes from Rhode Island, which is behind the other 
States of New England in pure food legislation. This oleo- 
margarine is mostly sold by peddlers, and in a more or less 
deceptive way. We have found it under the seats of carry- 
alls, in wagons with showy " washing-compound" signs, and 
in unsuspicious handle baskets. In fact, the tactics of these 
dealers are much like the methods of those who sell intoxi- 
cating liquors illegally. Evidence of sales under such cir- 
cumstances is hard and often expensive to secure. The court 
cases which we have had lead us to the opinion that when the 
dealer knows — or thinks he knows — his customer, much 
of this oleomargarine is actually sold for butter. 

Considerable oleomargarine is sold on " orders," the legal 
sale " taking place in Rhode Island. We give below a copy 
of a letter sent by a Rhode Island concern to many of the 
grocers in Massachusetts. The letterhead announces that 
the concern deals in fine creamery butterine." 

We desire to inform yoii of the fact that all grocers in New 
England are now in a position to sell their customers butterine 
without a license, and that the demand for a fine quality of cream 
"butterine is steadily increasing, and we take special pains to inform 
3"0u how to sell this product and protect your trade against com- 
petitors who are now selling them, which will give your firm the 
profit we are certain you are entitled to. This effort we know will 
be appreciated by you, and we sincerely hope will develop a busi- 
ness that will pay us mutually to our satisfaction. 

We enclose you herewith a supply of order blanks, which we 
request you to give to your solicitors or drivers of your delivery 
wagons, who will inform your customers of the opportunity to 
supply them with the finest cream butterine, and the solicitors 
may fill out the orders, when a sale is made, giving the customer's 
name, price he sells goods for per pound, and address of cus- 
tomer, trying, if possible, to accumulate orders for fifty pounds or 
more before forwarding to us, which we can send by fi'eight or ex- 
press at a much lower rate than in smaller lots. 



8 



DAIRY BUEEAU. 



We have given your firm the number which is on the " order 
blanks," and it is not necessary to write your name on orders. 

The butterine is shipped to your customers in your care, and will 
be sent direct to you, and each package will be tagged to the cus- 
tomer it has been sold to ; also we will forward you the bills for 
collection, and charge these parties under your number, and will 
expect you to remit for these goods as soon as bills are collected. 

We will wrap each package with paper, so that you can deliver 
the same to customers without others being aware of its contents. 

Our cream butterine is put up in 10, 20, 30, 50 and 60 pounds 
solid-packed tubs, and 10 pound cases of 1 pound brick prints, 
also 37 pound tubs of 1 pound bricks, which is '* butter color," 
and we quote you the very low price of 12 cents per pound, 
F. O. B., Providence. 

We will ship either by freight or express, as you request ; and, 
as the profit on these goods is more than is made on butter, we 
know you will push it hard, and hope your commissions which we 
forward you each month will be quite large. Some of our " order 
agents" are making from $75 to $100 per month, and we do not 
doubt but that you will take care to see yours at that point ; also 
we will say that if you desire to put a man on this work specially 
in your city we think he will make you money, as he should get 
from 15 to 23 cents per pound, Avhich is a good profit over 12 
cents F. O. B., Providence. We now await results. 

In some instances the Commonwealth of Massachusetts is 
itself an evader of the law, if not an open violator of it. In 
the cliscQssion in the Legislature last winter the friends of 
oleomargarine admitted that the Commonwealth itself is the 
greatest violator of the law, inasmuch as its agents annually 
buy large quantities of the article for use in State institutions. 
It was claimed that bills on file at the oflSce of the State Audi- 
tor show that large quantities are used at the various State 
farms, almshouses, hospitals and other institutions. Some 
of the private charitable institutions also use this deceptive 
imitation, and in some instances even the veterans of the late 
war, who fought valiantly to preserve the Union, and who 
find themselves in straightened circumstances in old age, are 
given this same product. 

It may not be out of place briefly to re-state the arguments 
and facts on which these laws are based. The oleomargarine 
manufacturers and dealers keep up a constant agitation, 



1897.] 



HOUSE — No. 225. 



9 



through the press and in other ways, which is of an absolutely 
misleading and dishonest nature. They continually call 
attention to the food value and liealthfulness of oleomarga- 
rine, and quote what some "prominent medical man" says 
of its value. All this talk is deceptive. No one claims at 
this day that oleomargarine is unhealthful, though it is less 
digestible than butter. Its melting point is higher than the 
melting point of butter, and w^hen taken into the stomach a 
higher degree of animal heat must be secured before the oleo- 
margarine can be melted than is necessary to digest butter. 
This is an important fact in the case of persons of weak diges- 
tion. It is also a fact that, by reason of lacking the volatile 
oils which give butter its delicate taste, oleomargarine is less 
digestible than butter. The delicate and palatable flavors in 
food have a purpose in promoting the secretion of the saliv ary 
juices, and, so far as oleomargarine is lacking in these flavors, 
it is relatively less digestible than butter. 

But the agitation for restrictive laws and their justification 
rests on other grounds. No one denies that suet and lard are 
harmless food fats and that under ordinary circumstances, if 
people desire to use them, they should be given an opportu- 
nity to do so. But when these fats are mixed and colored to 
imitate yellow butter, whatever may be the scientific food 
value of the product, as an article of commerce it is not sold 
on its merits but on account of the skill of the imitation. 
There is no demand for oleomargarine of a white color. The 
whole history of the trade is a history fraught with misrepre- 
sentation. Oleomargarine never has been put on the market 
and advertised on its merits for its distinctive food value. It 
has always been pushed on account of its similarity to butter. 
It is packed in butter tubs, it is colored with butter color, 
and of late 3^ears the trade has adopted the name butterine," 
in preference to the older and more correct form, " oleomar- 
garine." These facts are so self-evident, and the deceit is 
so palpable that it is recognized even by the paragraphers 
who manufacture the jokes for the humorous papers ; and one 
of them represents a person asking his grocer how " l>u-t- 
t-e-r-i-n-e " is pronounced, and the answer is, With the last 
syllable silent." 

These laws are sometimes the subject of sneers, as " being 



10 



DAIRY BUREAU. 



[Jan. 



in the interests of the farmers," as if the agricultural element 
of the country was something hardly equal in importance 
with the rest of humanity. This is wrong, as we think that 
these laws are equally in the interests of consumers, honest 
merchants and the farmers. But, even placed on the latter 
basis, the magnitude of the dairy interests of the country 
is not generally appreciated, and is- worthy of consideration. 
The chief of the National Dairy Bureau, Maj.. H. E. Alvord, 
estimates that the annual value of the dairy product of the 
nation is 1450,000,000. We have heard a great deal during 
the last few months about the relative value of gold and sil- 
ver, but there has never been a year when the entire gold 
and silver product of the country was enough to buy the 
dairy products of this country the present year. These prod- 
ucts at market rates would pay off all the State and county 
debts in the nation, and leave a handsome balance. As a 
matter of broad statesmanship and sound political economy, 
is it not wise to regulate the sale of imitations of these arti- 
cles, and is it not equally proper that the degree of regula- 
tion should be proportioned to the degree of deceitfulness 
used in promoting their traffic? 

Filled Cheese. 
This is another imitation which has been of serious damage 
to the dairy interests of the country. The export demand 
for cheese from the United States has dwindled to almost 
nothing, while Canadian cheese has found an increasing sale 
every year in the foreign markets, where the words " Ameri- 
can cheese" bad come to be almost synonymous with deceit 
and cheating. 

The evil became so great that during the year Congress 
has taken the matter in hand, and passed laws regulating the 
sale of lard cheese. Hence the business is much curtailed. 
Previous to this national legislation Massachusetts had laws 
on the subject which have proved satisfactory, as there has 
not been so much temptation to sell adulterated cheese as to 
sell imitation butter. Although the Bureau has made much 
effort to ascertain if any filled cheese was sold in Massachu- 
setts, we have been unable to find any, and believe that the 
State is practically free from it. 



1897.] 



HOUSE — No. 225. 



11 



Milk. 

The Bureau has done more work in enforcing the milk 
laws during the past year than ever before, chiefly in re- 
sponse to requests from difi'erent localities, and in instances 
where the work could be done by an agent in connection 
with the work on oleomargarine cases, without additional 
expense. 

We have had three cases in court for selling milk below 
the legal standard, and in all convictions were secured. The 
probabilities are that in each case the milk was actually adul- 
terated. The analyses were in — 



Case No. 1, . 
Case No. 2, . 



Case No. 3, 



Per Cent, 

fat, 2.82 ; solids not fat, 8.80 

" 2.20; " " " 7.20 

« 2.22; " " " 8.38 

" 1.66: " " " 8.66 



Per Cent. Per Cent. 

total, 11.62 
" 9.40 
" 10.60 
" 10.32 



We have taken during the year 139 samples of milk, of 
which the above 3 were all that were so far below the stand- 
ard as to warrant bringing the case into court. 

An interesting study in the milk question is furnished by 
the analyses of samples from different localities. In October 
an inspector was sent by request to Methuen, and samples 
were taken from 9 milkmen, analyzing as follows : — 





Per Cent. 




No. 1, 


. 13.24 


No. 7, 


No. 2, 


. 14.46 


No. 8, 


No. 3, 


. 12.74 


No. 9, 


No. 4, 


. 13.10 


No. 10, 


No. 5, 


. 12.84 


No. 11, 


No. 6, 


. 13.92 





Per Cent. 
14.98 

12.40 
14.28 
12.44 
14.36 



At another time samples were taken from 6 milkmen in 
Greenfield, with the following results : — 



No. 1, 
No. 2, 
No. 3, 



12.00 
14.20 
13.64 
12.38 
13.86 



No. 4, 

No. 5, 
No. 6, 



14.40 
12.56 
13.20 
12.36 
13.24 



12 



DAIRY BUREAU. 



[Jan. 



It will be noticed that in this town the practice of mixing 
milk does not probably exist to the extent that it should, as 
different milkmen were found with milk averas-ino^ all rioht, 
but of wide variation in quality. 

Compare the above with the analyses of samples taken in 
Chelsea, as follows : — 



Per Cent. 

No. 1, . . . . 12.50 
No. 2, . . . . 13.06 
No. 3, . . . . 12.42 
No. 4, .... 12.46 



Percent. 

No. 5, . . . . 12.12 
No. 6, . . . . 12.50 
No. 7, . . . . 12.46 



The above samples from Chelsea were taken on the request 
of local parties, who suspected some milkmen of adulterating 
whole milk with skim-milk. The result of the analyses 
would indicate that something of this kind had been done, 
and yet the milk was not poor enough to run the risk of 
defeat in court. 

It should be remembered that no complaint is made against 
a person for selling milk below the standard unless the milk 
varies enough from the statutory standard to make convic- 
tion seem reasonably sure. Many people who argue against 
the milk standard think that the statute draws an arbitrary 
line, and that anything which falls below that line, be the 
ditference ever so small, may be the basis of a legal prose- 
cution and cause the seller or producer to be branded as a 
criminal. Nothing of this kind exists, in actual practice. 
The milk must be enough below the standard to satisfy the 
court, beyond any reasonable doubt, that it is not of aver- 
age quality, in spite of the efforts of shrewd lawyers on the 
defence to cast suspicion on methods of sampling or accu- 
racy of the analysis. 

This allowing a certain latitude is not favoritism, or laxity 
in enforcing the laws, — but it is due to well-established 
principles of court procedure which have the sanction of the 
highest legal lights in the Commonwealth, and which would 
soon cause trouble if they were violated. 

The Legislature of last winter improved the milk laws by 
specifj^ing the amount of fat and of solids not fat which 
standard milk should contain. This put a stop to the exces- 
sive use of skim-milk as an adulterant. 

The law was also amended, reducing the standard during 



1897.] 



HOUSE — Xo. 225. 



13 



three additional months in the year. This we fear was a 
mistake, and we hope no farther reductions will be made. 
We think that the interests of both consumer and producer 
are promoted by the 13 per cent standard. 

Condensed Milk and Cream. 
The sale of condensed milk is increasing, as it is sold in 
convenient form for many to use. The use of cream is also 
increasing rapidly, Not only is it delivered by milkmen, 
but it is becoming a staple article of merchandise in many 
stores. This condensed milk and cream can be brought from 
greater distances than the ordinary sale milk, and is proving 
in some cases a formidable competitor to the milk business. 
The quality of condensed milk and cream varies to a remark- 
able degree, and a statute standard ma}^ soon be necessary, 
for the protection of both consumer and producer. A brand 
of ' ' evaporated cream " was found by an agent of the Bureau 
with only 3.75 per cent of fat. Condensed skim-milk would 
be a more honest name. 

Other Questionable Practices. 
Several new forms of milk preservatives have been ad- 
vertised quite extensively during the past year, and great 
efforts made to induce milk dealers and farmers to buy them. 
One claim made for one of these preservatives was that 
after having been added to the milk it would evaporate so 
that no chemist could detect it, and still retain enough of 
its qualities to preserve the milk. Several samples of milk 
treated with this preservative were sent to our chemist with- 
out any notification of the fact of a preservative having 
been used, but in every instance he discovered it, and so 
reported. 

Several new processes of renovating old butter have been 
perfected during the past few year.-^, and we find upon the 
market considerable of what is known as process butter." 
Samples of this have been taken for analysis a number of 
times, and in every instance we have found that it was un- 
questionably the product of the cow's udder ; but such butter 
should be sold for what it is, and not palmed oS upon 
customers as fresh creamery. The same remark would apply 
to many of the ladle packed goods. 



DAIEY BUREAU. 



[Jan. 



Boston Milk. 
The executiv^e officer of the Bureau has given some time 
and attention during the year to the interests of the Milk 
Producers' Union, believing that such a course was in 
accordance with the statute which says that the Dairy 
Bureau is established " to promote the improvement of the 
products of the dairy," *'to investigate all dairy products 
and imitation dairy products bought or sold within the Com- 
monwealth," and '*to disseminate such information as shall 
be of service in producing a more uniform dairy product, of 
higher grade and better quality." The milk receipts in the 
city of Boston have been phenomenally large during the past 
year, having increased about one million of the eight and 
one-half quart cans over the previous year, while the sales 
have not shown any great increase. The result has been an 
unusually large surplus, which has made the production of 
milk less satisfactory than in previous years. The statistics 
of the Boston milk business are as follows (the figures refer 
to eight and one-half quart cans) : — 





Receipts. 


Sales. 


Surplus. 


1895 


9,856,500 


8,040,732 


1,815,768 


1894, 


9,705,447 


7,657,421 


2,()48,n26 


1893, 


9,268,487 


7,619,722 


1,643,765 


1892 


9,212,667 


7,315,135 





Months. 



Receipts. 


Sales. 


Surplus. 


844,709 


651,827 


192,882 


808,383 


611,793 


196,590 


871,572 


657,038 


214,534 


891,275 


672,561 


218,714 


1,005,115 


696,599 


308,516 


994,817 


675,796 


319,021 


899,397 


712,188 


187,209 


854,913 


687,224 


167,689 


866,691 


635,092 


231,599 


960,734 


699,245 


261,489 


885,903 


690,920 


194,983 


898,599 


707,095 


191,504 


10,772,108 


8,087,378 


2,684,730 



January, 
February 
March, 
April, 
May, 
June, 
July, 
August, 
September 
October, 
November 
December, 

Totals, 



1896. 



1897.] 



HOUSE — No. 225. 



15 



Dairy Exhibitions. 

The country meeting of the State Board of Agriculture 
gave more than ordinary prominence to dairy matters, and 
in connection with the exhibition there was a State butter 
show, under the management of the Bureau. The exhibition 
was of excellent quality, and brought many high compliments 
from the expert judges — Messrs. E. A. Hovey and Orrin 
Douglas of Boston. It showed conclusively that, though 
Massachusetts may not be a distinctively agricultural State, 
so far as quantity of farm products is concerned, she can hold 
her own with the best in quality. The highest score was 
on a par with the highest scores at the State dairy exhibitions 
in Vermont and New Hampshire, and was three points more 
than the highest score in Maine. In connection with the 
meeting an explanation of the enforcement of the law relative 
to the milk standard was given, and a number of samples of 
milk were tested. 

The following is the official score of the butter at this 
exhibition : — 

Private Dairies. 





I lav or. 


Texture 


Color. 


Salt. 


style. 


Total. 


L. F. & W. H. Gray, Ashfield, 














first premium, 


43 


25 


14.75 


10 


5 


97.75 


H. C. Haskell, East Deerfield, 














second premium, 


39 


25 


15 


10 


5 


94 


F. W. Trow, Buckland.* 


39 


25 


15 


10 


5 


94 


J. M. Harris, East Northfield, 














third premium, . 


39 


25 


14.75 


10 


5 


93.75 


Henry Lively, Hawley, . 


40 


25 


14 


10 


4.5 


93.50 


C. A. Wiley, Buckland, . 


40 


24.5 


14 


10 


5 


93.50 


H, W. Blair, North Blandford, 


38 


25 


15 


10 


5 


93 


J. G. Pickett, Greenfield, 


38 


25 


14.75 


10 


5 


92.75 


Mrs. S. C. Severance, Leyden, 


38 


25 


14 


10 


5 


92 


AV. H. Laws, Fitchburg, 
C. A. Wiley, Buckland, . 


37 


25 


15 


10 


5 


92 


37 


25 


14.50 


10 


5 


91.50 


D. H. Clark, Easthampton, . 


36 


25 


14.75 


10 


5 


90.75 


C. B. Lyman, Southampton, . 


36 


25 


14.50 


10 


5 


90.50 


Winslow S. Lincoln, Worces- 














ter, 


37 


23.5 


14.75 


10 


5 


90.25 


J. B. & H. H. Warriner, Haw- 














^ ley 


35 


25 


14.50 


10 


4.75 


89.25 


J. L. Brewer, Pelham, . 


33 


25 


15 


10 


5 


88 


Mrs. C. W. Hillman, Colrain, 


32 


25 


15 


10 


5 


87 


H. H. Leach 


35 


22 


14 


10 


5 


86 


Francis Howland, Conway, . 


30 


25 


15 


10 


5 


85 


C. A. Merriam, New Salem, . 


30 


25 


15 


10 


4 


84 



* This was received after the others had been scored and the premiums announced. 



16 DAIRY BUREAU. [Jan. 



Creameries. 





Flavor. 


Texture. 


Color. 


Salt. 




Total 


1. 


Hillside, Windsor, Vt., 


42.50 


25 


15 


10 


5 


9 7.. 50 


2. 


1 1 1 o\.i(Ll IXloU k/ JL 1111 L4 111 ) 


42.50 


25 


14.75 


10 


5 


97.25 


3. 


Hillside prints. 


41 


25 


15 


10 


5 


96 


4. 


Shplhiirnp T^'^^l]<! ssppond 
















premium, 


40.50 


25 


15 


10 


5 


95.50 


5. 


New Salem, third pre- 
















mium, .... 


40.25 


25 


15 


10 


5 


95.25 


6. 


Chester, .... 


40 


25 


15 


10 


5 


95 


7. 


Montague, 


40 'SO 


9*^ 
ii'j 


14.50 


10 


5 


95 


8. 


Conway, 


40 


24 


15 


10 


5 


94 


9. 


Northfield, 


39 


25 


15 


10 


5 


94 


10. 


Heath 


38 


25 


14.50 


10 


5 


92.50 


11. 


Amherst, 


38 


25 


14.25 


10 


5 


92.25 


12. 


Coldspring, . . . 


37 


25 


15 


10 


5 


92 


13. 


Charlemont, . 


34 


25 


15 


10 


5 


89 


14. 


Ipswieh 


32 


25 


14 


10 


4 


85 


15. 


Ashfield,* 















* Received too late for scoring. 



Fair Tests. 

The executive officer of the Bureau has been called upon 
twice to take charge of the dairy premiums at agricultural 
fairs, where the prize was offered for the greatest amount of 
butter fat produced on the fair grounds during the exhibition. 
This form of test is very practical, and is growing in popu- 
larity. Th6 value of a butter cow consists in what she will 
produce, and there is no better way of ascertaining this than 
by an actual test of the milk. This method of testing cows 
for the premiums of the agricultural societies is a marked 
step in advance of the old-time way. At one of the fairs, 
the Berkshire, the entries were not enough to call for any 
test being made. At the fair of the Worcester South Society 
tests were made of the product of the competing animals 
for one day, with the following result, the two rows of iig- 
ures being the weight and test of the evening and morning 
milking : — 



1897.] 



HOUSE — ^s^. 225. 



17 



OWNER. 


Weight 

of 
Milk. 


Per 

Cent of 


Weight 
of 
Fat. 


Total 
(Pounds). 


Lnther Crawford, New Bruintree, grade ^ 
Guernsey. } 


Pounds. 

13.75 
16.16 


4.6 
4.2 


Pounds. 

.63 
.68 


1 '^1 




29.91 






C. Underwood, Kast Brookfield, Guern- ^ 
sey Belle. ( 


14.62 
10.40 


5.4 
4.6 


.79 
.48 


1 97 




25.02 






Liitlier Crawford, New Braintree, ^ 
thoroughbred Jersey. ( 


11.12 
10.06 


6.8 
5.0 


.76 
.50 






21.18 






0. W. Wilson, Spencer, . . . . | 


14.81 
18.50 


3.8 
3.2 


.56 
.59 


1 1 ^ 




33.31 






Luther Crawford, New Braintree, grade ^ 
Jersey. } 


12.37 
14.75 


4.4 
4.0 


.54 
.59 


1.13 




27.12 






Melvin Shei:)ard, Sturbridge, . . . ^ 


13.68 
11.70 


4.2 
4.8 


.57 
.56 


1 1 ^ 




25.38 






L. W. Woodis, North Brookfield, No. 9, j 


15.62 

isioo 


3.4 

3!2 


.53 
.58 


1.11 




33.62 






Henry F. Freeman, Warren, . . . j 


15.37 
16.40 


3.6 
3.2 


.55 
.53 


1 OK 


- 


31.77 






C. D. Richardson, West Brookfield, . ^ 


6.25 
10^75 


4.6 

5^4 


.29 

!58 


.87 




17.00 






C L Tlnderwood Vf\%t Brookfipld C 
Bessie, 3d. } 


8.06 
7!87 


6.0 

4!4 


.48 

!35 


.83 




15.93 






L. W. Woodis, North Brookfield, No. 8, | 


5.75 
10.62 


3.8 
3.2 


.22 
.34 


.56 




16.37 







18 



DAIRY BUREAU. 



[Jan. 



Much of an improvement as is this method of getting at 
the merits of animals, it is open to the objection that animals 
which have been taken from their stalls, driven to the fair 
grounds and subjected to unnatural conditions and surround- 
ings, may not do their best. If the production of milk is, 
as is believed by the best experts to-day, closely allied with 
the nervous temperament and system, then anything which 
disturbs that will have a deleterious effect upon the quality 
of milk. Consequently, the ideal way of testing milch cows 
is at the barn of the owner, where the cows are under 
perfectly normal and usual conditions. This test, while sat- 
isfactory to the student of dairy problems, has nothing spec- 
tacular which would draw a crowd to a cattle show, and 
hence, if generally undertaken by agricultural societies, must 
be for purely educational purposes, rather than from an}' 
motive of securing a popular ' ' attraction." One such test has 
been made during the past year by the officer of the Bureau, 
for the Bay State Agricultural Society. The herd tested was 
that of Mr. Atherton Brown of Brookline. The test occu- 
pied two days and each of the four rows of figures represents 
one milkino;. The animals are ref^istered Jersevs. 



NAME OF COW. 


rounds 
of 
Milk. 


Test. 


Potinds 
of 
Fat. 


Total 
(Pounds). 






f 

1 

• -i 


15.56 
17.44 
16.06 
18.31 


5.2 
5.2 
5.0 
5.4 


.809 
.906 
.803 
.988 


3.506 








67.37 


5.2 




rieuriste, 




r 

• ••! 

I 


14.56 
16.19 
13.44 
16.19 


5.6 
5.6 
5.8 
6.0 


.815 
.906 
.779 
.971 


3.471 








60.38 


5.75 




Young Clementine, 


r 
[ 


14.50 
17.00 
12.50 
15.38 


4.6 
5.4 
5.4 
5.4 


.667 
.918 
.675 
,830 


3.090 








59.38 


5.2 





1897.] 



HOUSE — No. 225. 



19 



NAME OF COW. 


rounds 
of 
Milk. 




rounds 
of 
Fat. 


Total 
(rounds). 


Miramas, Hebe, 


r 
[ 


15.38 
14.94 
1-2.63 
15.60 


4.6 
5.3 
5.4 
5.4 


.705 

.776 
.682 
.837 


3.000 






58.45 


5.15 






( 
[ 


12.19 
12.44 
11.38 
13.31 


6.0 
6.0 
6.0 
6.0 


.731 
.746 
.688 
.798 


- 

2.963 






49.32 


6.0 




Total for herd, 










16.030 



Dairy Meetings. 

The educational work done by the Bureau during the past 
year has been chiefly at such meetings as the acting executive 
officer could personally attend, thus carrying on this portion 
of our work at a minimum of draft upon our appropriation.. 
Thirty-six dairy meetings have been held under the auspices 
of the Bureau, of which he has addressed thirty-two. Other 
speakers who have been employed for one or more meetings 
are Mr. George L. Clemence and Mr. J. L. Ellsworth of 
the Bureau, Dr. S. W. Abbott, secretary of the Board of 
Health, Dr. J. B. Lindsay of the Hatch Experiment Station, 
and Mr. Charles A. Dennen of the Cattle Commission. The 
comprehensive language of the statute quoted above enables 
dairy meetings to be held in connection with farmers' clubs, 
granges, and at other places which could not be reached by 
the regular institutes of the incorporated societies. Most of 
these meetings during the past year were conducted with 
charts, blackboards, milk tester, maps and other object- 
lesson paraphernalia, and, so far as could be ascertained, the 
meetings were well received. 

In connection with these meetings and with the general 
work of the Bureau I have tested several hundred samples 
of milk with the Babcock tester. I have been also called to 



20 



DAIRY BUREAU. 



[Jan. 



represent the dairy interests of the State at the meeting of 
the Connecticut Dairymen's Association at Hartford, the New 
Hampshire Board of Agriculture at the Weirs, and the 
National Dairy Union at Chicago. I also responded to an 
invitation to address a committee of the Rhode Island Legis- 
lature on oleomargarine legislation, the laws of Massachusetts 
and their enforcement. 

During the past year a compilation of the laws of the State, 
with the court decisions thereon, has been prepared and 
published. 

Suggestions. 

We continue of the opinion that the cause of honest and 
wholesome dairy products would be enhanced by what seems 
to us would be a better division of labor between this depart- 
ment and the Board of Health. It seems to us that the 
Board of Health ought not to be hampered by restrictive 
legislation compelling it to expend a prescribed proportion 
of its appropriation in the prosecution of commercial frauds, 
particularly in view of the fact that the healtlifulness of the 
State's milk supply is being considered more than ever 
before, that the great advances recently made in bacteriology 
have given definite data to start with, and that there seems 
a call from all parts of the State, noticeable at meetings of 
medical associations, for an increased amount of work from 
the health stand-point. If the labor could be divided so that 
the Board of Health were free to do increased work along 
the line which its name naturally suggests, whUe the detec- 
tion of commercial frauds was in the hands of this Bureau, 
we believe that great good would result. 

Our experience this year has brought to our attention the 
fact that the size of the fines in oleomargarine cases places 
them beyond the jurisdiction of trial justices. By a special 
act their authority has been extended to include milk cases, 
and we suggest that this statute be broadened so as to in- 
clude all dairy products and imitations thereof. 

Finances. 

The following is the manner in which the appropriation 
of $7,000 has been expended during the past year : — 



1897.1 



HOUSE — No. 225. 



21 



Appropriation by Legislature of 1896, |7,000 00 

Members of the Bureau, travelling ex- 
penses and attending meetings, . . $397 35 
George M. Whitaker, travelling and 
office expenses, supplies, etc., . . 834 65 

Agents' salaries, 1,937 62 

Agents' expenses, 2,095 32 

Chemists, 1,299 00 

Educational work, 285 27 

Printing, . ..... 149 54 



$6,998 75 

Unexpended, . . 1 25 

!|7,000 00 

Eespectfully submitted, 

GEORGE M. WHITAKER, 

Acting Executive Officer. 

Approved and adopted as the report of the Dairy Bureau. 

D. A. HORTON, 
GEO. L. CLEMENCE, 
J. L. ELLSWORTH. 

Boston, Jan. 15, 1897. 



4 



V- 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT . . .' : .... No. 60. 



SEVENTH ANNUAL REPORT 

OF THE 

DAIRY BUREAU 

Off THE 

Massachusetts Boaed of agricultuee, 

REQUIRED 

Under Chapter 412, Acts of 1891. 



January 15, 1898. 



BOSTON : 

WRIGHT & POTTER PRINTING CO., STATE PRINTERS, 
18 Post Office Square. 
1898. 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT 



No. 60. 



SEYENTH ANI^UAL REPORT 



OF THE 

"dairy bureau 



OF THE 

Massachusetts Boaed of Agricultuee, 



REQUIRED 



Under Chapter 412, Acts of 1891. 



January 15, 1898. 



BOSTON : 

WRIGHT & POTTER PRINTING CO., STATE PRINTERS, 
18 Post Office Square. 
1898. 



3 



Dairy Bureau — 1897-98. 



D. A. HORTON, Northampton, Chairman. 
GEO. L. CLEMENCE, Southbridge. 
J. L. ELLSWORTH, Worcester. 



Executive Officer. 
W. R. SESSIONS, Secretary of the State Board oj Agriculture, 



Assistant to the Secretary and Acting Executive Officer^ appointed by the 

Governor. 

GEO. M. WHITAKER, Boston. 



REPORT. 



The membership of the Dairy Bureau has continued 
through the year the same as at the time of our last report, 
Mr. J. L. Ellsworth of Worcester having been reappointed. 
The active executive work has continued under the charge 
of George M. Whitaker, who has been reappointed for an- 
other biennial term. The statute title of this position is very 
misleading. The Bureau has had in its employment during 
the year three agents, the same ones previously reported, 
Messrs. J. W. Stockwell, George F. Baldwin and Charles 
C. Scott. Dr. Charles Harrington, the Boston milk in- 
spector, and his staff are also agents of the Bureau, serving 
without compensation from the State, in order to promote 
harmony and efficiency of action. The chemical work has 
been done by Dr. B. F. Davenport. 



The work of the Bureau in enforcing the laws relative to 
imitation butter has been statistically as follows : — 



Number of inspections, 
Samples taken, 
Cases in court, . 



Oleomargarine . 



1,986 
26 



Of these, in only two instances were the defendants ac- 
quitted. 

Complaints were made for the following causes : — 

Selling or having in possession with intent to sell an imitation 
of yellow butter, . 16 

Serving oleomargarine in hotels and restaurants without giving 
notice, 5 

Obstructing officers, 

The court cases are fewer than last year, but do not repre- 
sent any diminution in the work. The number of arrests is 



6 



DAIRY BUREAU. 



[Jan. 



not a gauge of the effieiency of a police force. The open 
selling of deceptive imitation butter has been suppressed, 
but as the illegal traffic in this imitation product is crowded 
into more limited quarters, the amount of detective work 
necessary to secure evidence of a violated law is largely 
increased. We have this year convicted some persistent 
violators of the law, in some cases driving them out of the 
Commonwealth. To bring this about necessitated in some 
cases weeks of careful work. One case in particular was of 
more than ordinary interest, and illustrates the difficulties 
attending the work and the chances that the greed of gain 
will lead unscrupulous persons to take. 

Complaint came to us early in the year from a town in 
Middlesex County that a peddler had been through the town 
selling what purported to be Vermont creamery butter at a 
low price. Samples were secured, analyses made, and the 
article was found to be oleomargarine, which had been sold 
as butter from tubs labelled creamery butter, the United States 
revenue stamps and brands having been removed. We had 
no knowledge of the name of the party, his residence or his 
routes, and a number of months' work was necessary in order 
to supply this information. We found he had several teams 
and men, and was doing a large business. Then it was 
necessary to locate him somewhere, and get legal evidence 
of violation of law from samples whose identity could be 
positively traced. Then came warrants for his arrest, and, 
having obtained these, it was again necessary to find where 
he was to be at some particular time, and to have officers 
there to serve the papers upon him. We had learned that he 
was an athletic fellow, given to boasting of his strength, and 
as a matter of precaution six officers were detailed to sur- 
round the house in which he lived, and arrest him. He gave 
two of the officers a rough-and-tumble chase, but they se- 
cured him. Taken into court, he was found guilty, and paid 
two hundred dollars, other cases being held against him for 
good behavior. It was not long, however, before he was 
heard of at his old tricks, and after a number of weeks' work 
was located and re-arrested. This time he gave two officers 
a lone: chase, and was not taken until shots had been fired. 
Detained in the lockup at South Framingham, he managed to 



1898.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 60. 7 



break out, when he was met by a pal, and the pair rode 
hastily with one change of horses to Rhode Island, not, how- 
ever, until the lockup keeper had implanted a bullet in his 
thigh. 

This illustrates some of the difficulties in securing a big 
statute record. Itinerant peddlers retailing about the State 
without any particular route, never more than a half day in 
a place, are hard to get evidence against, and, having secured 
it, and a warrant, they are hard to re-locate and arrest. An 
agent working on such a case cannot take many samples or 
inspect many places of business. 

Another reason for the diminution in the number of cases 
in court is an increased conservatism on our part in multi- 
plying cases, as we find much hesitancy among judges of the 
district courts to entertain more than one complaint based on 
one transaction. The first case that we had this year was 
where (1) a man had sold an imitation of yellow butter; (2) 
had sold it as butter; (3) had sold it without the proper 
marks on the tub; (4) had sold it labelled ''creamery;" 
and (5) sold it without the distinctive marks and signs 
required on the wagon, — a violation of five laws of the 
State, but only one complaint was made. In nearly every 
case that we have had this year three or four laws have been 
violated. 

During the past year we have changed our policy relative 
to the statute under which we have brought cases. Hereto- 
fore, recognizing that the sale of oleomargarine as butter 
and when butter was called for was an unquestioned moral 
offence, as well as a statutory one, we preferred to bring 
cases under that law (section 2, chapter 280, Acts of 1894) 
when possible, feeling that we might appeal more strongly to 
the court than in a case for selling (or having in possession 
with intent to sell) an imitation of j^ellow butter. But ex- 
perience showed us that as a practical matter we were in 
error. In the former class of cases we had more to prove. 
It was not only necessary to show that there had been a sale 
of an imitation of yellow butter, but it was necessary to prove 
beyond a reasonable doubt that it was sold in response to a 
call for pure butter. Not infrequently the defendant would 
attempt to save himself a fine either by contradicting our 



8 



DAIRY BUREAU. 



[Jan. 



agents outright in denying that butter was called for, or else 
by claiming that he did not understand, and supposed butter- 
ine was called for. In such cases the judge frequently was 
not convinced beyond a reasonable doubt that the offence 
charged had been proved. This year we have brought no 
cases under that statute, although in nine instances the oleo 
was sold as and for butter ; but the complaint made charged 
that the defendant did sell, expose for sale, or have in his 
possession with intent to sell — 

a certain quantity, to wit, one pound of a certain product commonly 
called oleomargarine, made partly out of an oleaginous substance 
not produced from unadulterated milk or cream from the same, and 
that said product was then and there in imitation of yellow butter 
produced from pure unadulterated milk or cream of the same. 

The evidence in this case is more easily secured, and less 
easily contradicted. As a result, we have not lost one of 
these cases. Of the two cases lost, one was for obstructing 
an officer, in which case our evidence was weak. The other 
was where oleomargarine had been served for butter in a cafe 
connected with a hotel. On the trial of the case the propri- 
etor of the hotel swore that he had leased the cafe, and was not 
responsible for its management. Although having no con- 
nection with this case, we were much interested in learning, 
a few weeks after, that the landlord's license to sell intox- 
icating liquors had been taken from him for violating the 
provisions of the liquor law. 

The great source of our trouble continues to be the State 
of Rhode Island, which is behind the other New England 
States in pure-food legislation. The whole system of ped- 
dlers and of selling on orders has its headquarters in Rhode 
Island. In one case the court decided that selling on orders 
is an evasion of the law, and the party was convicted. The 
defence in this case introduced the following : — 

Dear Sir: — You are hereby requested to act as my agent in 
getting and delivering to me the following merchandise : — 

Number 
Date 

Signature 

Number of tub Vermont. 



1898.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 60. 



9 



The defence, having submitted this form of order, argued 
that the purchaser on signing this really made the defendant 
his agent ; and that the defendant, as agent for the consumer, 
purchased these goods in Ehode Island. The judge held that 
the circumstances in the case convinced him that the order 
was a subterfuge, and an attempt to evade the law ; conse- 
quently he held the defendant, who appealed, but withdrew 
his appeal and pleaded guilty in the superior court. 

Doubtless in some instances oleomargarine is honestly de- 
sired. Unquestionably there are persons who from various 
motives prefer to use a mixture of lard and tallow in place 
of butter ; but when it is sold in imitation of yellow butter, 
with a misleading name, or by companies with deceptive 
titles, there is a suspicion that consumers hardly realize what 
they are buying, and are more or less imposed upon by the 
deceptive nature of the brand or of the company doing busi- 
ness. In one instance we found that a peddler had been selling 
the goods marked " Oakdale Standard " as butter to ignorant 
families who did not know that this expression was the trade- 
mark of one of the large oleomargarine dealers. It is pos- 
sibly true that now and then a person who honestly wants to 
purchase oleomargarine for legitimate use has been troubled 
to get it ; but where any annoyance has been occasioned in 
the honest sale of a pound, we believe that the dishonest sale 
of ten pounds has been prevented. It should be remembered 
that it is perfectly legal to sell oleomargarine in this State, 
in a separate and distinct form, and in such a manner as will 
advise the consumer of its real character. But oleomargarine 
in that shape is a drug on the market. Its value as a com- 
mercial product comes not from the food value which the 
scientific men may find in it, but from the perfection of the 
imitation of butter. There is a theoretical oleomargarine of 
the chemists' laboratory, which has a food value ; there is the 
oleomargarine of commerce, which as an imitation of butter 
is a constant temptation to swindling, and the temptation is 
seldom resisted. The supreme court of the United States 
says of the Massachusetts anti-color law : — 

The suggestion that oleomargarine is artificially colored so as to 
render it more valuable and attractive can only mean that pur- 
chasers are deluded by such coloration into believing that they are 



10 



DAIRY BUREAU. 



[Jan. 



getting genuine butter. . . . The statute seeks to suppress false 
pretenses, and to promote fair dealing in the sale of an article of 
food. . . . Does the freedom of commerce among the States 
demand a recognition of the right to practise a deception upon the 
public in the sale of any articles, even those that may have become 
the subjects of trade in different parts of the country? ... If an 
article compounded of cheaper ingredients can be made so closely 
to resemble butter that ordinary persons cannot distinguish it from 
genuine butter, the liability to deception is such that the protection 
of the public requires those dealing in the article in some way to 
designate its real character. ... It is within the power of a 
State to exclude from its markets any compound manufactured in 
another State which has been artificially colored or adulterated so 
as to cause it to look like an article of food in general use, and the 
sale of which may, by reason] of such coloration or adulteration, 
cheat the general public into purchasing that which they may not 
intend to buy. The constitution of the United States does not 
secure to any one the privilege of defrauding the public. The 
deception against which the statute of Massachusetts is aimed is 
an offence against society. 

The following is a summary of the receipts, exports, 
stocks and consumption of butter at Boston for the past 
year, as compared with the year previous : — 





1897. 


1896. 




Pounds. 


Pounds. 


On hand January 1, 


2,898,000 


1,659,434 


Receipts for the year, 


51,107,033 


50,972,255 


Total supply, 


54,005,033 


52,631,689 


Exports, deduct 


3,286,333 


3,156,741 


Net supply, 


50,718,700 


49,474,948 


Stock, deduct 


2,620,680 


2,898,080 


Consumption, 


48,098,020 


46,576,868 



The above statement shows that the consumption of butter 
supplied by the Boston market increased about three per 
cent last year, as compared with the year previous, and 
averaged about 925,000 pounds per week. If, by having 



1898.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 60. 11 



no laws regulating the sale of imitation butter, oleomar- 
garine had been sold as butter, deceptively, to an amount 
equalling one per cent of the above consumption, the 
amount would be 480,980 pounds. We think that this 
assumption is a moderate one, from what we know of the 
history of the oleomargarine business, both before and after 
the passage of the laws, and the tendency to sell the mixture 
dishonestly. The average wholesale price of fresh-made 
extra creamery butter has been, during each month for the 
year, compared with two preceding years : — 





1897. 

Cents. 


1896. 

Cents. 


1895. 

Cents. 




20- 


-22 


22- 


-26 


24- 


■26 


February, 


20- 


-22 


21- 


-24 


22- 


-25 




19 


23 


22- 


-24 


20- 


23 




m- 


-22 


16- 


-22 


19- 


-21 






-18 


lb- 


-17 


17- 


-19 




15- 


-16 


lb 


-16i 


18- 


-20 


J^iy, 


Ibh- 


-m 


15- 


-16^ 


18 


-19 




Ibh- 


-19 


15- 


-m 


20 


-21 




18 


-22 


Ibh- 


-17i 


20- 


-22 




21- 


-22i 


16- 


-20 


21 


23 




21- 


-22 


18- 


-21 


22- 


-23 




21 


-23 


20- 


-23 


23- 


-28 



If an amount of oleomargarine equal to one per cent of 
the sales of butter had been sold dishonestly, this amount at 
20 cents per pound would equal $96,196 to the credit of the 
law and its enforcement, leaving out of the account the but- 
ter supplied from other commercial centres in the State, like 
Worcester and Springfield. This is considering only the 
commercial side of the case, and not recognizing the fraud 
on the consumer. This fact in itself ought to be a vindica- 
tion of the law and a proof of its economy. 



12 



DAIRY BUREAU. 



[Jan. 



Many States have patterned after Massachusetts in dairy 
legislation. Although Massachusetts is not emphatically a 
dairy State, it has set the pace for the whole country in dairy 
laws. This is in a measure due to the fact that the first color 
case to reach the United States supreme court came from 
Massachusetts, and was handled with such consummate 
ability by Hon. A. E. Pillsbury as to secure a vindication of 
the law in a decision from which we have quoted above. 
Since then many other States have followed our example, 
and adopted laws almost word for word like those of this 
State. Probably there is no other matter in which there is 
so much uniformity in legislation. Some States, however, 
in enacting this law have provided additional safeguards 
against the improper sale of a deceitful imitation product, 
some of which are as follows : — 

California declares that any article made in semblance of 
butter, and designed to be used as a substitute for butter, is 
an imitation of butter. The use of imitation butter in pub- 
lic or private hospitals, asylums, eleemosynary or penal 
institutions is prohibited. No common carrier shall receive 
imitation dairy products for the purpose of forwarding or 
transporting the same, unless they are properly branded and 
receipted for under their true name. The use of the word 
**butterine" is prohibited. Search warrants may be issued 
for imitation butter or cheese, which may be seized if kept 
in violation of the law. 

The laws of Ohio not only give the dairy commissioner au- 
thority to enter any place where dairy products are sold, but go 
so far as to authorize him to examine the books in such places. 

In Minnesota, express agents, railroad officials and em- 
ployees of common carriers are required to render to the 
dairy commissioner all the assistance in their power, when 
so requested, in discovering the presence of any imitation of 
pure butter or cheese. The commissioner is authorized to 
seize imitation and adulterated dairy products, and after 
order of the court sell the same for any purpose other than 
to be used for food. 

Connecticut has a law authorizing the dair}^ commissioner 
to inspect the books of transportation companies, in order to 
trace illegal sales of oleomargarine. 



1898.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 60. 



13 



WiscoDsin authorizes the issuing of warrants to search 
places where imitation butter or cheese is believed to be 
concealed, and provides for the confiscation of such imita- 
tion dairy products, and their destruction under the direc- 
tion of the court or magistrate. 

Michigan provides that "the taking of orders or the mak- 
ing of agreements or contracts by any person, firm or cor- 
poration, or by any agent or representative thereof, for the 
future delivery of any of the articles, products, goods, wares 
or merchandise embraced within the provisions of this act, 
shall be deemed a sale." 

Critics of the oleomargarine laws sometimes raise the 
point that there is sometimes a departure from strict hon- 
esty in handling some grades of real butter. There is no 
logic in this. If A is guilty of deception, his fault is not 
lessened because B has also practised deception. It is a fact 
that there are some things in the butter trade which cannot 
be wholly approved. But it doesn't help one man out of the 
mud to find some one else with his coat spattered. The pro- 
cesses for workino^ and renovatino^ low-2:rade butter have 
been so perfected as to render the product a satisfactory arti- 
cle for quick consumption ; still, as it is ordinarily sold, it is 
more or less tainted with deception. The product really 
comes from the cow's udder, but when it is sold as ' ' fresh 
creamery butter " it is a fraud on the consumer and an injury 
to legitimate business. This product till recently has been 
known in the trade as " process butter," and by that name it 
could be honestly sold, although when it was distributed by 
the retail trade it frequently became " fresh creamery." Lat- 
terly the trade has adopted the name of sterilized butter," 
which is not only a misnomer, but deceptive. The word 

process " was open to objections, but the expression ster- 
ilized" is even worse. We have had a number of specimens 
of these kinds of butters analyzed, and in each case the 
chemist has reported that the product was in some respects 
unusual, although he was obliged to class it with the pure 
butters. 

We understand that the process of melting and aerating 
butter and re-workinoj it in fresh milk was begun some seven 
or eight years ago. From that starting point the business has 



14 



DAIRY BUREAU. 



[Jan. 



extended so that there are larofe factories in some six or eio^ht 
different places in the west. We have seen it stated that the 
total output of these places is fully four hundred tubs a day. 
The exact method of makins^ these ofoods is not known. In 
some cases different firms have varying methods peculiar to 
themselves, but in a general way the process is something 
like this : the butter is bought either from farmers or from 
dealers, melted into oil, carefully strained, then aerated by 
pumping currents of air through it, and finally chilled by 
dropping onto ice or a cold surface. The granules are then 
churned with milk, and the product is salted, worked and 
packed. Fair flavor and character are the rule, but, having 
been once melted, the butter is peculiarly sensitive, and 
quickly loses its freshness ; some lots become tallowy. We 
have a suspicion that some dishonest manufacturers may mix 
in more or less tallow and lard in the process of manufactur- 
ing this sterilized " butter. We found one sample in the 
hands of a reputable retail grocer which was unquestionably 
oleomargarine. We were able to trace the shipment with 
such directness through a leading Boston wholesaler to a 
large Chicago manufacturer that we felt no end of justice 
would be promoted by a prosecution in this State. The 
facts, however, were placed in the hands of the Illinois 
authorities for further investigation. 

Milk. 

More attention has been given to milk than any previous 
year. Two hundred and thirteen sauiples have been taken, 
though only one case was put into court. In this the milk 
was actually adulterated, but it was lost by a ruling on a law 
point by an associate justice of the court sitting during the 
vacation season. A transportation corporation had a cafe at 
one of its stations, and served adulterated milk. Samples 
taken tested 10.42 and 8.14 per cent of milk solids. The 
manager of the cafe was complained of, and his attorney 
raised the point that, under the statute holding responsible 
either the principal or his agent or servant, we could hold 
the corporation itself or the waiter who served the adulter- 
ated milk ; but the attorney argued that the manager of 
whom we had complained was neither the servant who sold 



1898.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 60. 



15 



the adulterated milk nor the principal. The justice ruled 
that, as the manager of the cafe was not personally present 
at the time that the waiter served the milk, he was not re- 
sponsible. Another case was brought before the regular 
justice of the court at the conclusion of the vacation season, 
but by this time the defendant had left the State and could 
not be found. 

The agricultural papers and scientific men have been dis- 
cussing the idea of a statute standard of milk to an unusual 
extent during the past year. The principle is well estab- 
lished in Massachusetts, and is endorsed both by consumers 
and producers. Farmers' organizations have time and tiuie 
again passed resolutions favoring it. Many cows produce 
milk of less than 13 per cent solids, but they are a minority. 
The Massachusetts law says milk below 13 per cent — with 
an exception of some summer months — is not " of standard 
quality," and is therefore unmerchantable as standard milk. 
One critic says : What the farmer needs and has a right to 
ask is that the law shall not step in and try to punish him 
because the Creator did not make all cows alike." This is a 
misapprehension of the spirit of the law. Milk of standard 
price must be of standard quality. The opposition to the 
law has hitherto been largely from men whose cows produced 
milk poorer than the average, and who wanted to sell this 
poorer milk as standard milk. These persons, under the 
fallacious pretext that cows could not give as good milk in 
the summer as in winter, have succeeded in getting the very 
generous exception of five months in which 12 per cent is 
declared to be standard milk. This assertion about summer 
milk is not founded on fact. Mr. Clemence of the Dairy 
Bureau has for several years made occasional tests — usually 
about once a month — of the mixed milk of his herd, mostly 
grade Shorthorns, and he has not only found it fully up to 
the standard, but he has found it very uniform in quality, 
varying less than .4 of 1 per cent, and usually less than .2 
of 1 per cent, from month to month. Many similar experi- 
ments are on record. The most recent is from the New 
Jersey Experiment Station. The herd there consisted of 
28 cows ; 23 were of mixed breeding, with 2 each of Hol- 
stein and Guernsey blood and 1 Jersey. From 18 to 26 



16 



DAIRY BUREAU. 



[Jan. 



cows were milked each month. Each month except one 
several fresh cows were introduced, as many as 4 each in 
September and March. The following is the average per 
cent of fat in the mixed milk (fat is the most variable ele- 
ment of milk, and the one that governs its quality) : — 



May, 4.2 

June, 4.3 

July, 4.3 

August, 4.4 

September, . . . . 4.3 j 

October, . . . . 4.4 I 



November, . . . .4.2 
December, . . . .4.2 
January, . . . .4.3 
February, . . . .4.1 

March, 4.0 

April, 4.1 



This shows the constant quality of herd milk, and that 
there is no marked seasonable falling off during any particu- 
lar month or months. 

The present attack on the statute standard comes from 
persons who preach that milk should be sold according to 
quality. With this contention we are in sympathy, and be- 
lieve that milk will be sold that way in the future. There is 
no sense in selling 10 or 13 or 16 pounds of food all at the 
same price. But the advance step should not be taken at the 
expense of losing any of the advantages of the present law. 
We hardly think that the times are yet ripe for such a 
change, as, from the stand point of those having some expe- 
rience in enforcing the law, it would let in a large amount of 
adulteration. 

Laws against adulteration seem as yet to need a standard. 
Wealthy or intelligent people could discover fraud in milk, 
but the ignorant would suffer imposition, and the poor 
might be comparatively helpless. 

There is nothing in the law now to prevent milk being 
sold on its merits in three grades ; 1st, extra ; 2d, standard ; 
3d, skimmed. 

A man with Jersey or Guernsey stock is now at liberty to 
make a 14 or 15 per cent milk, grade it as extra, guarantee 
its extra quality, and sell it at an extra price if he can find 
customers. On the other hand, milk low in solids can be 
sold at a low price by labelling it skimmed milk, — which in 
some instances is not far from the truth. 

W^e hope to see many enterprising dairymen try this ex- 
periment of selling extra milk at an advance from the going 



1898.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT— No. 60. 



17 



price. This ought to prove advantageous to them, and also 
an education to the public, being an object lesson of the 
differing vakies of milk. It would thus serve to bring nearer 
the lime when it may be expedient to change the laws rela- 
tive to the statute standard. 

The following is the result of some analyses of milk taken 
from milkmen b}^ officers of the State Dairy Bureau in the 
regular discharge of their routine duties, and throws an 
accurate side light on the per cent of solids sold. These 
samples were taken in May and June. 



Worcester. 



Milkman No. 1, 


. 12.84 


Milkman No. 15, 


. 13.48 


No. 2, 


. 12.88 




No. 16, 


13.64 


No. 3, 


. 12.20 




No. 17, 


14.08 


No. 4, 


. 12.60 




No. 18, 


14 . 02 


No. 5, 


. 12.76 




No. 19, 


12.62 


No. 6, 


. 13.00 




No. 20, 


14.22 


No. 7, 


. 14.34 




No. 21, 


12.52 


No. 8, 


. 12.40 




No. 22, 


12.12 


No. 9, 


. 14.22 




No. 23, 


13.78 


No. 10, 


. 12.04 




No. 24, 


12.40 


No. 11, 


. 13.26 




No. 25, 


19 Q9 


No. 12, 


. 12.84 




No. 26, 




No. 13, 


. 12.00 




No. 27, 


1 9 'S9 


No. 14, 


. 12.90 




No. 28, 


14- '^^9 




Taunton. 






IVTillrTYian Wo 1 


. 14.14 


Milkman No. 4, . 


14. z8 


No. 2, . 


. 12.64 




No. 5, . 


. 13.54 


No. 3, . 


. 13.02 










New Bedford. 






Milkman No. 1, 


. 12.48 


Milkman No. 16, 


. 13.36 


No. 2, 


. 12.64 




No. 17, 


. 14.30 


No. 3, 


. 12.18 




No. 18, 


. 12.80 


No. 4, 


. 13.42 




No. 19, 


. 15.02 


No. 5, 


. 13.10 




No. 20, 


. 13.90 


No. 6, 


. 11.84 




No. 21, 


. 13.54 


No. 7, 


. 14.00 




No. 22, 


. 13.60 


No. 8, 


. 12.98 




No. 23, 


. 12.74 


No. 9, 


. 12.52 




No. 24, 


. 13.36 


No. 10, 


. 13.08 




No. 25, 


. 13.26 


No. 11, 


. 13.66 




No. 26, 


. 13.84 


No. 12, 


. 13.88 




No. 27, 


. 12.64 


No. 13, 


. 13.90 




No. 28, 


. 12.82 


No. 14, 


. 14.60 




No. 29, 


. 13.46 


No. 15, 


. 13.40 




No. 30, 


. 12.82 



18 DAIRY BUREAU. [Jan. 



These samples were taken at summer resorts during July 
and August : — 



No. 1, 


. 12.72 


No. 18, 


. 11.76 


No. 2, 


. 18 04 


No. 19, 


. 12.36 


No. 3, 


. 16.96 


No. 20, 


. 12.36 


No. 4, 


. 12.56 


No. 21, 


. 11.34 


No. 5, 


. 8.14 


No. 22, 


. 10.42 


No. 6, 


. 13.74 


No. 23, 


. 14.10 


No. 7, 


. 14.06 


No. 24, 


. 12.51 


No. 8, 


. 12.22 


No. 25, 


. 11.10 


No. 9, 


. 12.46 


No. 26, 


. 10.78 


No. 10, 


. 12.84 


No. 27, 


. 10.28 


No. 11, 


. 14.16 


No. 28, 


. 12.46 


No. 12, 


. 12.40 


No. 29, 


. 11.48 


No. 13, 


. 12.84 


No. 30, 


. 16.26 


No. 14, 


. 12.48 


No. 31, 


. 12.46 


No. 15, 


. 19.02 


No. 32, 


. 12.86 


No. 16, 


. 15.46 


No. 33, 


. 12.14 


No. 17, 


. 12.54 







The samples of abnormally high milk, 19, 18, 16, per cent 
etc., were probably cases where there was carelessness in 
properly mixing the milk, and the samples which our agent 
happened to get were taken from the top of the can or tank. 
In those cases we notified the parties, recommending more 
care in mixing, for the })erson who would be served with 
milk from the bottom of the can or tank would have that 
which was correspondingly poor. 

In the cases of milk which tested low we took a second 
sample to strengthen our position, and in every case but one 
the second sample was an improvement on the first, confirm- 
ing still further our theory that there exists too much care- 
lessness about properly agitating and mixing the milk. In 
the one exception, to which allusion is made above, the sam- 
ple taken at the first visit of our agent tested 10.28, and that 
taken at a second visit tested 8.14. 

The principal critics of the law come largely from towns 
which have shipped milk for many years to Boston, where 
there is none of the tonic that comes from producer meeting 
consumer, and where cows have been bred for large quanti- 
ties rather than for quality. 

During the past year the newspapers have reported an in- 
creased attention to the sanitary phases of the milk question. 



1898.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 60. 



19 



Medical and health bodies have been discussing them, and 
considering possible legislation. It is a fact that legislation 
has hitherto looked more after the commercial fraud of sell- 
ing adulterated milk, or milk not of standard quality, than it 
has at the health phases of the case. It is also a fact that 
the modern advances in bacteriology have given definite and 
accurate data on which we can now base intelligent and ad- 
vanced action. Hence there is a good opportunity for Mas- 
sachusetts to take a forward step, and for the Legislature to 
do something looking to enhancing the quality of the State's 
milk supply. But such legislation should be discreet, and 
should, especially at the outset, guard against steps too far 
in advance of the ideas of producers, or which might tend to 
the annoyance of petty ofiicialism. Michigan has a system 
of inspection which merely leads to publishing reports of 
what the inspectors find. The publicity of these reports is 
expected to work a correction of the evils noticed. A meas- 
ure as mild as this ought not to arouse great opposition, 
and yet it would be strong enough to have a beneficial 
educational influence which would tend to correct evils now 
existing so far as producers are concerned. A favorable 
report would be a good advertisement of any producer. 
Any filthy or unsanitary conditions at the city end of the 
business among wholesalers or peddlers would require difler- 
ent action. I submit herewith a few samples of the results 
of Michigan inspection, as taken from printed reports of the 
dairy commissioner of that State : — 

At Lowell. 

R. Rider. — Cows clean ; stables clean ; ventilation good ; san- 
itary conditions fair ; nses well water. 

J. Kramer. — Cows fairly clean ; stables unclean ; ceilings dusty 
and floors dirty ; ventilation good ; sanitary conditions very poor ; 
uses spring water. 

At Howard City, 

A. S. Stodard. — Cows poor but fairly clean ; ventilation poor ; 
sanitary conditions fair ; uses well water. 

William 0' Donald. — Cows clean; stables unclean ; ventilation 
good ; sanitary conditions fair ; uses creek water. 



20 



DAIRY BUREAU. 



[Jan. 



At Big Rapids. 

C. E. Draper. — Cows clean ; stables clean ; ventilation fair ; 
uses well water. 

M. Boynton. — Cows clean and in good condition ; stables very 
unclean; ventilation fair; sanitary conditions poor; well water 
used. 

A. Card. — Cows clean ; stables low and extremely dirty ; drain- 
age poor ; ventilation poor ; sanitary conditions very bad. 

At Cadillac. 

C. J. Holman. — Stables unclean ; drainage imperfect and 
manure allowed to accumulate near stables; ventilation fair; 
sanitary conditions poor. 

E. N. Reynolds. — Stables fairly clean ; ventilation fair ; san- 
itary conditions poor; uses lake water. 

M. Berridge. — Cows clean ; stables clean ; ventilation good ; 
sanitary conditions of stables good, of yard poor; well water 
used. 

At Belding. 

C. E. LeiDis. — Cows fairly clean; stables fairly clean; ventil- 
ation good ; sanitary conditions poor ; well water used ; was feed- 
ing garbage from the house. 

//. G. Angel. — Cows clean ; ceilings of stables dirty ; drainage 
poor ; ventilation good ; sanitary conditions of yard very bad ; 
uses spring water. 

Q. C. Devine. — Cows part clean and part dirty ; stables clean ; 
ventilation good ; sanitary conditions of yard poor ; uses well 
water. 

At Ionia. 

A. M. Welch. — Cows in YQvy good condition; stables excep- 
tionally clean ; ventilation good ; sanitary conditions excellent ; 
uses spring water ; drainage good. Cows are cleaned twice a 
day ; wells and ceilings of stables whitewashed twice each year ; 
has clean, well-ventilated cooling room, and all modern appliances 
for handling milk in a neat and systematic wa3^ 

W. D. Place. — Cows clean ; stables low, with clean floors but 
dusty ceilings ; ventilation poor ; sanitary conditions poor ; uses 
creek water. 

H. Jackson. — Cows part clean and part dirt}^ ; stables unclean ; 
drainage poor; stables exposed to open scaffolding; ventilation 
fair; sanitary conditions poor; uses creek water. Manure is 
allowed to accumulate near barn. 



1898.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 60. 21 



A. E. Jackson. — Cows part clean and part dirty ; stables un- 
clean ; drainage poor ; ventilation fairly good ; sanitary conditions 
poor; uses creek water. 

G. Percivdl. — Cows part clean and part dirty ; stables unclean, 
ventilation good ; sanitary conditions poor ; uses cistern water. 

L. A. Cornell. — Cows clean and in good condition; stables in 
poor condition ; ventilation poor ; sanitary conditions of yard poor. 

M. S. Sprague. — Cows fairly clean; stables unclean; ventil- 
ation fair ; sanitary conditions poor ; uses river water. 

During the past year considerable time has been given by 
the acting executive officer of the Bureau to work in connec- 
tion with the milk business in the " Greater Boston." This 
is a phase of dairying which last year sent over the railroads 
11,798,191 cans of milk, — an average of 32,320 cans per 
day. If the farmers received on an average 20 cents per can, 
we have here an industry amounting to $2,359,628 to the 
producers. The retail price in the cities varies considerably 
under different circumstances. Milk is being sold more and 
more in the grocery stores, and at a cut price. In not a few 
stores it is sold at less than cost, as a bid for other trade. 
We find retail sales made at all the way from 4 to 7 cents per 
quart. If we consider 6 cents an average price, the sales, 
which were 8,788,000 cans, amount to $4,456,000. These 
figures relate only to the milk that is brought into the city by 
railroad by the large milk wholesalers.. Other statistics are 
not available, because the milk is brought in in different 
ways. It is generally believed — and the best information 
that we can get confirms it — that over 25, almost 30, per 
cent more comes in by wagons from near-by territory. Dr. 
Harrington, has kindly given me a list, showing that 5,232 
cans daily are brought into the municipality of Boston. The 
competition of this wagon milk and of railroad milk has 
been very sharp this year. If, of the amount of milk sold by 
the wholesalers, the amount of adulteration should equal 1 
per cent of the sales, it would amount to 87,385 cans of 
milk. From the stand-point of the consumer, at the average 
price of 6 cents per quart this means $35,566 paid unjustly 
for water, — a $35,000 steal. From the stand point of the 
producer, netting on an average 20 cents per can, it means a 
wrong of $17,477. This amount could be easily doubled 
were we to take in the whole State, with such thrifty, grow- 



22 



DAIRY BUREAU. 



[Jan. 



ing cities as Lawrence, Springfield, New Bedford, Holyoke, 
Taunton, Fitchbarg, Gloucester and others. No one would 
for a moment argue but what, were it not for the existing 
laws and the way they are enforced, the percentage of adul- 
teration would be much more than 1 per cent. 

The figures below give the amounts of receipts and sales 
of railroad milk — in 81- quart cans — as reported by the 
wholesalers' association during the year of 1897, also the 
figures of previous years, for purposes of comparison : — 





Received. 


Sold. 


Surplus. 


January, ..... 


923,852 


705 324 


218 528 


February, .... 


835,115 


639,952 


195,163 


March, 


960,084 


719,814 


240,270 


April, 


976,996 


733,298 


243,698 


May, 


1,105,325 


759,875 


345,450 


June, 


1,115,234 


752,038 


363,196 


July, 


1,013,552 


789,849 


223,703 


August, 


966,058 


720,374 


245,684 


September, .... 


956,445 


732,795 


223,650 


October, 


1,037,764 


751,944 


285,820 


November, .... 


962,552 


708,459 


254,093 


December, .... 


945,274 


724,850 


220,364 


Total, .... 


11,798,191 


8,738,572 


3,059,619 





Receipts. 


Sales. 


Surplus. 


1896, 


10,772,108 


8,087,378 


2,684,730 


1895, 


9,856,500 


8,040,732 


1,815,768 


1894, 


9,705,447 


' 7,657,421 


2,048,026 


1893, 


9,263,487 


7,619,722 


1,643,765 


1892, 


9,212,667 


7,315,135 






Railroad stations from which milk is shipped to Boston, their relative distances from the city and the price paid at each station. 



1898.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 60. 



23 



The three million cans of surplus milk have been kept off the 
milk market by the contractors, thereby tending to steady the 
price and keep it more uniform than if the whole product 
was placed upon the market to be sold for what it would 
bring, as is the case with other articles of merchandise. 
This surplus kept olf from the market has been made into 
butter by the wholesalers, and they return to the farmers the 
average jobbing price of butter, less the charge for manufac- 
turing. This surplus milk has averaged to net the farmers 
13.33 cents per can during the year. The lowest price was 
received in May, eTune and July, 11 cents per can ; the high- 
est in December, 15.34 cents. The price received for sale 
milk is the same as last year. It has been kept quite uniform 
from year to year, by the system in which Boston milk 
is handled. The price of surplus milk depends upon the 
market value of butter, and has averaged one-third of a cent 
more for 1897 than it did for 1896. 

For the months of April, May, June, July, August and 
September, the price to the farmers at their several railroad 
stations was 19 to 26 cents per 8^ quart cans. During the 
other months of thelyear, January, February, March, Octo- 
ber, November and December, the price ranged from 21 to 
28 cents. This range of prices is adjusted by an agreement 
between the producers and the wholesalers that the price 
shall decrease by a regular system as the distance from the 
city and the cost of transportation increases. 

We present herewith a plan illustrating this. The verti- 
cal parallel lines represent the railroads over which milk, is 
shipped, drawn as air lines. We have marked on each one 
the location of each milk-shipping station, and its relative 
distance from Boston as the railroads run. We have drawn 
across this map horizontal lines, showing the belts of the 
different prices. If the arrangement above alluded to be- 
tween the producers and the wholesalers was lived up to 
literally, these horizontal lines in all cases would be complete 
and exactly parallel with each other. In some cases it is 
necessary to depart from the literal application of this rule, 
as where milk is taken from a branch road which crosses 
the main line on some other route. For instance, milk is 
brought to Boston from Barre by the direct line of the Cen- 



24 



DAIRY BUREAU. 



[Jan. 



tral Massachusetts, and also over the Boston & Albany road. 
By one way Barre is 108 miles from Boston, and by the 
other 64. But it would be difficult to pay different prices 
at the same place, and the 64-mile price must govern. These 
variations from the schedule are noted by dotted lines about 
the towns affected. 

The milk laws of other States contain some interesting 
suggestions. 

Minnesota prohibits the keeping of cows for the produc- 
tion of milk for market or for manufacturing the same into 
articles of food "in a crowded or unhealthy condition." 
The dairy commissioner is required to furnish all the dairies 
shipping milk to the city, and all the peddlers or venders of 
milk in the cities within the State, with blanks for the pur- 
pose of making a report of the amount of milk and dairy 
goods handled, "and all milk dairies, milk venders and 
milk peddlers shall send to the State food and dairy commis- 
sioner quarterly reports of all the business done by each and 
every such person, firm or company in handling dairy pro- 
ducts during the last three months past, as designated under 
the different headings of printed blanks. No person shall 
sell or offer for sale any cream that contains less than 20 
per centum of fat." 

Minnesota is the only State, so far as we know, that has a 
law relating to clean cans. It is as follows : " Any person, 
persons, firm or corporation who receives any milk or cream 
in cans, bottles or vessels which have been transported over 
any railroad or boat line, where such cans, bottles or vessels 
are to be returned, shall cause the said cans, bottles or ves- 
sels to be emptied before the said milk or cream contained 
therein shall become sour, and shall cause the said cans, 
bottles or vessels to be immediately washed and thoroughly 
cleansed and aired." 

Wisconsin authorizes its dairy commissioner to make reg- 
ulations when needed concerning the cleanliness of utensils, 
rooms, buildings, etc., used in the sale of dairy products. 

Chapter 425, Acts of 1894, is as follows : "No producer 
of milk shall be liable to prosecution on the ground that the 
milk produced by him is not of good standard quality, un- 
less the milk alleged not to be of such quality was taken 



1898.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 60. 



25 



upon the premises or while in the possession or under the 
control of the producer by an inspector of milk or by the 
agents of the Dairy Bureau or State Board of Health, or 
collector of samples duly authorized by such inspector, and 
a sealed sample of the same given to the producer." 

This was enacted in the expectation that it would in some 
way save innocent farmers from any hardship growing out 
of the enforcement of the milk laws. It has not accom- 
plished any such purpose, but has hindered the prosecution 
of those who have sold adulterated milk. 

Chapter 264, Acts of 1896, section 1, says : No person 
shall sell or offer for sale or exchange, in hermetically sealed 
cans, any condensed milk or condensed skim-milk, unless in 
cans which are distinctly labelled with the name of the per- 
son or company manufacturing said condensed milk or skim- 
milk, the brand under which it is made, and the contents of 
the can." 

The Bureau has been asked during the year to pass upon 
the meaning of the word " contents," in the last line. The 
popular opinion prevailed that it required either the weight 
or the analysis of the contents. The question was re- 
ferred to the Attorney-General, who held that the word 
refers back to the words condensed milk or condensed 
skim-milk," in the second, fourth and fifth lines, and that 
the law would be complied with if the can should be labelled 

condensed milk," or "condensed skim-milk," as the case 
might be. This seems to take out of the law what seems 
to be its spirit. 

Ohio has a law which requires that the proportion of milk 
solids contained in condensed milk shall be in amount the 
equivalent of 12 per cent of solids, in crude milk, and of 
such solids 25 per cent shall be fat. Condensed milk cannot 
be sold in that State unless the same is made from unadulter- 
ated and wholesome milk from which the cream has not been 
removed. 

In view of the great variation in the quality of condensed 
milk, and its increasing use, similar legislation may be 
needed in this State. 

The sale of cream is increasing. Maine is the principal 
source of the cream in the markets of Boston and other 



26 



DAIRY BUREAU. 



[Jan. 



Massachusetts cities. Comparative statistics are not avail- 
able at the time of making up this report, but the following 
compares six months of 1897 with preceding years : — 

The Hampden, Me., creamery makes the following report of 
its business for the last three years, showing the increase in the 
use of cream (the figures are for gallons) : — 



Thick Cream, 40 Per Cent Butter Fat. 





1894. 


1895. 


1896. 


First 
Six Montlis of 
1897. 


Boston and vicinity, . 


33,466 


40,141 


43,542 


28,034 


Beverly, Lynn and Salem, 


8,033 


8,811 


9,482 


4,333 



Educational. 

The statute creating the Dairy Bureau imposes some edu- 
cational work upon it. So far as this can be done by the 
acting executive oflScer, it incurs no extra expense, as he is a 
salaried officer. He, therefore, holds himself in readiness to 
respond to calls of granges, farmers' clubs, milk producers 
and others, for talks on various phases of dairying, as de- 
sired. He has answered eighteen such calls this year. 
Many of these talks have been illustrated by operating the 
Babcock milk tester, and in other ways so as to make them 
interesting object lessons as far as possible. In addition, 
the members of the Bureau, Dr. Lindsay, Dr. Peters and a 
tew others, have, in exceptional cases, been engaged. 

A bulletin on the care of milk has been prepared for 
circulation among the producers of sale milk. A circular 
of warning to butter-makers, regarding fraudulent cream 
''ripeners," has also been issued. 

Last August a convention of dairy and food commissioners 
was held in Detroit, and a permanent organization effected. 
The States represented in the governing board are Ohio, 
Michigan, Iowa, Pennsylvania and Massachusetts. Tlie 
association can be of great value in furnishing a means for 
an interchange of ideas, experiences and practices. Though 
much of the time of the convention was occupied with rou- 



1898.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 60. 27 

tine business, many valuable points and suggestions were 
received. 

Finances. 

The following is the manner in which the appropriation 
of $7,000 has been expended : — 



Members ot the Bureau, travelling expenses and attending 

meetings, $446 00 

Agents' salaries, 2,350 50 

Agents' expenses, 2,473 08 

Chemist, . . 858 00 

George M. Whitaker, travelling and office expenses, sup- 
plies, mileage tickets, etc., 729 41 

Educational work, 102 71 

Printing, 28 92 

Supplies, 11 38 

Total, $7,000 00 



GEORGE M. WHITAKER. 



Accepted and adopted as the report of the Dairy Bureau. 

D. A. HORTON. 
GEO. L. CLEMENCE. 
J. L ELLSWORTH. 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT . . T\ 



No. 60. 



EIGHTH ANNUAL EEPOET 

OF THi: 

DAIRY BUREAU 

OF THE 

Massachusetts Board of Agriculture, 

REQUIRED 

Under Chapter 412, Acts of 1891. 



Jan^uary 15, 1899. 



BOSTON : 

WRIGHT & POTTER PRINTING CO., STATE PRINTERS, 
18 Post Office Square. 
1899. 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT .... .... No. 60. 



EIGHTH AN^^UAL REPOET 

OF THE 

""DAIRY BUREAU 



OF THE 

Massachusetts Boaed of Agriculture, 

REQUIRED 

Under Chapter 412, Acts of 1891. 



Jats^uary 15, 1899. 



BOSTON : 

WRIGHT & POTTER PRINTING CO., STATE PRINTERS, 
18 Post Office Square. 
1899. 



3 



Dairy Bureau — 1 898-99. 



D. A. HORTON, Northampton, Chairman. 

J. L. ELLSWORTH, Worcester. 

C. D. RICHARDSON, West Brookfield. 



Executive Officer. 
W. R. SESSIONS, Secretary of the State Board oj Agriculture. 



Assistant to the Secretary and Acting Executive Officer, appointed by the 

Governor. 

GEO. M. WHITAKER, Boston. 



REPORT 



Massachusetts stands high among the States of the Union 
as a manufacturing State. Many of her towns and cities 
have a national reputation as manufacturing centres for 
various products, such as cotton cloth, boots and shoes, 
spectacles, watches, whips, etc. The census for 1895, just 
published, shows that the value of the manufacturing plants 
in the State aggregates $325,000,000, cotton manufacturing 
leading, with $92,000,000 invested ; the value of the agri- 
cultural property of the State is $220,000,000. So that, 
although Massachusetts is pre-eminently a manufacturing 
State, and as such is prominent among the States, it is two- 
thirds as much of an agricultural State as it is a manufactur- 
ing State, so far as investment in real estate, machinery, 
buildings, water power, etc., are concerned. 

Of the agricultural products of the State, dairying leads. 
The census for 1895 gives the value of the dairy products of 
the State as follows : — 

Butter, $1,506,638 

Cheese, 11,661 

Cream, 1,011,604 

Milk, 13,704,146 

$16,234,049 

Hay and fodder are second ; but, as most of the hay and 
fodder grown in the State is fed to dairy animals, it is fair 
to add quite a proportion of the $12,000,000 value of hay 
and fodder to the above $16,000,000. In the cream fur- 
nished to creameries and in other ways there is a possible 
duplication of values, as the census enumerates each sepa- 
rate article in every step of manufacturing, because fre- 
quently the manufactured product of one industry is the raw 
material of another. But, making a reasonable deduction 
for duplications, and then adding a proper proportion of 



6 



DAIRY BUREAU. 



[Jan. 



the $12,000,000 value of hay and fodder grown, we find 
that beyond question the dairy products of the State are 
more in value than one-half of all agricultural products, — 
$53,000,000. If, then, dairying is the leading specialty in 
agriculture, and if agriculture in value of plant is two-thirds 
of the manufacturing industries of the State, we find that 
dairying is of much importance in Massachusetts. And it 
is fitting that legislation should pay particular attention to 
pure, honest, wholesome dairy products, in the interests of 
both consumer and producer. 

The personnel of the Dairy Bureau suffered a change at 
the beginning of the year by the expiration of the term of 
office of Mr. George L. Clemence of Southbridge, delegate 
to the Board of Agriculture from the Worcester South Agri- 
cultural Society. Mr. CD. Richardson of West Brookfield 
was elected to the State Board in his place, and appointed 
on the Dairy Bureau. The term of office of Mr. D. A. 
Horton, as one of the members at large of the Board of 
Agriculture, having expired, he was reappointed by the 
Governor, reappointed on the Board and re-elected chair- 
man. 

The actual executive work of the Bureau has continued 
under the supervision and direction of George M. Whitaker. 
The Bureau has employed during the year only two regular 
agents, Messrs. J. W. Stockwell and George F. Baldwin, 
who have been in our employ for several years. The place 
of the third, made vacant by resignation of Mr. Charles C. 
Scott, has not been filled, but temporarj^ agents have been 
employed from time to time to do special work. Dr. 
Charles Harrington, the Boston milk inspector, and his staff, 
continue as agents of the Bureau, serving without expense 
to the State, in order that in an emergency their efficiency 
of action may be increased. The chemical work of the 
Bureau has been done by Dr. B. F. Davenport for the east- 
ern part of the State, and by the Hatch Experiment Station 
for the western part. 

The work of the Bureau during the past year has been 
conducted along the same general lines as heretofore, the 
principal diff'erence being in paying increased attention to 
the milk supply. 



1899.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 60. 



7 



Statistical Woek. 
The statistical report of our work has been as follows : — 



Inspections of stores, wagons and railroad stations, for illegal 

keeping of imitation butter, 1,351 

Samples taken of real or imitation butter, 230 

Samples taken of milk, 901 

Samples taken of cream, 6 

Samples taken of cheese, 1 

Samples taken of condensed milk, 2 

The Bureau has had in court during the past year 60 
cases, as follows : — 

Having milk of less than standard quality in possession with in- 
tent to sell, 30 

Having milk to which preservative had been added in possession 

with intent to sell, 9 

Having an imitation of yellow butter in possession with intent 

to sell, 13 

Serving oleomargarine in hotels and restaurants without giving 

notice, 3 

Obstructing officers in the prosecution of their work, ... 5 



60 

In addition to these, evidence has been secured in five 
other cases, complaints have been made and warrants issued, 
but the officers have been unable to find the defendants, who 
have left the vicinity if not the State. Four of these were 
imitation butter cases, and one for obstructing an officer. 

Of the above 60 cases in court, in only one instance was 
the defendant acquitted and discharged. In that case he 
was charged with obstructing an officer who was engaged in 
getting samples. 

Imitation Butter. 

The Bureau has enforced the laws regulating the sale of 
imitation butter as vigorously as usual, and along the same 
general lines. Stores are visited and samples taken or pur- 
chases made, suspicious " butter" wagons are overhauled and 
inspected, and various clues followed in such manner as the 
exigencies of each particular case seem to demand. Some- 



8 



DAIRY BUREAU. 



[Jan. 



times a line of investigation may be followed for several days 
with no reportable results in number of inspections made or 
samples taken. This part of our work is like all other kinds 
of detective work, and has a wholesome effect on would-be 
law-breakers far beyond the story told by any mere sta- 
tistics. 

During the year we have made 1,351 inspections of stores, 
wagons and railroad stations, and taken 230 samples. We 
have had 21 cases in court, and would have had o more could 
the parties have been found. Of the 21, we lost only 1. 
The charges were as follows : — 

Violating anti-color law, 13 

Violating hotel-restaurant law, . . . . . 3 
Obstructing an officer, 5 

21 

During the past year one dealer in imitation butter has 
served a term in the house of correction in default of a fine. 

Of the 13 violations of the anti-color law, above reported, 
the imitation product was sold as and for butter in several 
instances ; but complaints were made for violating the anti- 
color law, for technical reasons of detail in connection with 
the trial of the cases. Evidence of more sales of the decep- 
tive product when butter was called for would have been 
secured were not the agents so well known. 

As we have previously reported, the open sale of imita- 
tion butter seems to have been practically suppressed. It is 
an exceptional case where a person can purchase it, to take 
away with him, in any store in the Commonwealth. Yet, in 
spite of this, considerable quantities are consumed within 
the Commonwealth, mostly sold under various subterfuges, jj 
Itinerant peddlers dispose of some, and stores that ''take | 
orders " still further evade the law, while in some instances | 
officers in charge of public institutions are purchasers. The 
amount sold is very small, compared with what would be 
sold were there no laws. In most cases the ultimate con- 
sumer does not know what he is eating, and in many cases 
the purchaser is equally ignorant. 

The principle on which these laws are based has been | 
endorsed by the State and national courts, and by the Legis- 



1899.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 60. 



9 



latures of many States. Thirty-three States in the Union 
now have laws restricting the sale of imitation butter, and 
in 28 the laws are similar to those of Massachusetts. 

The decision of the national supreme court, favorable to 
the Massachusetts anti-color law, in the Plumley case, has 
been reaffirmed in cases from the States of Pennsylvania and 
New Hampshire. Pennsylvania absolutely prohibited the 
sale of oleomargarine, and New Hampshire permitted the 
sale only when colored pink. The supreme court decided 
that both of these laws are unconstitutional ; but in making 
that decision it alludes to the Plumley case, which it re- 
affirms, and explains wherein the Pennsylvania case differs 
from the Massachusetts case. It says : — 

The statute in that case [Plumley] prevented the sale of this 
substance in imitation of yellow butter produced from pure, un- 
adulterated milk or cream of the same ; and the statute contained 
a proviso that nothing therein should be "construed to prohibit 
the manufacture or sale of oleomargarine in a separate or distinct 
form, and in such manner as will advise the consumer of its real 
character, free from coloration or ingredients that cause it to look 
like butter." This court held that a conviction under that statute 
for having sold an article known as oleomargarine, not produced 
from unadulterated milk or cream, but manufactured in imitation 
of yellow butter produced from pure, unadulterated milk or cream, 
was valid. Attention was called in the opinion to the fact that 
the statute did not prohibit the manufacture or sale of all oleo- 
margarine, but only such as was colored in imitation of yellow 
butter produced from unadulterated milk or cream of such milk. 
If free from coloration or ingredient that caused it to look like 
butter, the right to sell it in a separate and distinct form, and in 
such manner as would advise the consumer of the real character, 
was neither restricted nor prohibited. The court held that under 
the statute the party was only forbidden to practise in such mat- 
ters a fraud upon the general public ; that the statute seeks to 
suppress false pretences and to promote fair dealings in the sale 
of an article of food ; and that it compels the sale of oleomarga- 
rine for what it really is by preventing its sale for what it is not ; 
that the term "commerce among the States" did not mean a 
recognition of a right to practise a fraud upon the public in the 
sale of an article, even if it had become the subject of trade in 
different parts of the country. It was said that the Constitution 
of the United States did not take from the States the power of 



10 



DAIRY BUREAU. 



[Jan. 



preventing deception and fraud in the sale within their respective 
limits of articles, in whatever State manufactured, and that that 
instrument did not secure to any one the privilege of committing 
a wrong against society. 

It will thus be seen that the case was based entirely upon the 
theory of the right of a State to prevent deception and fraud in 
the sale of any article, and that it was the fraud and deception con- 
tained in selling the article for what it was not, and in selling it so 
that it should appear to be another and a different article, that 
this right of the State was upheld. 

Yet, in spite of this indorsement of the principle of our 
Massachusetts laws, they are sometimes criticised by persons 
who do not understand their full force and the facts which 
lead up to them. As is usual in such cases, the criticisms 
are superficially plausible, but fail to get at the real meat of 
the case. These laws are in the interests of producers, con- 
sumers and dealers in dairy products. They were enacted 
to promote honest dealing, and have proved very effective. 
A mixture of tallow and lard undoubtedly contains — as has 
been alleged — almost as many units of fuel-food value as 
does butter. If sold honestly, the compound would be of 
service to the world, — though relatively it is less digestible 
than butter, for the reason that butter contains aromatic 
principles which enhance digestion, and melts at a lower 
temperature than does the above-named mixture. Butter is 
the only animal fat which nature furnishes for use as human 
food in its raw state. But the principal argument for these 
laws rests more on the need of suppressing commercial dis- 
honesty than on questions of relative digestibility. Could 
mixtures of tallow and lard be sold for what they are, the 
health question would not be of great importance ; but when 
these mixtures are sold with the color, form of package, style 
of advertising and nomenclature of the dairy, the transaction 
is tainted with deception ; honest producers, dealers and also 
consumers are injured. Oftentimes the price asked depends 
upon the perfection of the imitation, which increases the in- 
jury to the consumer. When an article which could be sold 
at a good profit at 12 to 15 cents per pound is sold at 20 to 
22 cents because it is a good imitation of a 25-cent article, 
the nature of the business is readily seen. The temptation 



1899.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 60. 



11 



for more than an ordinary profit is at the root of much of 
the traffic in this article. The principles of this class of laws 
have been frequently reaffirmed during the past few years in 
trade-mark cases, in which the courts have invariably pro- 
nounced against deceptive imitations. 

As evidence of the deceptive way in which these goods are 
sold, we have noticed in a newspaper published in Rhode 
Island, where there are no laws restricting the sale of oleo- 
margarine, an advertisement, in the shape of a reading no- 
tice, like the following: *' Vermont butterine for sale in 
ten-pound tubs at Smith's." We submit to any impartial 
and fair-minded person that such is hardly a candid way of 
advertising a mixture of tallow and lard, compounded in the 
State of Rhode Island. In this connection we would call 
attention to a decision of the United States circuit court, 
southern district of New York, Aug. 6, 1898, in the case of 
Collinsplat v. Finlayson, in which the court said : The false 
use of a geographical name will not be allowed in the federal 
courts, when it is used to promote unfair competition and 
induce the sale of spurious goods." The same session of the 
court decided that " when an article sold is inferior and 
spurious, and the package sufficiently resembles the com- 
plainant's to make it apparent that the design was to deceive 
the consuming public, an injunction will be granted." 



Standard Milk. 

As stated in the introduction, we have given more atten- 
tion to enforcing the milk laws this year than ever before. 
We have introduced a feature which has enabled us to do 
thorough work, particularly when at some distance from a 
chemist, in hot weather. Our agents take a portable Bab- 
cock milk tester to the town in which they are going to 
work, and make a preliminary test of every sample which 
they take, passing everything which has 3.75 or 3 per cent 
of fat, as the statute may be 12 or 13 per cent of total solids. 
Milks having less than this amount of fat are reserved for 
full chemical analysis, and, as a large proportion of all milk 
is up to or above this figure, a comparatively small number 
of samples is submitted to chemical analysis. 



12 



DAIRY BUREAU. 



[Jan. 



Of the 30 cases that we have had in court this year, out 
of 901 samples taken, the following are the analyses : — 



Fat. 


Total Solids. 


Fat. 


Total Solids. 


Fat. 


Total Solid 


- 


11.49 


2.30 


11.42 


2.10 


11.22 


2.70 


10.97 


2.60 


11.66 


2.76 


10.80 


2.68 


11.53 


2.14 


10.66 


2.00 


11.62 


2.00 


11.74 


2.90 


11.34 


1.66 


11.16 


.69 


2.45 


2.86 


11.36 


.20 


9.35 


2.56 


11.46 


2.60 


11.44 


3.28 


11.45 


2.20 


8.46 


2.98 


11.48 


2.90 


10.74 


2.24 


9.50 


2.60 


11.60 


2.24 


11.08 


1.56 


10.10 


2.50 


11.72 


1.52 


10.88 


1.80 


10.98 


2.50 


11.60 


1.80 


10.10 


2.00 


10.80 


2.18 


11.00 







These cases were from Maiden, Springfield, Chelsea, Law- 
rence, Revere, Everett and Holyoke. 

It will be seen that this list contains a record breaker for 
poor cases. We do not believe that in the history of milk 
adulteration a sample as low as 2.45 per cent of total solids 
has ever been found before; 9.35 is also very low. It will 
be noticed that the highest sample of milk on which a case 
was maintained contained 11.74 per cent of total solids, of 
which 2 per cent was fat. Although the total solids in this 
case were close to the standard, the fat was onl}^ two-thirds 
of the proper amount. In the sample testing 2.50 per cent 
of fat and 11.72 total solids the case was prosecuted because 
the defendant was under suspicion of adulterating whole 
milk with skim-milk. Though conviction was secured, the 
case was put on file by the judge without imposing a fine, 
because the milk was so near to the standard. 

Many persons who are not familiar with court practice 
think that a law establishing a milk standard and providing 
for its enforcement operates like a delicate machine, adjusted 
to cut with accurate precision upon a certain line, in which a 
blade falls without a particle of variation, so as to sever 
everything outside the gauge to which the machine is set. 
This, however, is not the way that criminal laws are en- 
forced. Not every man who staggers is brought into court 
for being drunk ; the case must be sufiiciently strong, and 
the violation of law^ of sufiicient magnitude, to make it prob- 



1899,] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 60. 



13 



able that the judge or jury will be convinced beyond a rea- 
sonable doubt that the defendant is guilty. Consequently, in 
the prosecution of milk laws some latitude from the statute 
standard must be allowed, and milk that comes within from 
one-half to three-quarters of one per cent of the standard is 
usually passed as being all right. Those who argue against 
a 13 per cent standard as being too high should remember 
that, for purposes of enforcing the law, milk of 12.5 per 
cent solids will pass as standard milk, and that, were the 
standard reduced to 12 per cent, it would let in milk of 11.5 
per cent. Now, as the average milk of average cows when 
mixed contains 13 per cent of total solids, is it for the in- 
terest of the majority of producers to admit competition 
with milk of a lower grade ? We recognize the fact that a 
minority of cows produce milk of 10 and 11 per cent solids ; 
and we admit that there is a seeming hardship in saying that 
the pure, wholesome product of a healthy animal should be 
declared unmerchantable. But that is not the case. If own- 
ers of cows producing low-grade milk came to the Legislat- 
ure asking permission to sell such milk at a low price, it 
would be difficult to find arguments against the proposition ; 
but these people ordinarily ask that their low-grade milk 
shall be considered as standard milk, and sold at the regular 
price. Milk below the standard can now be sold if it is 
labelled skim-milk. The can may, in addition, contain a 
guarantee that the milk is the pure, natural product of a 
healthy cow. But we cannot conceive of any reason why 
the producer of such milk should be allowed to compete 
with producers of better milk, or to sell 10 or 11 pounds of 
food to producers who cannot protect themselves, and assume 
that they are buying an average article, to wit, 13 pounds. 

We also desire to emphasize a point which we believe is 
many times overlooked, — that the laws of Massachusetts 
have made two entirely separate and distinct ofiences : one 
is the selling of adulterated milk," the other is the sale of 
milk *'not of standard quality." Though the fines are the 
same for both offences, there is a certain amount of moral 
turpitude and popular stigma attached to the selling of an 
adulterated product, which does not necessarily attach to the 
sale of a product which may be pure, but which is not of 



14 



DAIRY BUREAU. 



[Jan. 



standard quality. Yet newspaper accounts of trials and in 
some cases official reports inadvertently allude to adulterated 
milk, when milk not of standard quality is meant. 

Vermont, like Massachusetts, prohibits the sale of milk 
not of good standard quality. The Maine law prescribes 
that, when milk is found of less than the prescribed standard, 
** it shall be deemed ^Wma/acze evidence that said milk has 
been watered." New Hampshire has a similar law. The 
Rhode Island law provides that, when milk is found having 
less than a certain per cent of solids, it shall be deemed, 
for the purposes of said sections, to be adulterated." 

These milk laws are sometimes criticised on account of 
the danger under which the farmer and the peddler labor in 
carrying on their business, the charge being made that an 
unseen sword dangles over their heads, held by a thread, 
liable at any moment to fall upon them. This is an exag- 
gerated statement of the case. There is very slight chance 
of any honest producer or dealer getting into trouble through 
selling honest milk of less than standard quality. Average 
mixed milk contains 13 per cent of milk solids, and the 
quality of herd milk is quite uniform. It is only a small 
minority of individual cows that produce milk of less than 
13 per cent solids, and even the mixed milk from grades of 
these cows is usually very near to the standard. But during 
five months of the year the standard is 12 per cent instead 
of 13, so that during five-twelfths of the time the standard is 
one per cent below the average qualit}^ of milk. Further 
than that, the practical details in enforcing the milk laws, as 
we have said, allow a latitude of from one-half to three- fourths 
of one per cent. The chances of trouble are still further 
reduced by increasing knowledge of the science of milk pro- 
duction. The causes of variation in the quality of milk are 
better known than ever before. It is now well established 
that there are no great mysteries or sudden fluctuations in 
the quality of herd milk, that feed has comparatively little 
to do with it, and that almost everything depends upon the 
individuality of the animals. If the mixed milk of a herd is 
not of average quality, — a fact which is of very rare occur- 
rence, — it is because there are too many animals in the herd 
which are producing milk of less than standard quality. 



1899.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 60. 



15 



With the use of the Babcock milk tester the producer can 
keep track of the quality of the milk he is selling, and be 
absolutely sure of it. It is interesting to note that our en- 
forcement of the law in Holyoke has led to the purchase of a 
number of these testers by milk dealers and others, who pro- 
pose to keep thoroughly informed as to the quality of the 
milk which they sell. 

Pkeservatives in Milk. 

During the past year formaldehyde in its commercial 
solution of formaline has come into use in the State as a 
preservative of milk. Dr. Henry Leffman, a member of the 
Society of Public Analysts of Philadelphia, in the report of 
the Pennsylvania department of agriculture, says: For- 
maldehyde is one of the newest preservatives, and gives 
promise of being the preferred one. Formaldehyde has a 
decidedly germicidal action, and, in addition, possesses the 
power of rendering nitrogeneous matters insoluble and more 
or less indigestible." The enforcement of the law in years 
past has been so vigilant as to drive boracic acid, salicylic 
acid and the older preservatives out of the market, and it 
has been somewhat rare to find milk adulterated with them ; 
but the discovery of the germicidal properties of formalde- 
hyde has led to the pushing of various preservatives having 
that as a basis. One of these has been advertised consider- 
ably in Massachusetts as ''Freezine." The advertisement 
of it says : — 

The souring of milk or cream is due to the action of minute 
organisms known as bacteria. We have been experimenting with 
these bacteria in our laboratory for years, and have been rewarded 
by discovering a gas which, when dissolved in a liquid, has the 
same effect on bacteria that freezing them does, and makes them 
harmless. This gas has no bad effects on milk or cream, in fact, 
a chemist could not find any trace of it if the milk were analyzed, 
because the gas evaporates after it has done its work. . . . The 
advantages which we claim for " Freezine " are: the manner in 
which it affects the bacteria and preserves the milk and cream ; 
and that it cannot be detected when used, as it does not change 
or affect the appearance, color or taste of milk or cream. "Free- 
zine" is perfectly harmless, and is not injurious to the human 



16 



DAIEY BUREAU. 



[Jan. 



system, as it freezes the bacteria and evaporates quickly, leaving 
the milk in a perfectly wholesome condition. It is much cheaper 
to use " Freezine " than ice. 

An Anti-Sour" has been sold in much the same way. 

These statements are so plausible that some milkmen have 
been led into purchasing the article ; but a chemist can de- 
tect it, and in every case where we have found it convictions 
have ensued, nine in all. 

In one respect the advertisement tells the truth, and that 
is, in a clause in which the substance is recommended for 
cleaning, sweetening and puritying milk cans and bottles. 
The effect of formaline in destroying bacteria is such as to 
make it valuable for this purpose, and it is used to a con- 
siderable extent in cleansing creameries and cheese factories. 
It is stated that in parts of Europe formaline is used to 
remove danger of disease germs in rooms where milk is kept 
for the city trade. It is also used as a spray in cheese 
rooms, to prevent mold on cheese. But we cannot recom- 
mend it as an article of food. Whether it is an unsafe sul)- 
stance to take into the human stomach is not yet proven ; 
that is, there is as yet no judicial evidence that any person 
has actually suffered any ill effects from using food preserved 
with formaline, although a report in a western paper of the 
trial of a milkman in Kansas City for using formaldehyde 
states that the compound is su})posed to have caused the 
serious illness of several persons, and the city chemist testi- 
fied that the substance was poisonous. 

The consensus of the best opinion, however, has been and 
is against chemical preservatives ; though boracic acid and 
other substances may be harmless in minute quantities, the 
general use of them is condemned. It is possible, however, 
that this ground will have to be re-argued, on account of the 
growing popularity of formaline. 

Dr. eJ. A. Miller, one of the chemists of the New York 
department of agriculture, says : — 

It is not at all improbable that the use of formaline, not alone 
for the preservation of milk, but of other food stuffs as well, will 
soon become a wide one ; and it therefore seems to me to be a 



1899.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 60. 



17 



wise and prudent plan to undertake a careful and thorough inves- 
tigation of the effects of formaline upon animal economy. 

But a food preservative like this should be presumed 
guilty till proved innocent. We should not take chances in 
dosing the human system ; what prevents bacterial action may 
impede digestion. Formaline is known to harden caseine ; 
why, then, is the caseine not rendered less digestible? 

Henry H. Wing, assistant professor of dairy husbandry in 
Cornell University, in a treatise upon the nature and quali- 
ties of milk and its products, says : — 

A large number of chemical agents are more or less destructive 
to germ life. Many of them are so violent in their action as to 
destroy the milk, as well as the germs ; but there are many which 
are destructive to germ life, with no effect upon the composition, 
odor or flavor of the milk. But all of these, without exception, 
are more or less injurious to the human system, particularly if 
they are used continuously, even though only in small quantities. 
Of the compounds which may be used for this purpose, formalin, 
salicylic and boracic acids and their derivatives are undoubtedly 
the least injurious, but their use is not to be recommended under 
any circumstances. 

From ' ' The principles of modern dairy practice from a 
bacteriological point of view," by Gosta Grotenfelt, edited by 
F. W. Woll, assistant professor of agricultural chemistry, 
University of Wisconsin, we quote : — 

The indiscriminate use of preservatives in food articles ought 
to be prohibited by law ; this is especially urgent in case of such 
articles as milk and other dairy products, which in a large measure 
enter into the nutrition of children and convalescents. Most 
European countries long ago prohibited the addition of salicylic 
and boracic acid and other antiseptics in food, e.g.^ Germany, 
Holland, France, Austria, Spain, Italy, etc. Mr. Hehner, the 
president of the Society of Public Analysts of England, in the 
November, 1890, meeting of the society, read a paper on food 
preservatives, in which he forcibly sums up the question in the 
following paragraph : — 

"We should work for the entire prohibition of all kinds of 
preservatives. It is time that we went back to natural food. I 
object to being physicked indiscriminately by persons not quali- 
fied to administer medicine whilst I am in health. I object still 



18 



DAIEY BUREAU. 



[Jan. 



more when I am ill. I object still more strongly to have my 
children physicked in their milk or their bread and butter. It is 
no consolation to me to know that the physic is not immediately 
fatal or not even violently injurious. The practice is utterly un- 
justifiable, except from the point of view of a dealer who wants 
to make an extra profit, who wants to palm off a stale or ill-pre- 
pared article upon the public." 

C. M. Aikman, M.A., D.Sc, in a book on milk, its 
nature and composition, says, as to means of preventing 
changes in milk : — 

The great agent is heat. Cleanliness is not a less valuable in- 
strument, cleanliness in every way, — on the hands of the milker, 
on the teats of the cow, in the milk pails and other receptacles 
used for holding the milk, in the byre, etc. Immediately after 
milking the milk should be cooled down ; the lower the tempera- 
ture, the better. On the other hand, it may be sterilized by 
heating. The addition of chemicals, so-called " preservatives," 
cannot be too strongly condemned. Even such comparatively 
harmless preservatives as bicarbonate of soda, boracic acid, sali- 
cylic acid and peroxide of hydrogen ought not to be used. Quite 
recently, also, formalin, viz., a 40 per cent solution of formalde- 
hyde, has been used with great success as a preservative. 

Dr. A. McGill, Bulletin 54, laboratory of the inland 
revenue department of Ottawa, says : — 

It is true that we do not yet know enough of the physiological 
action of formalin, salicylic acid, borax, etc., to enable us to say 
just in what way and to what extent their presence in food is 
harmful or dangerous ; but it is not unreasonable to suppose that 
substances so effective in preventing putrefactive change should 
interfere more or less with the functions of digestion, which are 
more or less analogous to such change. As the subject is a highly 
important one, 1 shall take the liberty of quoting a few opinions 
by leading English physicians, called out by a circular recently 
addressed to the profession by the editor of the London ' ' Lancet " 
(see " Lancet," 1897, page 56) : — 

Sir Henry Thompson writes that he has long held the addition 
of antiseptics to food as undesirable, though he is unable to pro- 
duce evidence that any one of them had given rise to deleterious 
action. 

Dr. Pavy wrote that he did not consider our knowledge suffi- 
ciently extended to permit of it being taken for granted that no 



1899.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 60. 



19 



injury is producible, although there is no evidence of injury to 
health. He points out that it is the vendor, and not the consumer, 
that is benefited. 

Dr. F. J. Allen points out the possibility of daily accumulation 
of antiseptics quite sufficient to produce a gradual lowering of the 
standard of health. 

Dr. Sims Woodhead draws attention to idiosyncrasy and cu- 
mulative effect, and dwells upon our ignorance of the action of 
certain drugs (e.r/., formalin) on food stuffs. He points out that, 
by the use of preservatives, foods of inferior quality may be 
doctored. He would make the use of antiseptics illegal, unless 
their nature and quantity be made known. 

It is not to be forgotten that, while some disagreement as to 
the positively harmful effects of antiseptics when used by adults 
may be found among physicians, the presence of these powerful 
drugs in the food of infants admits of no justification. 

Kenovated Butter. 

We have several times called attention to the increasing 
sale and use of butter which has been renovated by various 
processes and sold in a wholesale way as " process butter" 
or sterilized butter." The manao^ers of these renovatino^ 
establishments buy up stale, rancid, unmerchantable and 
low-grade butters, of various degrees of badness. These 
are melted together and clarified. The oil is then chilled 
and the granules rechurned with milk or cream. The re- 
sultant product has many of the physical characteristics of 
oleomargarine, and may be mistaken for it by some of the 
ordinary tests. Chemical analysis shows that the substance 
has an amount of volatile fatty acids below the ordinary 
average for butter, but much more than oleomargarine con- 
tains. We have taken several samples brought to us during 
the past year, and Dr. B. F. Davenport reported that the 
article could be properly called "an oleomargarine," and 
that *'it is not the product ordinarily known as butter." 
This process butter is frequently sold dishonestly, and often 
the consumer is ignorant of its real character, and that raw 
material unfit for human food may have entered into its 
composition. Pennsylvania requires it to be branded and 
labelled as ''renovated butter." This is an honest name, 
and we can see no objection to it. A New York butter 



20 



DAIRY BUREAU. 



[Jan. 



dealer says: Renovated ' butter sounds hard, and it 
would have a killing elfect on the trade in this State. But 
that is just what it is, and I see no reason why it should not 
be branded that way. It is a legitimate article, all the com- 
ponent parts except the salt and the coloring matter being 
the product of the dairy ; but, in the interest of all con- 
cerned, the goods must be sold for what they are." 

It is this selling of them for what they are not that de- 
ceives, the consumer usually thinking that what he buys is 
fresh creamery butter. This deceptive business also injures 
the butter trade, for a dishonest dealer can undersell honest 
goods 2 or 3 cents per pound, and yet make more than the 
ordinary per cent of profit. These facts are causing an in- 
creasing agitation of the policy and principle involved in 
renovated butter, and a growing feeling in favor of the 
necessity of branding it. 

Butter. 

Massachusetts consumes much more butter than is manu- 
factured in the State. The statistics of all the consumption 
cannot be readily secured, but the following table gives the 
Boston chamber of commerce figures for the receipts and 
sales in this one market : — 





1H9H. 


1897. 


1S96. 




Pounds. 


Pounds. 


Pounds. 


On hand January 1, 


2,473,600 


2,898,000 


1,659,434 


Receipts for the year, 


50,609,552 


51,107,033 


50,972,255 


Total supply, . 


53,083,152 


54,005,033 


52,631,689 


Exports, deduct 


1,574,682 


3,286,333 


3,156,741 


Net supply, 


51,508,470 


50,718,700 


49,474,948 


Stock on hand, December 31, 










2,829,160 


2,620,680 


2,898,080 


Consumption, . 


48,679,310 


48,098,020 


46,576,868 



This shows a reduction in receipts for 1898, occasioned by 
a great falling off in the export business. But the consump- 
tion is steadily increasing. 



1899.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 60. 21 



The amount which has been consumed is materially larger 
than it would have been had imitation butter been allowed 
full and free sale in a deceptive manner. On the very- 
moderate estimate of curtailing dishonest sales to the amount 
of one-half of one per cent of the amount consumed, which 
no one will dispute, the law has prevented imposition and 
enhanced honest dealing to the extent of 243,400 pounds, 
which, at the average price of 20 cents per pound, amounts 
to $46,680. This is based on the Boston market alone. 

The following table shows the extreme quotation for the 
best fresh creamery butter in a strictly wholesale way in the 
Boston market for four years : — 





1898. 

Cents. 


1897. 

Cents. 


1896. 

Cents. 


1895. 

Cents. 




22h 


22 


26 


26 




21i 


22 


24 


25 




22 


23 


24 


23 




22i| 


22 


22 


21 




18 


18 


17 


19 




17h 


16 


16^ 


20 


July, 




16^ 


16^ 


19 




m 


19 


17i 


21 




21 


22 


17i 


22 


October, 


2lh 


22i 


20 


23 


November, 


21 


22 


21 


23 




21 


23 


23 


28 



The price for 1898 averaged about | of a cent per pound 
less than for 1897 and of a cent per pound more than for 
1896^ But during the months of greatest depression — 
June and July — the price in 1898 did not drop so low by 
H and 2 cents per pound as in 1897. Prices in 1898 were 
better than in 1897 up to September ; but for the last four 
months of 1898 there was a marked falling off, as compared 



22 



DAIRY BUREAU. 



[Jan. 



with 1897. The highest price quoted in four years is 28 
cents, in December, 1895 ; the lowest is 16 cents, in June, 
1897. 

Boston Milk. 
The following table gives the receipts, sales and surplus 
of railroad milk in 8 J quart cans, brought into the greater 
Boston, as reported by the contractors' association : — 



1898. 


1 

j E-GC6ived,. 


Sold. 


Surplus. 


January, 


947,935 


708,677 


239,258 


February, .... 


835,916 


635,892 


200,024 


March, 


960,443 


728,188 


232,255 


April, 


965,260 


690,042 


275,218 


May, 


i,0oo,yDy 


725,507 


OK O A Oct 

o58,4d2 


June, 


1,142,161 


711,104 


431,057 


July, 


995,552 


748,414 


247,138 


August, 


893,927 


736,426 


157,501 


September, .... 


895,794 


729,885 


165,909 


October, 


928,309 


737,652 


190,657 


November, .... 


818,027 


704,130 


113,897 


December, .... 


850,468 


708,765 


141,703 




11,317,761 


8,564,682 


2,753,079 






Receipts. 


Sales. 


Surplus. 


1897, 


11,798,191 


8,738,572 


3,059,619 


1896, 


10,772,108 


8,087,378 


2,684,730 


1895, 


9,856,500 


8,040,732 


1,815,768 


1894, 


9,705,447 


7,657,421 


2,048,026 


1893, 


9,263,487 


7,619,722 


1,643,765 


1892, 


9,212,667 


7,315,135 





1899.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 60. 23 

The noticeable feature of the business the past year was 
the immense surplus in June, followed by a marked falling 
off in receipts during the last half of the year. In round 
figures this decrease from receipts during the corresponding 
months of 1897 was as follows : — 



18,000 
73,000 
61,000 
109,000 
144,000 
95,000 

500,000 

This falling off is probably due to several causes. The 
increased surplus in April, May and June reduced the aver- 
age income per can to producers ; this, coupled with higher 
prices of cows, has undoubtedly been largely instrumental 
in leading to reduced production. Sales in 1898 have fluct- 
uated more than the sales in 1897. In Ausjust there was an 
increase of 16,000 cans, and in April a decrease of 43,000. 
Every month has shown a decrease except January, March 
and August. It is hardly supposable that the consumption 
of milk in a growing municipality has fallen off. The pre- 
sumption is that this falling ofl* of the contractors' sales has 
been partly made up by the increased use of cream and partly 
by an increase of milk from near-by sources. This milk has 
for several years been a cause of some anxiety, as well as 
demoralization, though no more so this year than usual. 
Reduced supplies have offset this and steadied the market, 
so that the close of the year finds it in better condition than 
for some time. The extreme retail price of milk has con- 
tinued, as heretofore, at 7 cents per quart where milk is de- 
livered to customers in quart or pint cans. Much is sold 
from grocery stores at 4 and 6 cents. In sales in a jobbing 
way by the can to hotels, restaurants, public institutions, 
etc., the competition has been sharp, and many stories have 
been told of extremely low prices. The nominal price to 
peddlers has been 30 cents in summer and 33 cents in 
winter. The movement to supply a higher grade of milk at 
a higher price makes headway slowly, though each year 



July, 

August, . 
September, 
October, . 
November, 
December, 



24 



DAIRY BUREAU. 



[Jan. 



notices a little gain in that respect. Much of the near-by 
milk should be held at the full price or a little more, on 
account of its greater freshness, instead of being offered in 
competition with railroad milk at a lower price. 

The price of milk to the producers has been the same as 
for previous years. As has been explained in previous 
reports, the price of milk is based upon a theoretical Boston 
price, subject to a scale of discount depending upon the dis- 
tance from Boston as follows : — 

Cents. 

For stations between 17 and 23 miles from Boston, .... 8 
For stations between 23 and 36 miles from Boston, .... 9 
For stations between 36 and 56 miles from Boston, . . . .10 
For stations between 56 and 76 miles from Boston, . , . .11 
And 1 cent more for each additional 20 miles. 

When this plan was first established, the theoretical Boston 
price was expected to be the selling price of wholesalers to 
peddlers, and the discount was supposed to represent the 
expenses of doing business and the profit of the whole- 
salers. During the past few years of smaller margins milk 
has not been sold at the theoretical Boston price into 2 or 3 
cents per can, consequently^ this figure has been to an extent 
misleading. During the past year the discount scale has 
been reduced 2 cents. 

The theoretical Boston price per can of 8| quarts for a 
number of years has been as follows : — 



Year. 


Summer. 


Winter. 


Year. 


Summer. 


Winter. 




Cents. 


Cents. 




Cents. 


Cents. 


1886, 


30 


36 


1893, . 


33 


37 


1887, 


30 


36 


' 1894, . 


33 


37 


1888, 


32 


38 


1895, . 


33 


37 


1889, 


32 


38 


1896, . 


33 


35 


1890, 


32 


36 


1897, . 


33 


35 


1891, 


33 


37 














Average (12 yrs.), 


32| 


36| 


1892, 


33 


37 









1899.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 60. 



25 



During the year 1898 the price has been 31 and 33 cents, 
— 2 cents reduction from the figures of the previous two 
years, but netting the farmers the same on account of the 
reduced discount. 

Early in the year there was a contest between contractors 
and producers as to the amount of surplus for which the 
contractors should pay full price. The producers asked the 
full price on an amount of the surplus equal to 5 per cent of 
the sales ; the offer was on an amount equal to 2^ per cent 
of the sales. A proposition to refer the difference to the 
board of arbitration fell through, owing to a misunder- 
standing. 

There has been undertaken during the past season what 
may prove an entering wedge to a material improvement of 
the city milk supply. One large firm of milk wholesalers, 
compelled to move its business by changes in railroad tracks 
incidental to the new union station, has built a new milk 
depot. It is constructed of brick, iron, cement and artificial 
stone, so that it can be kept scrupulously clean. The milk 
will be cooled by artificial refrigeration, instead of ice, which 
is more cleanly. But the distinctive feature of the building 
is the possibility of a radical change for the better in the 
method of distributing milk. Now the peddlers take the 8^ 
quart cans from the cars to their individual milk head- 
quarters, which are not always over clean, and which some- 
times are in unpleasant proximity to stables, sewers, etc. 
Here the milk is mixed, put in small retail cans, kept in 
refrigerators over night, and delivered the next morning. 

This new wholesale milk house is to be fitted with porce- 
lain-lined vats, w here the milk will be mixed and cooled. It 
can then be drawn into cans or bottles for consumers, kept 
in cold storage at known and uniform temperature till needed, 
and sold to peddlers under a guarantee of quality, for imme- 
diate distribution. This plan also has the possibility of 
keeping away from the city trade all cans used in the trans- 
portation of milk, making possible the return of clean cans 
to the farmers. 

A scrap going the rounds of the dairy papers drawls a 
somewhat fanciful view of the future condition of the city 
milk trade. It says : — 



26 



DAIRY BUREAU. 



[Jan. 



The creameries, milk rooms, vats, etc., will be either of tile or 
porcelain lining ; apparatus for sterilizing and pasteurizing milk 
will have to be purchased ; all milk will be certified, and nothing 
sold except in glass jars ; every concern will employ a graduated 
chemist and a veterinary surgeon. Milk stores will be veritable 
crystal palaces, compared with the ones in use to-day, and all the 
employees will be uniformed, and compelled to undergo a civil 
service examination once a year. More advance will be made on 
this line in the next ten years than has been made in the past fifty 
years. A complete revolution is coming. Almost the same 
progress will be made on the dairy farms among the men who 
produce the milk. The production, care and handling of milk is 
receiving more attention to-day from all classes than ever before in 
our history. 

The above paragraph was written and published without 
any knowledge of the new building in this city ; but it may 
be that Boston will be able to show the world substantial 
progress along the lines indicated in the above paragraph 
much sooner than the writer of it anticipated. 

Early in the year a study of the condition of cans returned 
to the farmers was undertaken, in connection with the Milk 
Producers' Union. Shipping tags were provided for the 
members of the union, and a circular sent them, announcing 
that all cans received by them in an unduly filthy condition 
could be sent by express to the executive officer of the Dairy 
Bureau for inspection and report. This brought out only 
20 cans in three months. The number was much less than 
we had supposed would be sent, but the nauseating filthiness 
of those which were returned made up for lack of number, — 
rotten curd, putrefying slime, rotten eggs, kerosene oil and 
human excrement were amono: the ins^redients, while the 
odors beggared description. 

Outside of Boston. 

In the other cities and in the larger towns the milk supply 
has in the main been large, and prices weak during the year. 
In Boston the peculiarity of the wholesale system is such 
that the wholesalers keep the surplus milk off the market, 
manufacturing it into butter. This has a great influence in 
steadying the retail market, and in reducing to the lowest 



1899.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 60. 27 



terms the temptation to make concessions in prices. Such 
conditions do not exist outside of Boston, and from nearly 
ever}^ considerable town or city have come complaints of 
much cutting of prices, though nominally the prevailing price 
throughout the Commonwealth seems to be 5 and 6 cents. 
Lynn, Newton and one or two other places report 7 cents as 
an extreme for ordinary milk. In some places the under- 
bidding is done by means of a ticket system, tickets good 
for 22 or 24 quarts being sold for $1. 

Though the supply has been full, all reports received in- 
dicate a fair demand. There is no great movement in the 
State towards selling a superior article at a better price than 
the average, or in selling certified or guaranteed milk, but 
reports from a number of places show a tendency in that 
way. The use of glass bottles is increasing, and this has an 
indirect tendency to improve the supply. A correspondent 
from Worcester says there is a growing tendency to improve 
the quality of milk by the introduction of Jersey cows. In 
Newton and Brookline there is a growing trade in milk pro- 
duced from well-known herds of better than the average 
quality, at 8 and in some cases 10 cents per quart. The 
milk inspector in Holyoke says there has been a marked im- 
provement in the quality of milk sold in that place. From 
Lowell, Framingham and one or two other places come re- 
ports of the introduction of pasteurized milk, but that is not 
as yet in general use. The Newton milk inspector reports 
that, of nearly 2,000 samples examined by him, the greater 
number were of higher standard than required by law. 



Inspection. 

We have previously recommended a system of inspection 
of dairy herds and surroundings, based on the Michigan law. 
This furnishes an educational system which can be of great 
service, with a minimum of objectionable features. The 
plan calls for only an inspection of herds and stables, and a 
report. A good report is a good advertisement to a thrifty, 
intelligent dairyman ; a poor report is a stimulus to better 
conditions. We are informed by the Michigan dairy com- 
missioner that the plan works admirably there. Its general 



28 



DAIRY BUREAU. 



[Jan. 



features have been endorsed and recommended by the Mas- 
sachusetts State Grange. We append two sample reports 
from a Michigan report : — 

At Ionia. 

A. M. Welch. — Cows in very good condition ; stables excep- 
tionally clean ; ventilation good ; sanitary conditions excellent ; 
uses spring water ; drainage good. Cows are cleaned twice a day ; 
wells and ceilings of stables whitewashed twice each j^ear ; has 
clean, well-ventilated cooling room, and all modern appliances for 
handling milk in a neat and systematic way. 

At Cadillac. 

C. J. Holman. — Stables unclean ; drainage imperfect and 
manure allowed to accumulate near stables ; ventilation fair ; 
sanitary conditions poor. 

Cream. — Condensed Milk. 

Sales of cream continue to increase, and, as much of the 
market cream is manufactured on the factory plan in large 
creameries of good standing, the quality is to a great degree 
uniform and satisfactory. As the cream is sold to the trade 
in small cans, the opportunity to tamper with it is largely 
removed. It would be an advance step for the cans to have 
a label containing a guarantee of quality. This would be no 
hardship to these creameries or other leading producers, for 
the cream is now of good quality, but it would educate con- 
sumers to differences in the quality of cream and to the rela- 
tion between varying qualities and price ; it would also 
reduce any tendency for less scrupulous dealers to sell a 
lower grade at the regular price. 

A Philadelphia newspaper says : — 

Probably no recent development of the retail grocery business 
has been more noticeable of late years, especially in the mill and 
labor districts, than the increase in the sale of condensed milk. 
Grocers who formerly sold none of this now sell stacks of it, and 
grocers who used to sell a few cans a month now sell several 
cases. Every condensed milk manufactory in the country has in- 
creased its output 25 per cent this year, and it is sold up to the 
handle. 



1899.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT— No. 60. 29 



Condensed milk is of more varying composition than 
market cream, and in many cases the percentage of fat* is 
not increased by the condensation process in the same ratio 
as the solids not fat are increased. Condensed milk should 
mean milk which has been thickened by driving off the 
water. If any of the fat has been removed, that should be 
stated. When condensed milk is artificially sweetened, that 
fact should also be stated on the label. Usage has led the 
consumer to expect condensed milk to be sweetened. There 
is no need to add sugar to preserve condensed milk. Some 
good brands contain no sugar. When condensed milk is 
sugared, the consumer can add five to eight volumes of water, 
and still have a product which does not appear over thin. 



Educational. 

The educational part of our work has not been neglected. 
The acting executive officer has answered twenty-five calls 
to address various gatherings. He has also been called upon 
several times to test milk at dairies with the Babcock tester. 
He has also made tests of milk and cream brought to him. 
During the summer ofiers were made to the New England 
Milk Producers' Union and to the Massachusetts Creameries 
Association to hold a series of combination dairy institutes 
with each organization. The offers were gratefully received. 
As a result, four profitable, well-attended creamery institutes 
were held at Grranby, Enfield, Cummington and Easthamp- 
ton, in co-operation with the creameries' association. The 
institutes afforded an opportunity to the farmers who pro- 
duce cream to meet practical buttermakers and Dr. J. B. 
Lindsey. Here the actual problems which perplex them 
were talked over, much interest aroused, and we believe con- 
siderable good done. 

The representative of the Bureau has acted as expert judge 
at the exhibition of the Worcester South Agricultural So- 
ciety, to award prizes for the cow producing the greatest 
amount of butter fat in twenty-four hours on the society's 
grounds. The testing was done with the Babcock tester in 
the exhibition hall, before all who wished to witness it, with 
the following result : — 



30 DAIRY BUREAU. [Jan. 

High-grade Guernsey (C. L. Underwood, East Brookfield, Mass.). 





Weight of Milk. 


Per Cent of Fat. 


Weight of Fat. 


Night, 

Morning, .... 
Total, .... 


lbs. oz. 

17 14 
17 9 


4.00 
3.80 


lbs. 

.715 
.667 


35 7 




1.382 


High-grade Ayrshire, Nine Years Old, Two Months in Milk 
(L. WooDis, North Brookfield, Mass.). 


Morning, .... 
Total, .... 


lbs. oz. 

15 10 
15 8 


3.60 
4.20 


lbs. 

.562 
.651 


31 2 




1.213 


Grade Jersey, Ten Years Old (Melvin Shepard, Sturhridge, 

Mass.). 


Night, 

Morning, .... 
Total, .... 


lbs. oz. 

10 
9 8 


5.40 
5.80 


lbs. 

.540 
.551 


19 8 




1.091 


Jersey (Bond & Sons, Charlton, Mass.). 


Night, 

Morning, .... 
Total, .... 


lbs. oz. 

9 8 
8 11 


6.40 
4.00 


lbs. 

.608 
.347 


18 3 




.955 


Jersey, Four Years Old, Ten Days in Milk (C. D. Richardson, 
West Brookjield, Mass. ) . 


Morning, .... 
Total, .... 


lbs. oz. 

8 3 
8 2 


5.80 
5.80 


lbs. 

.475 
.471 


16 5 




.946 



1899.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 60. 31 

Thoroughbred Jersey^ Ten Years Old^ Four Months in Milk (James 
Freeland, Sutton,! Mass.). 





Weight of Milk. 


Per Cent of Fat. 


weignt 01 r at. 




lbs. 


oz. 




lbs. 


Night, 


9 


6 


4.80 


.450 


Morning, .... 


9 


2 


5.00 


.456 


Total, .... 


18 8 




.906 



This educational work is sometimes discouraging, on ac- 
count of the failure to see immediate results. It is often 
like the seed put away out of sight. But we believe that a 
harvest of increased intelligence and profit is inevitable, 
though in the future. 

The duty of representing the State at the National Con- 
vention of Dairy and Food Commissioners has also fallen 
upon me. These conferences of persons engaged in similar 
work are very valuable, tending to promote efficiency of 
action. 

The following is the manner in which the appropriation 
of $7,000 has been expended : — 

Members of the Bureau, travelling expenses and attending 

meetings, $382 47 

Agents' salaries, 2,112 00 

Agents' expenses, 2,063 99 

Chemist, 810 00 

George M. Whitaker, travelling and office expenses, sup- 
plies, mileage tickets, etc., 827 93 

Educational work, 106 50 

Printing, 45 16 

Supplies, 41 30 

Total, $6,389 35 

Unexpended, 610 65 

$7,000 00 
GEORGE M. WHITAKER. 

Accepted and adopted as the report of the Dairy Bureau. 



D. A. HORTON. 
J. L. ELLSWORTH. 
C. D. RICHARDSON. 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT 



No. 60. 



NINTH ANNUAL EEPOET 

or THE 

DAIRY BUREAU 

OP THE 

Massachusetts Boaed of Ageiculture, 

BBQUIBED 

Under Chapter 412, Acts of 1891. 



Jan^uary 15, 1900. 



BOSTON: 

WEIGHT & POTTER PRINTING CO., STATE PRINTERS, 
18 Post Office Square. 
1900. 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT 



No. 60. 



]Sri:N^TH ANNUAL EEPOET 

OF THE 

'DAIRY BUREAU 

OF THE 

Massachusetts Boaed of Ageicultuee, 

BEQUIRED 

Under Chapter 412, Acts of 1891. 



January 15, 1900. 



BOSTON ; 

WRIGHT & POTTER PRINTING CO, STATE PRINTERS, 
18 Post Office Square. 
1900. 



Dairy Bureau— 1899-1900 



D. A. HORTON, Northampton, Chairman. 

J. L. ELLSWORTH, Worcester. 

C. D. RICHARDSON, West Brookfield. 



Executive Officer. 
J. W. STOCKWELL, Secretary of the State Board of Agriculture. 



Assistant to the Secretary and Acting Executive Officer, appointed by the 

Governor. 

GEO. M. WHITAKER, Boston. 



EEPOBT 



The Dairy Bureau is charged with the enforcement of the 
dairy laws of the Commonwealth, and also with educational 
work. In enforcing these laws the Bureau has co-ordinate 
jurisdiction with the State Board of Health and with milk 
inspectors, and at first glance it would seem as if there were 
an unnecessary complexity of machinery ; but this is ap- 
parent rather than real. So far as the State Board of Health 
concerns itself with dairy products, it makes a specialty of 
looking for violations of the milk laws ; consequently, the 
Dairy Bureau makes a specialty of enforcing the counterfeit 
butter laws. In most cities and towns having milk in- 
spectors the salaries paid these officers are very small, hence 
no great amount of work is performed by them, and there is 
need of inspection by State officers ; in these places we are 
welcomed, sometimes very heartily, as an important ally of 
the local authorities. Boston, however, has liberal appro- 
priations, and in Dr. Harrington an excellent officer to 
enforce the law ; therefore the work is well done, and we 
attempt nothing in the city of Boston. From the above it 
will be seen that, in enforcing the laws relative to counter- 
feit butter outside of Boston, with incidental attention to 
other dairy laws, and in carrying out the injunction of the 
statute "to disseminate such information as shall be of ser- 
vice in producing a more uniform dairy product of higher 
grade and better quality," the Dairy Bureau has a distinctive 
field of action different from that of any other department, 
and one in which there is an abundance of important work. 

During the past year we have been exceptionally busy, 
and have accomplished more — at least, so far as visible and 
statistical results show — than in any previous year of the 
Bureau's existence. This is largel}^ due to increased activity 
of dealers in oleomargarine, and the addition to our work 



6 



DAIRY BUREAU. 



[Jan. 



by the passage of the renovated butter law last winter. We 
have made more than the average number of inspections, 
taken more samples than in previous years, had more than 
the average number of cases in court, secured more convic- 
tions than ever before, and have done an unusual amount of 
educational work. This has necessarily increased our ex- 
penses for travel and chemibt's services, but the expense for 
agents' salaries has been below the average. Notwithstand- 
ing all that has been accomplished, we have seen much more 
that could be done which we were obliged to leave un- 
touched, on account of the limited appropriation. With 
more money we could have shown even greater results. 

The membership of the Bureau has remained the same as 
last year. There has been a change, however, in the execu- 
tive officer, due to the retirement of Hon. William R. 
Sessions, who declined another re-election as secretary of the 
Board of Agriculture. Hon. J. W. Stockwell was elected 
in January, and in July assumed the office, which includes 
the position of executive officer of the Bureau. The details 
of the executive work have continued under the direction of 
George M. W^hitaker, who in September was reappointed 
by the Governor as " assistant to the secretary of the Board 
of Agriculture ... to assist in the work prescribed in the 
eleventh section of this act." 

Only two regular agents for collecting samples and for in- 
spection service have been at work during the year. Mr. 
Stockwell resigned in January, and Ralph M. Horton was 
then employed as a regular agent. George F. Baldwin has 
been continued during the year. Prof. F. S. Cooley of the 
Agricultural College was appointed in the summer as a tem- 
porary agent to investigate the work of the creameries of the 
State. From time to time special agents have been em- 
ployed for short terms, as circumstances seemed to demand. 
The reofular awnts become in time so well known that their 
efficiency for detective work is in some instances impaired, 
.and good results occasionally follow the temporary employ- 
ment of a person unknown to would-l)e law breakers. 

The chemical work during the year has been performed 
by Dr. B. F. Davenport and by the Hatch Experiment 
Station (Edward B. Holland, analyst), the former analyzing 



1900.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 60. 



7 



samples taken in the eastern part of the State, and the latter 
samples taken hi the western part of the State. 

In a general way and statistically the work of the Bureau 
during the year has been as follows : — 

Inspection of places in which dairy products or imitation 



dairy products were sold or stored, .... 1,935 
Samples taken of real or imitation butter, . . .742 

Samples taken of milk, 611 

Samples taken of condensed milk, 102 

Samples taken of cream, 4 

Cases in court, . 87 

Meetings addressed, including a butter exhibition, . . 19 
Inspection of creameries. 
Work at fairs. 



The oftences charged in the court cases have been as 
follows : — 

Having milk of less than standard quality in possession 



with intent to sell, 19 

Having imitation of yellow butter in possession with in- 
tent to sell, 47 

Serving oleomargarine in hotels and restaurants without 

giving notice, 13 

Obstructing officers in prosecution of their work, . . 3 

Condensed milk, 5 

Total, 87 



This does not include all of the work done, as evidence 
has been secured of several violations of the law which could 
not be tried during the year, and necessarily went over to 
the next year's record. Evidence in two other cases which 
could not be tried on account of the absconding of the 
defendants was secured. 

Of the above 87 cases in court, the defendant was acquitted 
in 10 and a nol pros, entered in 7, leaving the largest num- 
ber of convictions secured by the Bureau in any one year. 

A more detailed account of the work is as follows : — 

Imitation Butter. 
Natural butter has been higher in price during the past 
year than for a number of previous years, which has been a 
temptation to crowd the sales of the spurious article. Fur- 



8 DAIRY BUREAU. [Jan. 

ther than that, the number of manufacturers who have been 
pushing their goods in Massachusetts has increased. When 
the national supreme court rendered its now famous Plumley 
decision, sustaining the constitutionality of the anti-color 
law, the large Chicago manufacturers withdrew from Massa- 
chusetts. They said that, whatever might be their opinion 
of the law, they could not afford to stand before the com- 
munity as law breakers. As a result of this decision, all 
of the counterfeit butter that came into Massachusetts for 
several years was made in Rhode Island, by companies bear- 
ing the names — somewhat peculiar for the business in which 
they were engaged — of " Vermont " and " Oakdale." Dur- 
ing the past year the greed of gain has led two large Chicago 
manufacturers to climb sheepishly down from the pedestal 
of virtue on which they had been posing, and enter the 
scramble for dollars by defying the laws of the Common- 
wealth. These large manufacturers have made cities and 
towns in other States near the Massachusetts line the base 
of their operations, and in many instances have resorted to 
tricks that would bring a blush of envy to the average 
kitchen bar room proprietor. 

On these accounts we have had no lack of work. Our 
agents have travelled more miles, made more inspections and 
procured more evidence than in any previous year. 

We have had 63 cases in court. Evidence has also been 
secured in a number of others which it was impossible to try 
in time to go into the year's records. The charges were as 
follows : — 



Violating the anti-color law, 47 

Violating the hotel -restaurant law, 13 

Obstructing an officer, 3 

Total, 63 



It will be noticed that only two forms of complaint have 
been used. Son^e years we have brought charges for violat- 
ing as many as eight different laws, but in every case the 
anti-color law was one of the number which was violated. As 
courts do not like to multiply cases based on a single trans- 
action, and as violation of the anti-color law is easily proved, 
we have adopted the practice of making all complaints for the 



1900.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 60. 



9 



violation of that law, except when oleomargarine is served 
in hotels and restaurants without giving notice. 

In the above 60 oleomargarine cases, 2 were nol prossed 
and there were 5 acquittals, leaving convictions in 55 cases, 
as against 16 in 1898 and 21 in J897. No cases appealed 
to the superior court have been lost. Exceptions have been 
saved for the supreme court on three points. In a majority 
of cases where the anti-color law was violated the oleomar- 
garine was sold as and for butter, so that there was a com- 
mercial and moral fraud, as well as a violation of the statute. 
In one case we found the marks and brands required by the 
national government erased from the tub, and in place thereof 
the stencil " From J. D. Smith's Creamery, Sudbury, Ver- 
mont." An inspector was sent to Sudbury to investigate, 
and found no such creamery in the place. 

Though the sale of oleomargarine has been pushed harder 
than ever before in the State, the law has been enforced with 
such efficiency that the veteran market reporter of one of the 
leading daily papers of Boston, who is remarkably well 
informed, in summing up the situation says: '-Although 
oleomargarine seems to be interfering considerably with the 
consumption of genuine butter in the west, we do not think 
it cuts much of a figure here." 

In a number of instances our agents have found shipments 
of oleomargarine in transit, and following it to the place of 
delivery have traced it to some State institution, in one case 
to a soldiers' home. Thus in many instances the State is 
holding out temptation to law breakers, and giving a coun- 
terfeit article to the unfortunate inmates of our eleemosynary 
institutions, not excepting the veterans who risked their 
lives in the defence of their country. 

Dr. Harrington, the Boston milk inspector, for several 
months prosecuted restaurant keepers for the sale of an imi- 
tation of yellow butter ; but after awhile he ran against a 
snag in the person of a judge who held that complaints ought 
not to be brought under that act, because restaurant keepers 
are especially mentioned in another, and discharged the 
defendant. Acting on what he believed to be good advice, 
the inspector entered more cases under slightly different 
pleadings, got convictions, and the defendants appealed to 



10 



DAIRY BUREAU. 



[Jan. 



the superior court. One case was called in May, and the 
judge, on consultation with counsel on both sides and such 
of his associates as could be seen, decided that furnishing 
yellow oleomargarine to be used on bread as a part of a meal 
does not constitute a sale of the oleomargarine in the same 
sense that furnishing milk as a part of a meal constitutes a 
sale of milk. The minimum fine in the restaurant cases is 
only $10, while in the other class of cases it is $100. 

We yet hear occasional criticisms of the anti-color law, 
especially by persons who have not had opportunity to in- 
vestigate it ; and the remark is sometimes made that, if 
butter can be colored, there is no good reason why oleomar- 
garine cannot be sold in imitation of butter. This is sophis- 
tical. Admitting^ for argument's sake, that coloring butter is 
indefensible, it does not make right the selling of a counter- 
feit. As has been frequently explained in previous reports, 
the law is demanded in the interests of commercial honesty. 
Colored oleomargarine is a fraudulent article ; when sold, it 
is usually sold dishonestly, and not only sold dishonestly, 
but at an exorbitant profit. Experience has proved this. 
In instances where we have found it on sale, where people 
had taken their chances in violating the law, we have found 
the retailer getting a profit of 60 or 70 per cent, to say 
nothing of the swindle of palming off lard and tallow on 
persons who supposed they were getting real butter. Such 
cases would be multiplied enormously and indefinitely, were 
it not for this law. Hence the law is in the interests of con- 
sumer, producer and dealer in honest butter. 

During the year an attempt has been made in a number of 
States to create a sentiment in favor of increasing the national 
revenue tax on colored oleomargarine, in order still further to 
throttle a counterfeit. It has been shown that this might en- 
danger the constitutionality of the anti-color law by recogniz- 
ing colored oleomargarine as an article of commerce, should 
the supreme court follow the logic of the recent Pennsylvania 
case. In view of this fact, an effort is to be made first to 
secure a law in relation to food products similar to what has 
already been enacted in relation to intoxicating liquors, — to 
wit, that food ])roducts, especiall}^ dairy articles, shall be 
subject to the laws of the States into which they are im- 
ported. This will clinch the question of constitutionality. 



1900.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 60. 



11 



Then can follow an increase in the tax on colored oleomarga- 
rine, which will not jeopardize any legislation which has been 
ah'eady secured. 

There have been no court decisions during the past year 
of particular importance. In Michigan the anti-color law 
has heen temporarily defeated on a technical ground, the 
claim being that the subject of the statute was not indicated 
with sufficient clearness in the title. 

Renovated Butter. 

The process of gathering up low grades and refuse butter, 
and so renovating the mass as to produce a clean, palatable 
article, is in the abstract a gain to humanity, as is any 
process that economizes wastes, utilizes by-products and 
perfects or increases the world's food supply ; but when 
avarice impels weak mankind to sell the product dishonestly, 
when this clarified stuff is in many cases given to the con- 
sumer as fresh creamery butter, law is necessary to protect 
consumer, honest dealer and the better class of producers. 
Such a state of affairs existed in Pennsylvania, New York, 
Minnesota and. Massachusetts last winter, to such an extent 
as to lead to the enactment of laws requiring that packages 
and wrappers used in the sale of this grade of butter should 
be marked with the words "Renovated Butter." This con- 
dition of affairs and this law has added to our work and 
expenses, especially for chemists' analyses ; but we cannot 
report any absolute statistics on this point, because the 
work is closely related to the enforcement of the oleomarga- 
rine laws. When an inspector visits a store, he is on the 
lookout for both oleomargarine and renovated butter. Still 
further, they are often so near alike in superficial character- 
istics that he recoojnizes what he finds as somethino: that is 
not natural butter, and takes a sample, a chemical analysis 
being necessary to detect the nature of the substance. 

During the 3^ear we have found no wilful violations of the 
law. Where the goods have been found unmarked, atten- 
tion has been called to the fact, and in every instance so far 
there has seemingly been a willingness to comply with the 
law ; hence there have been no prosecutions. In a fevv 
instances there has appeared an attempt to evade the law by 
having the mark or brand less distinct than the law required. 



12 



DAIRY BUREAU. 



[Jan. 



One dealer used wrappers marked Sterilized Renovated 
Butter." 

It goes without saying that the law is unpopular with 
would-be or actual dealers in this kind of butter. This 
unpopularity has l)een increased this season by the high 
price of butter, which has stimulated the demand for the 
lower grades, and, as one market reporter says, has proved 
' ' a bonanza for dealers in renovated butter." Why a bonanza, 
unless because they were selling at abnormal profits, and 
inferentially dishonestly? The objection is to the word 

renovated," which is said to carry a stigma, and to be a 
derogatory expression which injures the sale of this butter. 
Dealers prefer the word sterilized ;" but "renovated" is 
an honest appellation, while sterilized" is not. 

Butter. 

The following table shows the extreme quotation for the 
best fresh creamery butter in a strictly wholesale way in the 
Boston market for five years : — 





1899. 

Cents. 


1898. 

Cents. 


1897. 

Cents. 


1896. 

Cents. 


1895. 

Cents. 


January, .... 


21 


22h 


22 


26 


26 


February, 


24 


21h 


22 


24 


25 


March, .... 


22h 


22 


23 


24 


23 


April, .... 


21 


22^ 


22 


22 


21 


May, .... 


19 


18 


18 


17 


19 


June, .... 


19 


17h 


16 


m 


20 


July, .... 


19 


ISh 


16i 


16i 


19 


August, .... 


2U 


19h 


19 


17h 


21 


September, 


23h 


21 


22 


17h 


22 


October, .... 


24 


2U 


22;^ 


20 


23 


November, 


26i 


21 


22 


21 


23 


December, 


28 


21 


23 


23 


28 


Average, . 


22.4 


20.5 


20.6 


20.4 


22.5 



1900.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 60. 



13 



While the price during some months was below the aver- 
age for corresponding months, the average for the year 1899 
was about two cents per pound more than the average of 
1896, 1897 and 1898. The advance was most marked dur- 
ing the last five months of the year. 

The amount of business done in Boston for the years 1899 
and 1898 was as follows : — 





1899. 

Pounds. 


1898. 

Pounds. 




2,829,160 


2,474,000 




49,457,606 


50,609,552 




62,286,766 


53,083,552 




2,951,710 


1,574,682 




49,335,056 


51,508,870 


Stock December 31, deduct .... 


2,035,400 


2,829,160 




47,299,656 


48,679,710 



The average monthly consumption for three years has 
been as follows : — 

Pounds. 

1899, 3,933,300 

1898, 4,056,600 

1897, 4,021,500 

It is unfortunate that statistics for other cities are not 
available ; but in no other place in the State is there any 
organized body w^hich looks after the statistics of business 
so carefully as the Boston Chamber of Commerce. 

If the existence of the oleomargarine laws and the way that 
they are enforced has driven out of the business a dishonest 
substitute and increased sales of genuine butter by an amount 
equal to one per cent of the consumption reported above for 
Boston alone, we have the value of the law to consumers, 
producers and dealers, expressed in pounds, as 470,000. 
This we believe to be an extremely conservative estimate. 
We base our opinion on the temptation there is to sell col- 
ored oleomargarine dishonestly, and the great amount that 



14 



DAIRY BUREAU. 



[Jan. 



would flood the market were there no laws in existence. If 
this 470,000 pounds is valued at the average price for the 
past year of 22.4 cents, we have $105,280 to the credit of 
the law and its execution ; but if we have exaggerated to the 
great extent of doubling the amount, the figures $52,000 
would still show a material saving. 

Samples of butter have been submitted to this department 
during the past year which have had amounts of moisture 
varying from 7 to 33 per cent. These are extreme, and yet 
the samples of butter were taken from goods in possession 
of dealers in the ordinary course of commerce, and show 
what is possible. Analyses of many samples of butter show 
that the usual amount of moisture is from 15 to 20 per cent. 
When butter contains an abnormal amount of water, it 
appears to us to be a case of adulteration so far as the moral 
aspects of the case go, even though there is no violation of 
any statute. 

Massachusetts Creameries. 

It is difficult to get at the exact number of creameries in 
the State, as in a number of cases city milk dealers have a 
butter plant for working up their surplus milk, and it is 
a question whether such an establishment can be fairly called 
a creamery. Furthermore, in several cases where cream- 
eries have been built business has been suspended tempo- 
rarily, but with a possibility of revival. 

^Ve estimate that there are 46 batter factories in the State. 
Thirty-three of these, mostly co-operative, reported to the 
agent of the Bureau, Professor Cooley, that in 1898 they 
made 3,750,000 pounds of butter and sold 110,000 gallons 
of cream. The raw material was received from 2,700 
farmers, who represented 23,000 cows. The value of the 
product was $842,000. 

Of these co-operative creameries 5 were incorporated as 
far back as 1886, but the average age of those now in ex- 
istence is only nine years. Most of these that have gone out 
of existence — West Dudley, Rutland, Leominster, Ipswich, 
Hampden and others — have been forced out from the com- 
petition of the sale milk business. The value of milk to sell 
as milk is usually in excess of its butter value ; and where 
creameries have been located near large towns or along the 



1900.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 60. 15 

lines of railroads where milk cars run to Boston, farmers 
have gradually withdrawn from the creamery and gone to 
selling milk, except in a few instances where the creamery 
has turned its attention to the production of cream rather 
than of butter. Generally speaking, the majority of the 
creameries are strong and in good condition, increasing their 
output. 

The newer creameries do not always represent new busi- 
ness, but a transfer of a part of the business of some older 
creamery. The relative rank of the first 12 creameries as to 
value of output is as follows : Conway, Amherst, Belcher- 
town, Hampton, Cummington, Chester, Egremont, Charle- 
mont, Northfield, Williamsburg, Greylock and Ashfield. 

The troubles from the snr{)lus in the sale milk business in 
Boston have been emphasized and become prominent through 
the magnitude of the business, leading to a considerable dis- 
cussion of the problem in the agricultural press. But the 
creameries of the State are troubled in a similar way, though 
not so emphatically. The amount of production varies very 
much from month to month. Ten of the leading creameries 
show a maximum production in June of 177,000 pounds of 
butter and a minimum in September of 120,000 pounds, — a 
variation of 57,000 pounds in four months. This is a shrink- 
age from the heaviest production of 32 per cent, and presents 
the same problem of uneven supply that troubles the Boston 
milk market. Either there was a surplus of 57,000 pounds 
ill June and nearly the same in May, or there was a shortage 
in the supply of that amount in August and September, and 
of almost that amount in November and February. Several 
creameries who have regular customers and keep well sold up 
have been obliged to buy butter from Vermont or New York 
to supply their customers when the home supply was short. 

The conditions of individual creameries are even worse than 
this average. The Egremont creamery produced in June 27,- 
000 pounds of butter and in February 11,000, — a diflerence 
of 60 per cent, or 16,000 pounds. Belchertown produced 
29,000 pounds in June and 17,000 in December, — a differ- 
ence of 12,000 pounds, or 43 per cent. Ashfield's percent- 
age of difterence is 52, though, as the creamery was doing a 
smaller business, the variation was only about 8,000 pounds. 



16 



DAIRY BUREAU. 



[Jan. 



An attempt was made to get at the annual butter yield per 
cow, in which there is an element of uncertainty on account 
of the varying number of cows that supply a creamery during 
the year, but the result obtained may be regarded as approx- 
imately correct; it is an average of 175 pounds. The 
highest return was made by Williamstown and Egremont 
creameries, 204 pounds each ; and the lowest by Hinsdale, 
127 pounds. Estimating the value of butter at 19 cents per 
pound, the income per cow varied from $24.13 in the case 
of Hinsdale creamery to $38.76 in the case of Williamstown 
and Egremont. 

This showing of 175 pounds of butter per cow is very 
creditable to Massachusetts dairymen, when looked at from 
the stand-point of the fact that the census of 1885 makes the 
estimate that 130 pounds is the average for the country. 
On the other hand, it should be remembered that many 
dairies average 300 pounds per cow, and more is not of 
infrequent occurrence. In the competition under the aus- 
pices of the Guernse}' Cattle Club the herd of George C. 
Hill & Son at Rosendale, Wis., averged 455 pounds of but- 
ter per cow for the year; and that of L. P. Morton, Rhine- 
cliffe, N. Y., averaged 450 pounds. Such variations — from 
455 to 127 pounds of butter per cow per year — would be 
hardly possible in any other kind of manufacturing. 

About 90 per cent of the butter produced in Massachusetts 
creameries is marketed in cities and towns comparatively 
near the creamery, and does not come into the large whole- 
sale markets. The balance is sent to Boston and New York, 
and is quite largely the surplus in seasons of largest amounts 
made. About 85 per cent of the butter manufactured is 
wrapped in prints, and about 5 per cent put into five-pound 
boxes, showing that 90 per cent, or approximately about the 
same as is sold near home, is for immediate consumption. 

At creamery institutes there is a general desire for some 
mode of inspection of dairies, because poor cream from one 
dairy will seriously affect the whole churning, and injure the 
returns to every farmer supplying that creamery with cream. 
But there are so many different ideas among the different 
creameries as to the methods to be pursued, that Professor 
Cooley recommended that no general inspection be attempted, 



1900.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — Xo. 60. 17 



but that the Dairy Bureau secure the services of an expert, 
who can be called upon by creameries if wanted. 

The Belchertown creamery scores dairies by a scale of 
points, and the following is suggested, which would also be 
a good scale in scoring dairies producing sale milk (on a 
scale of 100, 50 points are allowed for care of cows and 50 
for the handling of milk) : — 

Scale of Points for inspecling Dairies. 



Perfect. 

Condition of cows, health, 6 

Cleanliness, 6 

Stables, clean, 4 

Light, . . 5 

Good ventilation, 5 

Disinfected twice a year, 4 

Yards, dry, 5 

Feed, 10 

Water, 5 

Care of milk : — 

Handling, straining, 6 

Submerging, 6 

Apparatus, thoroughly washed, .... 4 

Scalded, 4 

Exposed to sunlight, 4 

Location of cream room, dry, 2 

Free from odor, 4 

Ventilation, 3 

Care of tank, clean, 3 

Pare water, 7 

Temperature, 7 

100 



Of the creameries investigated, 86.5 per cent use the Cooley 
creamer and 13.5 per cent the various separators. 

Nearly 60 per cent of the cream is taken by gatherers, who 
make a trip every other day. Almost half of the remainder 
is collected four times a week. 

Of the by-product, buttermilk, 82 per cent is used for feed- 
ing pigs and calves and 11 per cent is sold for domestic con- 
sumption. 

Milk. 

In the enforcement of the milk law we have taken 611 
samples. In 19 instances the milk was so poor as to war- 
rant* prosecution. In 3 cases the defendant was discharged 



18 DAIRY BUREAU. [Jan. 

on technical grounds growing out of last winter's law, leaving 
16 convictions. 

The result of the analyses of the milk in the 19 cases was 
as follows : — 





Solids not Fat 


Fat 


Total Solids 




(Per Cent). 


(Per Cent). 


(Per Cent). 


No. 1, 


8.29 


3.05 


11.34 


No. 2, .... . 


8.53 


2.80 


11.33 


No. 3, .• . . 


8.64 


3.05 


11.69 


No. 4, .... . 


7.29 


3.60 


10.89 


No. 5, .... . 


10.24 


.40 


10.64 


No. 6, 


9.84 


2.06 


11.90 


No. 7, 


8.80 


2.24 


11.04 


No. 8, 


8.58 


2.80 


11.38 


No. 9, 


8.62 


2.80 


11.42 


No. 10, 


8.82 


2.54 


11.36 


No. 11, 


9.36 


2.62 


11.98 


No. 12, 


9.50 


2.50 


12.00 


No. 13, . • . . . 


(7.95 


3.40 


11.35 




^8.24 


3.40 


11.64 


No. 14 


7.64 


3.13 


10.77 


No. 15, 


7.83 


3.33 


11.16 




r8.4i 


3.00 


11.41 


No. 16, . . . . . 


\ 8.79 


3.03 


11.82 




(8.79 


3.23 


12.02 


No. 17, 


8.96 


2.60 


11.56 


No. 18, 


8.44 


1.28 


9.72 


No. 19, 


8.44 


2.92 


11.36 











Last winter's Legislature passed the following law : — 

Whenever the state board of health, dairy bureau, or other 
state or city authority obtains a sample of milk for inspection, by 
taking, purchase or otherwise, the analysis of said sample shall, 
within ten days of the procurement thereof, be sent to the person 
from whom the sample was obtained. 

Nothing can be said against the proposition that the pro- 
ducer and distributor of milk should have every possible 



1900.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 60. 19 



opportunity for studying the composition of the product in 
which he deals and of keeping informed as to its quality. 
Practical experience, however, show^s that in the majority of 
cases such laws are merely a weapon in the hands of those who 
would embarrass the enforcement of the law. The law is of 
no value to the better class of producers and dealers, for the 
reason that they get none of these notices. In some depart- 
ments samples taken are submitted to preliminary tests, and 
only the suspicious ones analyzed ; in one department it is 
held that the law is complied with by sending notices only 
to those who are to be prosecuted. If, however, the law is 
to remain on the statute books, the ten-day limit should be 
modified, as it is so short as to impede the enforcement of 
the law. 

Then, again, there is no agreement as to the meaning of the 
law. It does not provide, as does chapter 318, section 3, 
Acts of 1886, that a failure to send the required notice will 
invalidate proceedings in court ; and one judge has held that 
the law has nothing to do with court practice under the milk 
laws, and has fined a man when no notice was sent ; in another 
case another judge made an opposite ruling, and discharged 
the defendant because no notice was sent. 

Then, again, there is no agreement among authorities as to 
how much of an analysis shall be made. The Attorney- 
General advised us : The law only requires you to report 
to the person from whom you took the sample the result of 
whatever analysis is made b}^ authority of your Board." 

A few days after receiving this opinion we took a sample 
from a dealer, ascertained the amount of total solids, re- 
ported the result within ten days, and then complained of 
him for handling milk not of standard quality. The de- 
fence raised the point that merely reporting the amount of 
the total milk solids was not ''reporting the result of an 
analysis." The judge sustained this view of the case, and 
discharged the defendant. This judge held that, while the 
law did not contemplate so complete an analysis as going to 
the extreme limit, and ascertaining the amount of carbon, 
oxygen, nitrogen, etc., found in the milk, it did mean that 
more than one constituent or group of constituents should 
be ascertained and reported. 



20 



DAIRY BUREAU. 



[Jan. 



Still further, wliat is the status of a case, if a notice is 
sent but not received? In most cases we have sent the 
notice by registered letter. In two instances, however, 
the letter has been returned, either because the post-office 
address was incorrect, or because the milkman refused to 
accept the letter, presuming on its contents. 

We can see no benefit from the law ; but, if it is to remain, 
its vagueness should be remedied. 

The Legislature of last winter added September to the 
months during which the statute standard for sale milk 
should be 12 per cent ; in other words, reduced the stand- 
ard from 13 to 12 per cent during the month of September. 

Many years ago the State started on the policy of having 
a statute standard for milk, and having that standard 13 per 
cent. Against this statute there has been a constant attack. 
At length April and May were excepted from its provisions, 
and the standard made 12 percent for those two months; 
Then, after a while, June, July and August were added to 
the 12 per cent months, and last winter, September. 

The argument before the committee for this change was 
that during September cows are fed largely on corn fodder, 
which produces milk of inferior quality, so far as total 
solids are concerned ; consequently, it was claimed that the 
standard should be lowered for September. 

If it appears that the policy of the State in establishing 
the 13 per cent standard was wrong, it would be much 
better to reverse that policy openly and squarely than to 
kill it by piecemeal. No one would think of slaughtering 
an animal by occasionally cutting a few inches off the end 
of its tail. At any rate, such an unscientific argument as 
that presented last winter should not be considered. It is 
well known by all who have studied the question of milk 
composition that the food of the cow has little to do with 
the amount of total solids in the milk ; that the amount of 
casein, sugar, fat, etc., in milk depends on the individuality 
of the animal. A cow born to give 10 per cent milk cannot 
by any process of feeding be made to give 13 per cent milk. 

We are not yet, however, convinced that the State was 
wrong in the position it took years ago in favor of a 13 per 
cent standard. Thirteen per cent milk is average milk, and 



1900.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 60. 21 



the majority of cows give milk of that quality. By mixing 
the milk of different animals, herd milk will be found very 
uniform in quality, and almost always up to or above the 
standard. We believe that a 13 per cent statute is in the 
interest of the consumer, and we also believe that it is in 
the interest of the producer, for it helps business to the 
extent that it keeps off from the market all milk below the 
standard. It seems to us against the interests of the great 
majority of farmers, and of agriculture generally, that the 
minority who own cows producing low-grade milk should 
by their persistency succeed in engrafting their views upon 
the statute book. 

During two weeks of the past year we undertook an in- 
vestigation of the quality of milk sold for a week before and 
after the statute standard changed, testing the milk for fat 
only, by the Babcock tester. The agents of the Bureau 
were instructed to take samples in Springfield, Somerville, 
and Chelsea during the last week in September. The first 
week in October, when the standard had changed to 13 per 
cent, they were sent over the same territory, to take sam- 
ples from the same milkmen, so far as was possible. Three 
or more samples were taken the last week in September aftd 
the first week of October from each of 28 milkmen. In 14 
cases the milk averaged the same amount of fat in October 
that it did in September; in 11 instances there was a 
slightly increased quantity in October, the gain ranging from 
,4 to .6 of fat. Three cases of adulterated milk were found 
in October where the milk was all right in September, caus- 
ing a decrease in the amount of fat. 

Stating the case in another way, we took in September, 
under this experiment, samples as follows : — 



CITIES. 


Samples. 


Average 
Per Cent of Fat. 




42 


3.50 


Somerville, 


30 


3.40 


Chelsea, 


45 


3.60 


Total, 


117 


3.50 



22 



DAIRY BUREAU. 



[Jan. 



Earlier in the month 27 samples were taken in Williams- 
town and North Adams, which averaged 3.70 per cent of fat. 

The first week in October, samples were taken as fol- 
lows : — 



CITIES. 


Samples. 


Average 
Per Cent of Fat. 




45 


3.70 




30 


3.60 




45 


3.60 




120 ■ 


3.63 



It appears that there was no material increase in the 
quality of milk when the statute standard changed, on the 
part of these milkmen, and that both in the last week in 
September and the first week in October the milk was sub- 
stantially up to 13 per cent of total solids. So far as this 
experiment throws any light upon the situation, the average 
milk that is sold in Massachusetts has 13 per cent total 
solids in September as well as in October, and the milk sold 
in September was substantially above the statute standard 
of 12 per cent total solids. 

During the past year, the perplexing conditions of the 
milk business have led to the organization of the milk ped- 
dlers in several places, for purposes of mutual protection. 
In two cases the assistant executive ofiicer of the Bureau 
has been called on to address them on the milk law and its 
operation. In one case 32 samples of milk were tested with 
the Babcock test before the meeting, as an object lesson on 
the composition of milk, showing the value of the Babcock 
tester to dealers in sale milk. The average of these tests 
was 4.14 per cent of butter fat. Among the samples were 
two or three which were brought in as suspicious, and 
brought down the average. 

We have made much effort to emphasize the point that 
the enforcement of the law is of advantage both to peddlers 
and producers. Very often the milk peddler, accosted by 
an inspector, particularly in the early morning hours, is 



1900.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 60. 23 



annoyed at the interference, and looks upon the inspector 
as his natural enemy. This should not be so. The milk 
laws not only insure the consumer an article of higher 
quality than he would get were it not for them, but, as said 
before, they help business by keeping a large amount of low- 
grade and adulterated milk off the market. 

The condition of the Boston milk market has been much 
healthier than for several years past, as supplies have 
decreased and consumption has increased. This has re- 
duced the burdensome surplus ; for three months of the 
year it was so small that the wholesalers paid full price for 
all milk received by them. The advancing price of butter 
has increased the butter value of milk, so that the dimin- 
ishing surplus has brought a better price, and this has in- 
creased the average return per can. 

The following table gives the receipts, sales and surplus 
of railroad milk, in 8^ quart cans, brought into the greater 
Boston, as reported by the contractors' association : — 



1899. 


Received. 


Sold. 


Surplus. 


January, . . " . 


904,575 


699,003 


205,572 


February, .... 


825,972 


631,762 


194,210 


March, 


980,093 


699,796 


280,297 


April, 


1,004,773 


717,254 


287,519 


May, 


1,160,994 


750,592 


410,402 


June, 


1,137,103 


792,833 


344,270 


July, 


1,003,661 


815,095 


188,566 


August, 


927,433 


756,842 


170,591 


September, .... 


870,140 


729,734 


140,406 


October, . . . . " . 


853,049 


809,701 


43,348 


November, .... 


767,567 


746,040 


21,527 


December, .... 


799,404 


763,319 


36,085 


Totals, .... 


11,234,764 


8,911,971 


2,322,793 



24 



DAIRY BUREAU. 



[Jan. 





Eeceipts. 


Sales. 


Surplus. 


1898, 


11,317,761 


8,564,682 


2,753 079 


1897, 


11,798,191 


8,738,572 


3,059,619 


1896, 


10,772,108 


8,087,378 


2,684,730 


1895, 


9,856,500 


8,040,732 


1,815,768 


1894, 


9,705,447 


7,657,421 


2,048,026 


1893, 


9,263,487 


" 7,619,722 


1,643,765 


1892, 


9,212,667 


7,315,135 


1,897,532 



The price agreed upon between producer and wholesaler 
is a theoretical figure, called the Boston price. There is a 
scale of discounts from this price, varying according to the 
distance from the city, so that, when the Boston price is 
agreed upon, each producer, knowing the belt or zone in 
which he lives, can get at the price that he will receive. 
This Boston price has been for several years as follows : — 





Summer 
(Cents 
per Can). 


Wfnter 
(Cents 
per Can). 




Summer 
(Cents 
per Can). 


Winter 
(Cents 
per Can). 


1886, . 


30 


36 


1893, . . . 


33 


37 


1887, . 


30 


36 


1894, . 


33 


37 


1888, . 


32 


38 


1895, . 


33 


37 


1889, . 


32 


38 


1896, . 


33 


35 


1890, . 


32 


36 


1897, . 


33 


35 


1891, . 


33 


37 


1898, . 


32 


34 


1892, . 


33 


37 


1899, . 


32 


34 



The decline in 1898 and 1899 is only a paper one. The 
scale of discounts from the Boston price was decreased for 
those years, so that the net to the farmers was unchanged. 



1900.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 60. 



25 



Condensed Milk. 
During the past year the agents of the Bureau happened 
upon some samples of condensed milk which were not 
la helled with the name of the manufacturer according to law. 
This being suspicious, samples were taken for analysis, and 
the chemist reported that they were materially deficient in 
fat ; consequently, cases were entered in court. As soon as 
the news reached the manufacturers, they made emphatic 
protestations as to the quality of the milk and the probable 
error in sampling or analysis. Their statements were so 
emphatic, and apparently so sincere, that it seemed both 
prudent and just to go extremely slow, and verify the 
chemical work of Dr. Davenport. As a result of this cau- 
tion, he ascertained a fact unknown to general commercial 
chemists and authors of text books on the subject, though 
in the possession of a few specialists employed by con- 
densed milk manufacturers, — that the addition of cane 
sugar to condensed milk, which is done by the majority of 
manufacturers, locks up the fat globules in such a peculiar 
way that ordinary processes of analysis fail to secure all of 
it ; on discovering this, and using different processes, the 
original work was found to be in error, and the cases with- 
drawn. 

Cream. 

The consumption of cream is increasing very rapidly in 
Massachusetts. In all of the large cities cream has become 
a staple article in all grocery and provision stores, while 
large amounts are delivered by the milk peddler. Most of 
this cream comes from Maine, and several Maine creameries 
have built up an enormous business. Professor Cooley 
estimates that only about one-twentieth of the cream sold 
in Massachusetts is produced in the State. It would seem 
as though the production of market cream holds out great 
possibilities to Massachusetts creameries, especially in view 
of the fact that the demand for cream is the largest in the 
summer, when the production of butter is largest, the sur- 
plus most burdensome and the price the lowest. Where 
there is a market for cream, butter fat is worth from 2 to 3 
cents a pound more in market cream than in butter. The 



26 



DAIEY BUREAU. 



[Jan. 



production of cream at creameries on the factory plan pro- 
motes uniformity in quality, and enhances popular confi- 
dence in it. 

Oheese • 

Cheese is the only dairy product in the State which 
requires very little or no work on the part of those entrusted 
with the enforcement of the dairy laws. There seems to be 
no effort to introduce adulterated or counterfeit cheese into 
the Massachusetts markets, largely, so far as we are informed, 
because most dealers are in the habit of buying cheese from 
sections where adulteration is not practised very much. 
The State law relative to adulterations is now reinforced by 
the national law against filled cheese, but we find none in 
the State. 

The quality of cheese sold in the market varies greally, 
and, as Massachusetts has no provisions relative to branding 
cheese, or relative to the fraudulent claim of cheese being 
full cream when it is made from partially skimmed milk, 
there is possibly an imposition on the public at times. 
Cheese made from whole milk will vary relatively as much 
in per cent of fat as does the milk itself ; and full cream 
cheese from milk having 2.5 or 3 per cent of fat cannot be 
readily detected from cheese made from milk containing 
from 5 to 6 per cent of fat which has been partially skimmed. 

Voluntary Assistance. 
It frequently happens that the appropriation limits our 
work rather than inability to find something to do, and that 
important things must therefore be left undone. To pro- 
mote eflSciency and economy of action, the following circular 
was issued early in the year, and copies have been sent out 
from time to time to friends of the law : — 

COMMOXWEALTH OF MASSACHUSETTS. 

Dairy Bureau. 

Dear Sir: — Aii}^ information which you can give me relating 
to the illegal sale of dairy products or imitation dairy products 
(oleomargarine) in your town or city will be thankfully received 
and kept in strict confidence. 

George M. Whitaker. 

p. 0, Box 1332, BosTOX, Mass. 



1900.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 60. 27 

This has resulted in securing much valuable assistance and 
putting us in possession of information which could not 
otherwise have been obtained, at least not without great 
expense. 

Educational Work. 

In this department more than the usual amount , of work 
has been done, and the expense has been more than twice 
the average of the five preceding years. In last year's 
report we called attention to institutes held in co-operation 
with the Massachusetts Creamery Association. Early in this 
year a buttermakers' institute was held by the Dairy Bureau 
and the Creamery Association at Amherst. It was a well- 
attended, profitable meeting, with a good program and a large 
exhibit of butter, — 41 entries in all. The papers read at this 
institute and the results of the meeting were so important that 
the Bureau issued a special bulletin, giving a report of the 
same ; it is therefore unnecessary to repeat the substance here. 

The Worcester South Agricultural Society has continued 
its ofier of a prize for the cow giving the greatest amount of 
butter fat on the society's grounds during twenty-four hours 
of the society's exhibition. This prize has been awarded 
by the representative of the Bureau for several years, and 
the custom was continued this year. The following is the 
statistical result of the test : — 



Melvin Shepard, Sturbridge, Mass. {Grade Jersey) . 





Weight of Milk. 


Per Cent of Fat. 


^Weight of Fat. 




lbs. 




lbs. 


Night, 


12.06 


5.00 


.603 


Morning, .... 


14.00 


5.00 


.700 


Totals, .... 


26.06 




1.303 


C. L. Underwood, East Brookfield, Mass. {Grade Guernseij). 




Jbs. 




lbs. 


Night, 


17.75 


3.80 


.674 


Morning, .... 


17.01 


3.20 


.544 


Totals, .... 


34.76 




1.218 



28 DAIRY BUREAU. [Jan. 



J. E. Ma HAN, Charlton, Mass. 





Weight of Milk. 


Per Cent of Fat. 


Weight of Fat. 




lbs. 




lbs. 


Night, 


8.56 


6.60 


.565 


Morning, .... 


5.06 


6.00 


.303 


Totals, .- . . . 


13.62 




.868 


A. L. WoODis, North Brookfield, Mass. 




lbs. 




lbs. 


Night, 


8.12 


3.60 


.292 


Morning, .... 


11.06 


3.60 


.398 


Totals, .... 


19.18 




.690 



This system of judging milch cows is excellent, and the 
Worcester South Agricultural Society is entitled to credit 
for its pioneer educational work in this line, the more so 
because anything of this kind does not appeal to the crowd, 
and has nothing spectacular about it to draw admission fees 
and increase the society's income. It is purely educational, 
but of great value in that way. The ideal work in this line, 
however, is in testing cows at the barns where they are 
ordinarily kept, as sometimes the driving to the fair grounds 
and the unusual noises and conditions at the show have such 
an effect upon the nervous temperament of the animal that 
she does not do her best. 

The inspection of creameries, to which allusion has been 
previously made and from which some statistics have been 
quoted, was of value to the creameries from the educational 
stand-point, and elicited some technical information, which 
will be the subject of a special bulletin. 

The representative of the Bureau has been called upon 16 
times to address farmers' meetings or to s[)eak on dairy 
topics. Three meetings of this kind have been held where 
members of the Bureau or of the Cattle Commission have 
been speakers, making in all 19 meetings to the credit of 



1900.] PUBLIC D0CUMP:NT — No. 60. 29 

the Bureau. At several meetings addressed by Mr. Whit- 
aker the Babcock tester has been used, and 87 samples of 
milk tested. In addition to the above, he has attended a 
meeting of the Pure Food Congress In Washington, and 
meetings of the State Association of Boards of Health. 

The following is the manner in which the appropriation 
of $7,000 has been expended : — 

Members of the Bureau, travelling expenses and attending 

meetings, $371 29 

Agents' salaries, 1,657 77 

Agents' expenses, 2,299 15 

Chemist, 1,320 15 

George M. WJbitaker, travelling and office expenses, sup- 
plies, mileage tickets, etc., 850 48 

Educational work, 421 04 

Printing and supplies, 80 12 



Total, $7,000 00 

GEORGE M. WHITAKER. 

Accepted and adopted as the report of the Dairy Bureau. 

D. A. HORTON. 

J. L. ELLSWORTH. 

C. D. RICHARDSON. 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT 



No. 60. 



TENTH AJSriSrUAL REPOKT 

OF THB 

DAIEY BUREAU 

OF THB 

Massachusetts Board of Agriculture, 

BEQUIBED 

Under Chapter 412, Acts of 1891. 



January 15, 1901. 



BOSTON ; 

WRIGHT & POTTER PRINTING CO., STATE PRINTERS, 
18 Post Office Square. 
1901. 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT .... .... No. 60. 



TENTH ANNUAL EEPORT 

OF THE 

^ DAIRY BUREAU 



OF THE 

Massachusetts Boaed of Agriculture, 

REQUIRED 

Under Chapter 412, Acts of 1891. 



Jaxuaby 15, 1901. 



BOSTON : 

WRIGHT & POTTER PRINTING CO., STATE PRINTERS, 
18 Post Office Square. 
1901. 



3 



Dairy B ure au— 1 900- 1 90 1 . 



J. L. ELLSWORTH, Worcestek, Chairman. 
C. D. RICHARDSON, West Brookfield. 
F. W. SARGENT, Amesbury„ 



Executive Officer. 

J. W. STOCKWELL, Secretary/ of the State Board of Agriculture. 



General Agent. 
GEO. M. WHITAKER, Boston. 



REPORT. 



The work of the Dairy Bureau for the past year shows 
greater results than for any previous year of its history. 
The year 1900 has been a record breaker in number of cases 
in court, number of convictions and amount of fines imposed. 
In our report for 1899 we told of a year of exceptional 
activity, but we did even more in 1900 than in the previous 
year. From one point of view we regard this record with 
much satisfaction. As long as there are those in the com- 
munity who are law breakers, — who deal in counterfeit, 
adulterated or low-grade products, — we feel some pride at 
the number we have been able to bring to justice, and at the 
amount of success which has attended our fight for pure, 
honest, standard dairy products. We also believe that, if 
the amount accomplished is measured by the appropriation 
for this department, we have further reasons for self-com- 
plaisance ; for, creditable as are the results secured, they 
have been limited by the appropriation ; we have been com- 
pelled in a number of instances to go slowly or to suspend 
work altogether, because the money at our disposal was run- 
ning low. The city of Boston pays $13,000 for expenses 
and salary of its milk inspector, while the State of Massa- 
chusetts appropriates only $8,200 for its Dairy Bureau, with 
which to cover the whole State. The real disproportion of 
the appropriation is even more than this, for the Boston milk 
inspector can reach any portion of his territory for an eight- 
cent fare, while to send an officer of the Dairy Bureau to 
North Adams, for instance, may mean $7.50 in railroad fares 
and at least one night's hotel bills. 

Viewed in a broad way, our record of the past year does 
not bring unalloyed satisfaction. The true citizen ought not 
to regard with pride a long list of criminal prosecutions or 
large figures in the annual summary of court records. While 
such facts may speak well for the vigilance of the authorities 



6 



DAIRY BUREAU. 



[Jan. 



and the faithfulness with which they have worked, the state- 
ment also tells of the existence of a considerable spirit of 
lawlessness, of the existence of a class that has no respect 
for the expressed wishes of the majority of the people, — a 
class that would strike a blow at the very essence of demo- 
cratic institutions. 

We feel that this is emphatically true in regard to the 
violation of food laws. The violators of these enactments 
do not come from the so-called criminal classes, from those 
with inherited appetites and passions, from those whose 
ignorance has blunted moral instincts. The people who, 
from a spirit of avarice, impose upon the consumers of the 
State adulterated, fraudulent or low-grade foods, are often 
gentlemen of fair or even good standing in business, society 
or politics. These gentlemen cheat consumers, injure honest 
commerce and defraud producers ; and in so doing they show 
a most reprehensible disrespect of law and order, and by 
their standing they exert a peculiarly bad influence in the 
community. 

The membership of the Bureau has undergone a change dur- 
ing the past year by the death of the chairman, Mr. D. A. 
Horton of Northampton, Mr. F. W. Sargent of Amesbury 
being appointed in his place. This change removed from 
the Bureau the last of the original appointees. The Bureau 
was organized in 1891, with Messrs. C. A. Hartshorn of 
Worcester, D. A. Horton of Northampton and Geo. L. 
Clemence of Southbridge as members. As terms of office as 
members of the Board of Agriculture expired, Mr. Hartshorn 
was succeeded by Mr. Ellsworth and Mr. Clemence was 
succeeded by Mr. Richardson. On the reorganization of the 
Bureau, after the death of Mr. Horton and the appointment 
of Mr. Sargent, Mr. J. L. Ellsworth, the senior member, 
was elected chairman. The administrative work has con- 
tinued in the same hands as heretofore, but with a change in 
the title of the position and with a statutory definition of the 
duties involved. 

In the reports of the Bureau for the years 1896 and 1897, 
attention was called to the vague and somewhat misleading 
allusion to the position in the statutes ; chapter 412, section 
6, of the Acts of 1891, providing for an *' assistant to the 



1901.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 60. 7 



secretary of the board of agriculture, ... to assist in the 
work prescribed in the eleventh section of this act." Last 
winter's Legislature remedied this, and, in the interests of 
increased efficiency, gave the Bureau's administrative repre- 
sentative official recognition as an independent individuality, 
and defined his duties. 

Chapter 368, Acts of 1900, says: The state board of 
agriculture shall at its annual meeting elect a general agent 
of the dairy bureau, to assist the bureau and to oversee, under 
its direction, the work prescribed in section eleven of chapter 
four hundred and twelve of the acts of the year eighteen 
hundred and ninety-one." 

Two regular inspectors have been employed during the 
year, P. M. Harwood and Ralph M. Horton. Several special 
inspectors have been employed from time to time for brief 
periods to help in detective work, where a person whose 
appearance was unfamiliar could temporarily be of great 
service. Three chemists have been employed : Dr. B. F. 
Davenport for the eastern part of the State, E. Barker 
for Worcester and E. B. Holland of the Hatch Experiment 
Station for the western part of the State. 

In a general way and statistically the work of the past 
year may be summarized as follows : — 

Inspection of places in which dairy products or im- 
itation dairy products were sold or stored, but 
where the law seemed to be complied with and no 



samples were taken, 1,612 

Real or imitation butter, samples taken, . . . 755 

Milk, samples taken, 68 

Cream, samples taken, 3 

Cases in court, 178 

Meetings addressed, 18 

Work at fairs. 



^ The comparison of the court cases for 1900 and some 
previous years may be of interest : — 



1900, 
1899, 
1898, 



178 
87 
60 



1897, 
1896, 
1895, 



27 
79 
82 



8 



DAIRY BUREAU. 



[Jan. 



Imitation Butter. 
The work of the past year has been almost exclusively 
devoted to the enforcement of the imitation butter laws, the 
manufacturers of this counterfeit product having crowded its 
sales harder than ever. Last year we reported renewed 
exertions on their part, avarice having lead them to become 
law breakers. The tendency during the year just past has 
been even stronger in the same direction. These increased 
efibrts on their part at violating the law have compelled us 
to confine our labors to checkmating them, with the result 
that the offences charged in the court cases have been as fol- 
lows : — 

Violation of the anti-color oleomargarine law, . . 145 
Servino^ oleomargarine in hotels and restaurants 
without giving notice, . . . . . .32 

Obstructing officers in the prosecution of the work, . 1 

Total, 178 

Evidence has also been secured of several violations of 
the law which could not be tried during the year, and will 
appear in the next year's records, and of several additional 
cases in which the defendant could not be found. Of the 
cases for violating the anti-color law, the complaint in 
nearly every instance charged "possession with intent to 
sell within this Commonwealth," although we had evidence 
of actual sales in 55 cases. In 49 out of these 55 cases butter 
was called for by the purchasers ; in 2 of the remaining 6 
the seller supposed that his customer was a pedler, and sug- 
gested that the article be sold as real butter. In 17 sales 
taken at random the average price paid by the supposed 
consumer was 22.23 cents per pound. If the manufacturer 
charged the dealer 13 cents, the retailer made a profit of 70 
per cent. 

The oleomargarine cases which we have had in court for 
the past few years have been as follows : — 



1901.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 60. 9 





Anti-color 
Law. 


Hotel and 
Restaurant 
Law. 


Obstructing 
an Officer. 


1900, 


145 


32 


1 


1899, 


47 


13 


'5 


1898, 


13 


3 


5 


1897, 


16 


5 


5 



The result of the court cases in 1900 was as follows : — 



Convictions, 144 

Acquittals, , 26 

Nol pros, 8 

Total, 178 

Some of the cases that were lost or nol prossed resulted in 
smoking out the party who was really guilty and in securing 
his conviction, so that the above 34 cases are not wholly a 
debit. Of the 26 cases lost, a few are of more than ordinary 
interest. In the case of obstructing an officer, the offence 
consisted in the refusal of the defendant to unlock a room in 
his residence in which imitation butter was stored. The 
court ruled that a mere refusal to unlock a room was not an 
obstruction, hindrance or interference, but informed us that 
we could have broken into the room, under the law. In 3 
cases the defence showed that the parties being tried had 
bakeries, hence finding imitation butter in their stores did 
not make out a prima facie case of intent to sell. In 2 in- 
stances the colored oleomargarine was found in the posses- 
sion of pedlers in a city adjoining the Rhode Island line, 
and the court held that it had a reasonable doubt as to 
whether the imitation butter was in defendant's possession 
with intent to sell within this Oommonwealth, 

In four cases the defence claimed that the sales took place, 
as a matter of law, in Ehode Island, and the court held 
that the facts presented were not inconsistent with that 
theory. The defendant was at once complained of for 
"taking orders for the future delivery of an imitation of 
yellow butter," and was convicted. This, we think, is the 



10 



DAIRY BUREAU. 



[Jan. 



first case ever tried under that particular clause of the anti- 
color law. In one instance the defendant sought to clear 
himself by the claim that he had disposed of the business 
before the sample was taken, and the alleged purchaser was 
one of his witnesses to confirm his evidence ; a complaint 
against this purchaser was sworn out while the trial was in 
progress. When the defendant was acquitted, the new pur- 
chaser was arrested, arraigned, fined and paid $100 before 
leaving the court room. 

In addition to the above imitation butter cases there have 
been two perjury cases. In one the judge of the district 
court believed perjury had been committed, and bound the 
defendant over for the grand jury. When the oleo dealer 
found that he had been indicted for both perjury and the 
sale of imitation butter, he offered to plead guilty to the 
oleomargarine case and pay what fine might be imposed, if 
the perjury case would be filed ; to this proposition the dis- 
trict attorney agreed. In the other case the defendant set 
up an alibi., which did not convince the judge of the district 
court, and conviction followed. The same tactics in the 
superior court led to acquittal ; but the district attorney's 
examination was very searching, and a stenographic report 
of the evidence secured ; the statements were subsequently 
investigated, and perjury proceedings instituted. 

This case was of more than ordinary interest in another 
way. One of the most persistent places for violating the 
law has been 122 South Main Street, Fall River, of which 
George Morrow Avas for some time the proprietor. He was 
convicted from time to time, until he deemed it prudent to 

sell out." But the law continued to be violated, and the 
alleged purchaser of the store could not be found, while 
Morrow or some of his relatives were the only ones our in- 
spectors ever saw in charge of the store. During the past 
summer 15 additional cases were brought for ofiences com- 
mitted at this store, 4 against George Morrow, 2 against a 
brother and 8 against two brothers-in-law. All were found 
guilty in the lower court, and as one result a summons was 
served on the general agent of the Bureau as defendant in a 
civil suit for $5,000 damages, malicious prosecution being 
alleged, according to the local papers. Morrow, in the 



1901.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 60. 11 



superior court, after a long trial, was found guilty on 1 case 
and fined $500 ; 3 other cases in which he has been adjudged 
guilty are hanging over him for sentence. Brother-in-law 
Eeed pleaded guilty to 6 complaints, and paid a fine in 1 
case, 2 were continued for sentence and the others filed ; the 
cases against the brother and one against Brother-in-law 
McCutcheon have not yet been reached in the superior 
court; the other case against Brother-in-law McCutcheon 
was the one above alluded to. Three appealed cases, with 
fines aggregating $450, against George Morrow have not yet 
been tried in the superior court. 

Another old offender has been fined $500 in the Lawrence 
court, and there is a $300 fine hanging over the same person 
in the superior court. 

Dr. Harrington, Boston's milk inspector, followed one 
slick, persistent violator of the law till the court imposed 
imprisonment. 

The result of the enforcement of these laws in Massachu- 
setts is that, according to figures submitted to Congress last 
winter, the consumption of imitation butter in this State last 
year was .73 of a pound per capita; while in the adjoining 
State of Rhode Island, where there is no law, the amount 
consumed was 8.45 pounds per capita. If we estimate the 
per capita consumption of butter or its imitations at 8 ounces 
per week, the amount consumed in a year would be 26.5 
pounds, of which in Rhode Island a little less than one-third 
was counterfeit. It requires but little imagination to see the 
great injury which such a business in Massachusetts would 
cause to producer, consumer and middleman. 

The number of persons who pay a United States tax, as 
shown by the following table, has some bearing on the efiect 
of the law : — 



12 


DAIEY BUREAU. 




[Jan. 


Yeaks ending June 30 — 


Wholesale. 


Eetail. 


1891, . 






A K'X 
401 


1892, . 








1893, . 






ioo 


1894, . 




OS 


0/i ft 






OU 


1 Q« 


1896,- . 




O 

z 


o< 


1897, . 




1 




1898, . 




1 




1899, . 




12 


76 


Present year, 




3 


59 



The methods of the Bureau have been attacked in court 
on five points, which have been taken to the supreme court 
in the cases against Mullen, Suffolk County, May 17, and 
against Ryberg, Worcester County, October 18. Our prac- 
tice has been vindicated on every point. 

A statute of 1884 provided for certain marks on tubs, 
boxes and wrapping paper used in connection with sales of 
oleomargarine. The same act also provided certain details 
in regard to samples of milk. Section 4 of this act said 
that ''before commencing the analysis of any sample the 
person making the same shall reserve a portion, and in case 
of a complaint against any person the reserved portion of 
the sample alleged to be adulterated shall upon application 
be delivered to the defendant or his attorney." Subsequent 
legislation provided other details in the milk law which led 
the supreme court to declare the above section 4 to be re- 
pealed by implication. The oleomargarine people main- 
tained that the supreme court meant to say that only so 
much of the law as related to milk was repealed, and they 
insisted that the law was in efifect when samples of oleo- 
margarine were analyzed. The chemists of the Bureau, 
under instruction from the general agent, did not reserve 
portions of oleomargarine which they tested, as he claimed, 



1901.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 60. 13 



first, that the section of the law referred to was unqualifiedly 
repealed, and, second, if it was not, it did not apply to a 
law passed seven years after prohibiting traffic in an imita- 
tion product, because of its counterfeit nature, but where 
there was no allegation of any adulteration. 

The supreme court said : * ' We do not see any sufficient 
ground for interpreting either section 4 as purporting to 
embrace samples that should be taken under future legisla- 
tion or the act of 1891 as impliedly adopting section 4 of the 
act of 1884." 

An objection was made to our form of complaint, on the 
ground that it did not contain the official title of the com- 
plainant, the general agent of the Dairy Bureau ; it was also 
argued that inspectors of milk are the only officers author- 
ized to make complaints. To this argument the supreme 
court said it is a sufficient answer that the same authority is 
plainly given to the representative of the Dairy Bureau. 

As to the form of the complaint, if we should assume, for 
the purposes of decision, that only the persons named have 
authority to make complaints under the act, no doubt the 
office of the complainant should be alleged, but the defect at 
most is formal. Probably it would not be sufficient ground 
for a motion to quash. But the short answer to the whole 
matter is that the statute does not prohibit any person from 
making a complaint." 

A third attack was the charge that our standard form of 
complaint * * does not allege that the substance was not in a 
separate and distinct form, and in such manner as will advise 
the consumer of its real character." The court says : •* This 
means that the complaint should have negatived the proviso 
that the act shall not be taken to prohibit the sale of oleo- 
margarine in a separate and distinct form, etc., 'free from 
coloration or ingredient that causes it to look like butter.' 
The motion disregards these last words. The complaint 
alleges that the oleomargarine was in imitation of yellow 
butter produced from unadulterated milk or cream, and thus 
sufficiently shows that the proviso does not apply. The 
defendant had no right to keep such a substance for sale in 
any form or manner. Probably in any case it was unneces- 
sary to negative the proviso." 



14 



DAIRY BUREAU. 



[Jan. 



The fourth point of attack was that the complaint ' ' does 
not allege that said substance was renovated butter." The 
court says : We presume that this should have read, ' was 
not renovated butter/ to express what was intended. It is 
not necessary, when charging a well-defined statutory offence, 
to explain that you are not charging another and quite differ- 
ent one." 

The last ground of attack was that ' * the complaint is in 
the alternative when it alleges that the substance was made 
from adulterated cream or mill^." To this the court says : 
*'The complaint makes no such averment. It alleges that 
the oleomargarine was made partly out of an oleaginous 
substance not produced from unadulterated milk or cream, 
which is a very different allegation. If all the substances of 
which the subject matter of the charge was composed were 
produced either from unadulterated milk or from cream from 
the same, there would have been no offence under the statute 
in question ; therefore both possibilities were negatived." 

Another year's experience emphasizes our previously ex- 
pressed opinions as to the dishonest nature of the imitation 
butter business and the deceptive methods used to bolster it 
up. Much has been said during the past few months, in 
connection with proposed legislation at Washington, the 
Grout bill, about the wholesomeness and food value of oleo- 
margarine. Admitting, for argument's sake, that all these 
statements are true as to matters of fact, they are nevertheless 
deceptive in their application, because they attempt to befog 
an issue and deceive those to whom such claims are addressed. 
Water is wholesome, but add it to milk and its sale is pro- 
hibited ; peas have a high food value, but when added to 
coffee the mixture is a swindle ; lard and tallow are whole- 
some and have a food value, but when mixed and colored to 
imitate butter the compound becomes a counterfeit and a 
cheat. These oleomargarine laws are aimed at a commercial 
fraud. As District Attorney Rockwood Hoar said, in his 
brief in the Ryberg case, speaking of the anti-color law : 

It relates to a deception addressed to the eye, and not the 
substance or component parts of the article." 

Of a similarly deceptive nature is all of the talk about 
coloring butter which emanates from the defenders of oleo- 



1901.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 60. 15 



margarine. We do not defend coloring butter, — we wish 
such a custom did not prevail. But the practice deceives no 
one ; a man who buys fresh creamery butter in December 
can hardly expect that he is buying June butter, — an in- 
ferior article. Butter is not colored to imitate another and 
more desirable article. But, even if we admit (which we do 
notj that these claims of the oleomargarine advocates are 
true as abstract statements of fact, what do they gain? 
When the law has its hands on pickpocket O, shall he be 
released and go scot free because he says C is also a pick- 
pocket ? 

Dr. E. N. Eaton, the official analyst for the State of 
Illinois, in a recent article lays down this principle as gov- 
erning the use of coloring matter in food products : ' ' Harm- 
less artificial coloring matter may be used for the sake of 
variety or uniformity, or in deference to the demand of 
customers, in goods where such coloring is not used to 
conceal inferiority, indicate strength or to imitate a higher- 
priced article." This dictum would allow the coloring of 
butter but not of oleomargarine, the coloring of which is 
''to imitate a higher-priced article." 

The principle of the Massachusetts anti-color law has been 
several times reaffirmed in trade-mark cases. The latest was 
in a beer case, in which the defendant was enjoined from 
selling any beer under plaintiff's name and inscription, and 
also from selling '' any colorable imitation thereof."* 

Last year we called attention to the use of imitation rather 
than genuine butter in public institutions. Since then we 
have seen the report of one of these institutions in which we 
know this article is used. But the financial statement shows 
the purchase of only butter, and in the menus we find ' ' bread 
and butter" several times, but nowhere "bread and oleo- 
margarine." If the latter is so wholesome, has such food 
value, has so many virtues, why would not a bill of fare be 
rendered more attractive by the line ' ' bread and oleo- 
margarine ? " 



* Van Nostrand v. McGee. 



16 



DAIRY BUKEAU. 



[Jan. 



Renovated Butter. 

The flagrant attempts at violating the imitation butter laws 
have used so much of our appropriation that we could do 
little by way of enforcing the law in regard to renovated 
butter, although many notices have been sent to persons 
selling it, and no attempts at wilful violation have been 
found. This law is much misunderstood. The State does 
not interfere with the sale of this article, but asks that it 
shall be sold honestly, viz., properly marked or labelled. 
The " New York Produce Review" says : The process of 
renovation impresses one as being cleanly and wholesome, 
and, while incalculable damage might result from an unscru- 
pulous substitution of this product for genuine butter, its man- 
ufacture and sale under appropriate designating name must 
be regarded as beneficial to the butter industry as a whole." 

This tells the whole story ; all that the law asks is that the 
product shall be sold under appropriate designating name." 

Butter. 

The Chamber of Commerce figures regarding the butter 
business in Boston for 1900 and the immediately preceding 
years are as follows : — 





1900. 

Pounds. 


1899. 

Pounds. 


1898. 

Pounds. 


1897. 

Pounds. 


1896. 

Pounds. 


On hand January 1, 
Receipts for the year, . 

Total supply, . 
Exports, deduct, . 

Net supply, . 

Stock on hand December 31, 
deduct, .... 

Consumption, . 


2,073,800 
51,502,840 


2,829,160 
49,757,606 


2,473,600 
50,609,552 


2,898,000 
51,107,033 


1,659,434 
50,972,255 


53,676,640 
1,002,374 


52,586,766 
3,051,710 


53,083,152 
1,574,682 


54,005,033 
3,286,333 


52,631,689 
3,156,741 


62,574,266 
3,285,960 


49,535,056 
2,073,800 


51,508,470 
2,829,160 


50,718,700 
2,620,680 


49,474,948 
2,898,080 


49,288,306 


47,461,256 


48,679,310 


48,098,020 


46,576,868 



The above shows increased receipts, reduced exports and 
increased consumption for 1900 over the four previous years. 
The increased consumption for the year over 1899 was 
1,827,050 pounds. Such an increase could hardly have 
occurred had the sale of imitations been unrestricted. It is 



1901,] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 60. 



17 



hard to estimate the consumption of butter in Massachusetts, 
but with the above official figures for the Boston market it is 
safe to add one-half for the rest of the State. This gives us 
74,000,000 pounds, which certainly is not an over-estimate. 
The consumption of oleomargarine, according to the United 
States internal revenue figures in 1899, was 2,083,899 
pounds, — a very small amount in comparison with the total 
consumption of butter. 

The following table shows the extreme quotation for the 
best fresh creamery butter in a strictly wholesale way in the 
Boston market for six years : — 





1900. 


1899. 


1898. 


1897. 


1896. 


1895. 




Cents. 


Cents. 


Cents. 


Cents. 


Cents. 


Cents. 


January, 


29.5 


21.0 


22.5 


22.0 


26.0 


28.0 


February, . 


26.0 


24.0 


21.5 


22.0 


24.0 


25.0 


March,. 


27.0 


22.5 


22.0 


23.0 


24.0 


23.0 


April, .... 


21.0 


21.0 


22.5 


22.0 


22.0 


21.0 


May, .... 


20.5 


19.0 


18.0 


18.0 


17.0 


19.0 


June, .... 


20.5 


19.0 


17.5 


16.0 


16.5 


20.0 


July, .... 


20.5 


19.0 


18.5 


16.5 


16.5 


19.0 


August, 


22.5 


21.5 


19.5 


19.0 


17.5 


21.0 


September, . 


22.5 


23.5 


21.0 


22.0 


17.5 


22.0 


October, . . 


22.0 


24.0 


21.5 


22.5 


20.0 


23.0 


November, . 


25.0 


26.5 


21.0 


22.0 


21.0 


23.0 


December, . 


25.5 


28.0 


21.0 


23.0 


23.0 


28.0 


Averages, 


23.5 


22.4 


20.5 


20.6 


20.4 


22.5 



Although butter did not go as high in price during the 
fall months of 1900 as in the fall of 1899, it^ did better earlier 
in the year, and did not drop so low during May, June and 
July, — the months of flush production ; so that the average 
price for the year is 1.13 cents more than for 1899, and is 
the highest average for six years. This explains the incen- 
tive to crowd the sale of fraudulent substitutes. 

Milk. 

The increased cost of milk production has caused much 
effort during the year to get better prices. These efforts 
have been successful in many instances, and in some places 
have resulted in a closer organization of producers. In the 
spring the farmers supplying the Boston market secured an 



18 



DAIKY BUKEAU. 



[Jan. 



advance of 2 cents per quart can over the usual summer 
price for the six-months period from April 1 to October 1. 
This applied to 4,633,000 cans sold and 116,000 cans of sur- 
plus, and therefore meant an increased income to the farmers 
of $95,000. The amount came out of the middlemen, as no 
increase of retail price to consumers was made. In October 
the price for the winter six months was advanced 4 cents per 
can over the hitherto prevailing winter prices. This advance 
was so much that the dealers attempted to get it back hy 
advancing the retail price. The movement resulted in such 
a remonstrance that the attempt was abandoned. Conse- 
quently the Milk Producers Union and the contractors agreed 
to the dropping of one-half of this advance January 1 . This 
is the first time in the history of the business that there has 
been a change in the price during a six-months period. 

The following table gives the receipts, sales and surplus 
of railroad milk, in quart cans, brought into the greater 
Boston, as reported by the contractors' association : — 



1900. 


Keceived. 


Sold, 


Surplus. 


January, . . . . 


808,699 


762,437 


46,262 


February, .... 


750,368 


692,981 


57,387 


March, 


868,440 


800,825 


67,615 


April, 


904,752 


773,720 


131,032 


May, 


1,019,632 


784,209 


235,423 


June, 


1,085,766 


784,164 


301,602 


July, 


978,872 


810,989 


167,883 


August, 


889,590 


737,618 


151,972 


September, .... 


845,995 


744,623 


101,372 


October, 


872,642 


703,844 


168,798 


November, .... 


799,122 


678,788 


120,334 


December, .... 


783,806 


701,340 


82,466 


Totals, .... 


10,607,684 


8,975,538 


1,632,146 



1901.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 60. 



19 





Receipts. 


Sales. 


Surplus. 


1899, 


11,234,764 


8,911,971 


2,322,793 


1898, 


11,317,761 


8,564,682 


2,753,079 


1897, 


11,798,191 


8,738,572 


3,059,619 


1896, 


10,772,108 


8,087,378 


2,684,730 


1895, 


9,856,500 


8,040,732 


1,815,768 


1894, 


9,705,447 


7,657,421 


2,048,026 


1893, 


9,263,487 


7,619,722 


1,643,765 


1892, 


9,212,667 


7,315,135 


1,897,532 



This shows receipts less than for either of the four pre- 
ceding years. The receipts for 1900 were less than for the 
corresponding month of 1899, except October and November. 
The sales for 1900 were the largest of any year on record. 
This gain was made in the first five months of the year and 
in September. In «June, July and August the sales were 
33,000 cans less than for the corresponding months of 1899. 
In October, November and December when the revolt against 
an increased retail price was going on, sales decreased 235,000 
cans, making an increased surplus of 270,000 cans, for which 
the producers received butter value, — 14.91 cents per can 
in October, 16.43 cents in November and 17.52 cents in 
December. 

The butter value of milk per can for 1900 was : — 





Cents. 




Cents. 


January, 


. 19.34 


July, . 


. 13.59 


February, . 


. 18.00 


August, 


. 14.70 


March, 


. 17.93 


September, 


. 15.19 


April, . 


. 13.22 


October, 


. 14.91 


May, . 


. 13.95 


JsTovember, . 


. 16.43 


June, . 


. 13.50 


December, . 


. 17.52 



The Legislature of last year reduced the minimum fine for 
the first offence of selling milk not of standard quality. 
This was contrary to the best judgment of those engaged in 
enforcing the law, who believed that any letting down of 



20 



DAIRY BUREAU. 



[Jan. 



the bars would be no advantage to the milk business. The 
bars have been let down, however, with an emphasis in 
many cases, courts imposing a penalty of five, ten or twenty- 
five dollars, where formerly fifty dollars was the minimum 
fine. This shows a wide range between the judgment of the 
framers of the old law and of some of the district judges. 
But there is one advantage in the change : it is now much 
easier to get a record of a first offence, as a small fine is 
paid with less fighting and less appealing than a larger one. 

Educational. 

The educational portion of our work has been less during 
1900 than during some previous years, for financial reasons. 
The general agent has responded to nineteen calls, involving 
the preparation of several papers. In the early history of 
the Bureau the Babcock milk tester was a novelty, and much 
work was done in familiarizing the dairymen of the State 
with its use by exhibiting it at institutes and making 
public tests of milk. Now that this, one of the most im- 
portant products of the nineteenth century, is no longer a 
novelty, but has become one of the regular and indispensable 
appliances on hundreds of farms, this class of calls has 
grown fewer. Some work has been done in making milk 
dealers acquainted with the story the Babcock tester tells 
them. Fat being the variable element in milk, a test of the 
fat of normal milk will throw much light on the amount of 
total solids and of the standing of the sample tested in 
relation to the statute standard. One institute has been 
held during the year under the auspices of the Bureau ; this 
was in connection with the Springfield Milk Dealers' Asso- 
ciation. The food value of milk was the leading topic of 
the meeting, and a synopsis of some of the statements made 
at the meeting has been published as a Bureau bulletin. 

The general agent of the Bureau is on call to address 
as many meetings as his other engagements will permit; 
especially would he be pleased to explain the work of the 
Bureau and what it is doing, thus bringing it into closer 
touch with the farmers of the State. The members of the 
Bureau will also respond to similar calls. 

In view of the large milk-consuming interests of the 



1901.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 60. 21 



State, we have in previous reports called attention to the 
good which might be accomplished by some system of 
inspection of dairies, which would not be burdensome, and 
which would l^e helpful and educational, without any, ar- 
bitrary or unpleasant features. We still hold to these sug- 
gestions, previously expressed. The general agent of the 
Bureau has been again called upon to award the dairy sweep- 
stakes for the Worcester South Agricultural Society. 

Laws may be enacted creating misdemeanors and impos- 
ing penalties, but real progress must rest on educational 
work as a basis. A law in advance of or in conflict with the 
average intelligence of a considerable portion of the people 
is a dead letter. Consequently this division of the work of 
the Bureau is very important, and deserving more attention. 

Massachusetts Courts. 
We desire to say one word in commendation of some 
features of the Massachusetts system of criminal courts, 
particularly the local district and police courts. In many 
States the dairy commissioner, or other officer entrusted 
with the enforcement of the dairy laws, on securing evidence 
of violation of law turns the case over to the public prose- 
cutor (State or district attorney), and the case gets into 
court only on a grand jury indictment. In Massachusetts 
all cases are first tried in the local court, being prosecuted 
by the department bringing the complaint. These cases 
go direct to the superior court if appealed. Only appealed 
cases are prosecuted by the district attorney, and even then, 
under our Massachusetts custom, the administrative head 
of the department where the cases originate follows them 
up and is of material assistance to the district attorney, 
not only in laying before him the evidence in the case, 
but in bringing to his attention the points raised in the 
lower court and the result of experience in other counties. 
All this tends to promote the efficiency of the enforce- 
ment of the law in Massachusetts. In Pennsylvania, for 
instance, where there has been some public criticism of the 
administration of the office of dairy commissioner, his de- 
fence was that his work had been faithfully done, but that 
for any failure to bring the parties into court the district 



22 



DAIRY BUREAU. 



[Jan. 



attorney was responsible. The commissioner says, in his 
last report: "The commissioner, or his attorneys, have no 
more power over the case at this stage of proceeding than 
any other citizen. All that they can do is to wait the 
pleasure of the district attorney and the court. If these 
officers decline to bring the cases before the grand jury and 
list them for trial, the prosecution has no remedy. They 
are effectually blocked as to any further progress. All of 
the cases that are now pending are in exactly this situation. 
They have been urged as far as the commissioner and his 
attorneys can prosecute them, and now it is simply a ques- 
tion of when the courts will take them up." 

Another advantage of the Massachusetts system is that it 
gives the prosecuting officer a more thorough familiarity with 
every phase of his work than otherwise would be possible, 
and it gives him a breadth of experience such as is vouch- 
safed to few, if any, who hold similar positions in other 
States. Take, for instance, the past year : the experience 
of the <2:eneral aojent of the Bureau has included such an in- 
vestigation of the methods and details of the imitation butter 
business as has culminated in 178 cases for court ; it has also 
included the actual trial of those cases in the lower courts, 
and a very close touch with such as have been appealed to 
the superior courts. This exceptional breadth of experience 
is sometimes recognized in a way complimentary to the State 
by calls upon him to address meetings out of the State 
and to explain the work of the Bureau. Last summer he 
represented the State and its agricultural department with 
a paper at the Farmers' National Congress at Colorada 
Springs (at his own expense). Later he was given an hon- 
orable place on the programme at the national convention of 
dairy and food departments of the different States, held at 
Milwaukee, Wis. He was also emphatically urged to appear 
before the committee on agriculture of the National Senate, 
at a hearing on the Grout bill, to give some account of the 
experiences of the Dairy Bureau in enforcing the imitation 
butter laws of Massachusetts. These invitations he was 
unable to accept, on account of other duties. We believe 
that it is well for the Commonwealth to be represented oc- 
casionally, within reasonable limits and when funds allow, 



1901.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 60. 23 



at national gatherings. It not only gives the Commonwealth 
a recognition and standing among other States, but an inter- 
change of ideas and acquaintance with others doing similar 
work promotes the general efficiency of the cause. Massa- 
chusetts already stands high among other States in the mat- 
ter of dairy legislation. Since the Plumley decision, which 
was so largely due to the great ability and skill of former 
Attorney-General Hon. A. E. Pillsbury, between twenty- 
five and thirty States have patterned after our anti-color law ; 
California has a Dairy Bureau ; and now Maine is contem- 
plating organizing a Dairy Bureau of its Board of Agricult- 
ure, patterned after the Massachusetts Bureau. In addition 
to the above calls out of the State, the general agent of the 
Bureau has, as a representative of the department, addressed 
the Vermont Dairymen's Association and a dairy conference 
of the Maine Board of Agriculture. 

Financial. 

The following is a classified statement of the expenses of 
the year : — 

Members of the Bureau, travelling and per diem for attend- 



ing meetings, $262 94 

Educational work, 136 27 

Inspectors' salaries, 1,632 00 

Inspectors' expenses, 2,444 96 

Chemists, 1,664 60 

Geo. M. Whitaker, travelling expenses, postage, express, 

telegrams, etc., 797 92 

Printing and supplies, 6131 



f7,000 00 

GEORGE M. WHITAKER, 

General Agent. 

Accepted and adopted as the report of the Dairy Bureau. 

J. LEWIS ELLSWORTH. 
CARLTON D. RICHARDSON. 
FRED W. SARGENT. 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT ; . . . 



No. 60. 



ELEVENTH ANISTUAL REPORT 



DAIRY BUREAU 



ASSACHUSETTS BOAED OF AGRICULTTJEE, 

REQUIRED UNDER 

Chapter 89, Section 12, Revised Laws. 



January 15, 1902, 




BOSTON : 

WRIGHT & POTTER PRINTING CO., STATE PRINTERS, 
18 Post Office Square. 
1902. 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT 



No. 60. 



ELEYE^^TH AN:NUAL REPORT 

OF THE 

DAIRY BUREAU 



Massachusetts boaed of ageictjltuee, 

REQUIRED UNDER 

Chapter 89, Section 12, Revised Laws. 



January 15, 1902. 




BOSTON : 

WRIGHT & POTTER PRINTING CO., STATE PRINTERS, 
18 Post Office Square. 
1902. 



3 



Dairy Bureau — 1 901-1 902 



J. L. ELLSWORTH, Worcester, Chairman. 
C. D. RICHARDSON, West Brookfielu. 
r. W. SARGENT, Amesbury. 



Secretary. 

J. W. STOCKWELL, Executive Officer and Secretary of the State 
Board of Agriculture. 



General Agent. 
GEO. M. WHITAKER, Boston. 



REPORT. 



. The membership of the Bureau has remained unchanged 
during the past year. The administrative work has contin- 
ued in the same hands as heretofore. This officer the past 
year concluded ten years' service in the work of the Bureau ; 
the present report, however, is the eleventh, because the 
Bureau began its existence in September, and the first report 
was for part of a year, — the last four months of 1891. No 
new chemists or regular inspectors have been engaged during 
the year. As previously reported, special inspectors are em- 
ployed temporarily from time to time in emergencies, when 
a face unfamiliar to the dealers in counterfeit or adulterated 
products is needed. 

The past year has been a record breaker, as far as tangible 
or reportable results is concerned. We have more to show 
in evidence secured, in court cases and in educational work 
than has been accomplished in any previous year of the Bu- 
reau's history. But we do not speak of this in a boastful 
spirit, or with unalloyed satisfaction. The fact that we have 
secured an unusual amount of evidence of law breaking pre- 
supposes the existence of an unusual amount of law break- 
ing, and that is not pleasing to contemplate. Just as faithful 
work was accomplished, we have every reason to believe, in 
1897, when we had only 27 cases in court, as in 1901, when 
we had 252. The conditions would be more satisfactory in 
a broad way if there was such a law-abiding spirit in the 
community, or if the law had such a deterrent effect, that 
efficient inspection could find no evidence on which to put 
cases into court for prosecution. But under prevailing con- 
ditions, when the love of unjust gain leads grasping men to 
push the sales of dishonest products, we feel some satisfac- 
tion at what we have accomplished by way of punishing such 
acts. We are sorry to add that the desire to sell fraudulent 
products is such that we could have done much more, and 



6 



DAIRY BUREAU. 



[Jan. 



beaten our own record, large as it is, were it not for one 
thing, and that is, the lack of money. The greatest hin- 
drance to our work has been our limited appropriation. It 
costs money to get evidence and to prosecute cases. The 
amount of effort we can put out in the interests of honest 
food products is governed by the amount of money at our 
disposal. We are public servants ; does the public want us 
to do more in the future than we have done in the past, — 
then we must have more to do with. Bricks cannot be made 
without straw. The possibility of getting 80 to 100 per 
cent, profit out of the consuming class by the dishonest sale 
of certain food imitations is a constant stimulus to push the 
dishonest business. Is it desired that we should be able to 
meet the increasing efforts in this direction ? We could use 
$3,000 more to excellent advantage in the interests of pure 
and honest dairy products. 

Statistically, our work for the past year may be summa- 
rized as follows : — 

Inspection of places in which dairy products or their 
imitations were sold or stored, but where the law 
seemed to be complied with, and no samples were 



taken, 1,757 

Samples taken, real or imitation butter, . . .721 

Samples taken, milk or cream, 189 

Samples taken, cheese, 1 

Cases in court, 252 

Meetings addressed, 20 



This is 145 more inspections, 85 more samples taken and 
74 more cases in court than the previous year. In court 
cases we reported that 1900 was a record breaker, with 178. 
The past year we exceeded that figure, as stated above, 
by 74. 

The court cases were brought under the following laws : — 



Imitation butter, anti-color law, . 


. 88 




Imitation butter, hotel-restaurant law, 


. 127 






215 


Milk, adulterated, 


. 10 




Milk, under standard, 


. 20 






30 


Obstructing an ofiieer, .... 




6 


Assault and battery, 




1 


Total, 




252 



1902.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 60. 



7 



The cases in court resulted as follows : — 



Convictions, .218 

Acquittals, 17 

Defaulted, 2 

Nol pros, 15 

Total, 252 



This is almost 1 case a day for each working day. It is 
no inconsiderable task to receive and pass upon the evi- 
dence in 252 cases, to make the complaints, to take charge 
of the cases in the district and police courts, to keep track 
of such as are appealed, to follow them into the superior 
court, and to do the necessary incident clerical work. 

Butter, — Normal. 
The butter market has been in a fairly healthy condition 
during the past year. The creameries of the State have, on 
the whole, done a satisfactory business, though producers 
have been hampered by an increased cost of production, 
owincr to the hio^her cost of OTain. The following' table 

coo o 

shows the extreme quotation for the best fresh creamery 
butter in a strictly wholesale way in the Boston market for 
the last six years : — 





1901. 

Cents. 


1900. 

Cents. 


1899. 

Cents. 


1898. 

Cents. 


1897. 

Cents. 


1896. 

Cents. 


January, 




25.0 


29.5 


21.0 


22.5 


22.0 


26 


.0 


February, . 




25.0 


26.0 


24.0 


21.5 


22.0 


24 


.0 


March, 




23.0 


27.0 


22.5 


22.0 


23.0 


24 


.0 


April, . 




22.0 


21.0 


21.0 


22.5 


22.0 


22 


.0 


May, . 




19.5 


20.5 


19.0 


18.0 


18.0 


17 


.0 


June, . 




20.0 


20.5 


19.0 


17.5 


16.0 


16 


.5 


July, . 




20.0 


20.5 


19.0 


18.5 


16.5 


16 


.5 


Auo;ust, 




21.0 


22.5 


21.5 


19.5 


19.0 


17 


.5 


September, . 




22.0 


22.5 


23.5 


21.0 


22.0 


17 


.5 


October, 




21.5 


22.0 


24.0 


21.5 


22.5 


20 


.0 


November, . 
December, . 




24.0 


25.0 


26.5 


21.0 


22.0 


21 


.0 




24.5 


25.5 


28.0 


21.0 


23.0 


23 


.0 


Averages, . 




22.3 


23.5 


22.4 


20.5 


20.6 


20 


.4 



The above does not show quite as high an average for 1901 
as for 1900, but the figures for the past year were better than 



8 



DAIRY BUREAU. 



[Jan. 



the average for recent years. The Boston market is the only 
one in the State where statistics are kept, and as Boston is 
the largest city in the State, and as it is the commercial 
centre of New England, figures from that market have an 
exceptional interest. 

The Chamber of Commerce figures regarding the butter 
business in Boston for 1901 and the immediately preceding 
years are as follows : — 





1901. 

Pounds. 


1900. 

Pounds. 


1899. 

Pounds. 


1898. 

Pounds. 


1897. 

Pounds. 


On hand January 1, 
Receipts for the year, . 

Total supply, 
Exports, deduct, . 

Net supply, . 

Stock on hand December 31, 
deduct 

Consumption, 


3,285,960 
57,499,836 


2,073,800 
51,502,840 


2,829,160 
49,757,606 


2,473,600 
50,609,552 


2,898,000 
51,107,033 


60,785,796 
5,708,603 


53,576,640 
1,002,374 


52,586,766 
3,051,710 


53,083,152 
1,574,682 


54,005,033 
3,286,333 


55,077,193 
4,512,000 


52,574,266 
3,285,960 


49,535,056 
2,073,800 


51,508,470 
2,829,160 


50,718,700 
2,620,680 


50,565,193 


49,288,306 


47,461,256 


48,679,310 


48,098,020 



The above table shows a steadily increasing consumption, 
barring the year 1899. This Avas the year when prices im- 
proved after the depression of three preceding years, and it 
is possible that the consumers had not adapted themselves to 
the changing rates. In connection with these figures one 
fact must be remembered : with the development of other 
centres in New England, and their securing from the rail- 
roads Boston freight rates, Boston loses its relative suprem- 
acy as a New England distributing centre ; therefore, these 
annual figures mean more and more the local consumption. 
With this fact in mind, the steadily increasing consumption 
is very gratifying. 

BuTTEK, — Imitation. 
On a previous page we report 88 court cases for viola- 
tion of the anti-color law and 125 for violation of the hotel- 
restaurant law. In the enforcement of these laws there also 
arose 6 cases of obstruction of an inspector of the Bureau, 
and 1 of assault and battery on an inspector. This makes 
222 cases in connection Avith the oleomargarine — imitation- 



1902.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. (30. 



9 



butter — laws. Of this number, we lost 17 and nol prossed 
15, 2 were defaulted and there were 186 convictions. 
Besides these, 3 cases have been taken from the files of 
different courts and fines imposed, in instances where the 
defendant had broken his parole and been convicted of sub- 
sequent offences. Evidence of violation of the anti-color 
law is obtained, when possible, by making purchases in 
stores or of pedlers. Often this cannot be done, because 
our inspectors are known to the dealer, who will refuse to 
make a sale ; or it may be that he is so suspicious that he 
will not sell to any stranger. If a purchase cannot be made, 
the inspector searches the suspected premises, and if any of 
the imitation article is found, we \m>yQ 2^ prima facie case 
of intent to sell, which is also prohibited by the statutes. 
In view of the fact that we cannot depend on the first kind 
of evidence, but must frequently fall back on the second, 
our statistics do not prove conclusively how this imitation 
product is ordinarily sold in the usual channels of trade ; 
that is, we cannot show what the average consumer orders 
and supposes he is getting. But out of the above 88 viola- 
tions of the law we had positive evidence in 56 cases that 
sales of the imitation had been made as and for genuine but- 
ter. In other words, we can prove that, out of 88 cases 
where possession with intent to sell was alleged, we had 
evidence in 64 per cent, of the cases that a fraud had been 
actually committed. These figures are certainly no exag- 
geration. If they err at all, it is on the side of conservatism. 
It is evident that, if they are faulty, it is in understating 
the facts. But on the basis of the above figures, which are 
absolutely accurate, 64 per cent, of the imitation butter 
manufactured is sold dishonestly. When to this fact is 
added the further fact that the sales were made at prices 
varying from 20 to 26 cents per pound, we find a vindica- 
tion of these laws. Though criticised by some and misun- 
derstood by others, they are for the protection of consumer, 
producer and honest middleman. Every class in the com- 
munity is interested in honest foods, and these laws are for 
the benefit of all. No honest product is discriminated 
against. 



10 



DAIRY BUREAU. 



[Jan. 



During the year we have found the law violated in an 
unusual number of hotels and restaurants. In many in- 
stances the proprietors or managers were innocent of any 
attempt to deceive ; they were themselves deceived by the 
person of whom they purchased their supplies ; they ordered 
butter, paid a butter price for what they bought, and sup- 
posed they were serving butter. In 12 instances the de- 
fendants testified to such facts ; but in many others the 
same information came to us informally, but the defendants 
were found guilty in court, and the fines paid, under cir- 
cumstances that made us feel certain that the dealer had 
stood back of his customer, and paid the fine and expenses. 
As the fine for selling imitation butter is $100, while the 
fine for serving it in a restaurant is only $10, it is self-evi- 
dent that the dealer could well aff'ord to hush up in this way 
any evidence of his own moral obliquity. In one case the 
attorney of a dealer boldly stood up in court and defended 
the restaurant manager without having been employed by 
the latter, in order to use legal skill in suppressing the evi- 
dence against the dealer aforesaid. 

For the first time in the history of anti-color legislation 
in this State a violator of the law has been sentenced to im- 
prisonment, and is serving his sentence. The defendant 
Avas a persistent seller of colored oleomargarine, which he 
disposed of as and for butter. He paid a fine in Spring- 
field ; he was detected selling the article in Worcester, but 
ran away ; he was found backing another dealer in Holyoke 
and Chicopee ; and finally he was caught pedling in Brock- 
ton. He represented himself as agent of the St. Albans 
creamery, and said its superior product could be obtained 
only of him. His price was 24 cents per pound. He was 
a good salesman, and by going from house to house and 
telling this story he could sell many five-pound boxes in a 
day, with the minimum risk of detection. But we secured 
the facts, and put him into the Brockton police court on 
three complaints. It was his expectation that the usual fine 
of $100 would be imposed, which fine he was prepared to 
pay. Doubtless after charging it olf to expense he could 
show a balance on the right side of the account. He was, 



1902.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 60. 



11 



however, thunderstruck at the sentence, and ejaculated in 
open court, " Such a sentence was never imposed before in 
this State, your Honor." Well, it has been done now," 
replied the judge. It seems to us that it would be well, in 
the cases of a few other inveterate ofienders, if a similar 
course might be followed by some other judges. Indeed, 
we are not sure but the law would be more deterrent if the 
statute required imprisonment for the third or fourth of- 
fence. If such a change were made, it might be policy to 
reduce the penalty for the first ofi'ence, so that the law 
might not seem oppressive, and might act as a warning to 
the careless or ignorant the first time a person is caught 
violating its provisions. 

In order that the law may seem more forceful in the 
case of old offenders, we have adopted the policy of multi- 
plying cases against them when we can do so. Otherwise 
we have feared that the operation of the law might be re- 
garded more as a license than a punishment. If it is im- 
possible for us to reach leading cities and towns in the 
Commonwealth oftener than once a year, an occasional fine 
of $100 might come to be regarded as a part of the regular 
programme, to be a fixed charge on the business. For this 
reason we brought 6 cases against one New Bedford dealer, 
and secured convictions in all, the fines amounting to $600 ; 
a Holyoke dealer has paid 3 fines of $100 each ; 8 convic- 
tions were secured against one store in North Adams, with 
fines aggregating $900 ; one of the old offenders of Lowell 
has been found guilty in 4 cases, the fines amounting to 
$400 ; 5 cases were accumulated against one Worcester 
store, with fines of $500 ; 4 against another ; and 3 against 
still another. Such procedure is not possible in all cases, 
but we believe it is advisable when it can be done. 

One case is still pending in the supreme court. This 
arises out of the custom of district court clerks receiving 
complaints and issuing warrants in the name of the court, 
when no judge is present. Clerks are by statute allowed 
to receive complaints and issue warrants, but this question 
grows out of their acting under such circumstances in the 
name of the court. It is claimed that if by virtue of his 



12 



DAIRY BUREAU. 



[Jan. 



office a clerk receives a complaint, he should issue his own 
warrant and not the warrant of the court ; in the latter 
case it is claimed that the warrant is issued before the com- 
plaint is received by the authority issuing the warrant. A 
large number of appealed cases are tied up, awaiting this 
decision. 

In the perjury case alluded to in our report of last year 
the defendant was found guilty and sentenced to a term of 
imprisonment, which he is now serving. 

Butter, — Renovated. 

The law requiring renovated butter to be branded or la- 
belled with its distinctive name is largely a dead letter. This 
is through no difficulty in enforcing the law, for chemists can 
easily distinguish renovated butter from normal butter and 
from imitation butter. The difficulty is wholly with the 
amount of money which the Legislature allows us to expend. 
This amount is not enough even to permit us to do as thor- 
oughly as we would like the work entrusted to us before the 
renovated butter law was enacted. The milk inspector of 
Lowell has had one case which has been pushed to a satisfac- 
tory conclusion in district and superior court ; so far as we 
know, this is the only case that has been tried. 

As to the desirability of such a law, opinions differ. The 
wholesalers generally view it with disfavor, and will ask the 
Legislature to repeal it. This renovated butter question is 
rapidly increasing in importance, for the commodity is be- 
coming a staple article of merchandise, and is coming into 
general use. Almost every store has it, and it has become 
an important article in the trade. For a second-quality ])ut- 
ter it has much to commend it, and it is much better than 
could be secured as such before the process of butter reno- 
vating became common. If it were sold under its true color?^, 
— and that is all the law reffuires, — it would be a valuable 
article of commerce. Renovation is always commendable, 
whether in butter or human beings. Improvement is prog- 
ress. To take low-grade butter, which would be almost un- 
merchantable, and renovate it so that it will stand ahnost in 
the front rank is a praiseworthy act. But experience and 



1902.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 60. 



13 



observation covering the retail markets of the whole State, 
including those selling from both stores and wagons, con- 
vince us that in many instances the consumer does not know 
what he is buying, and the article is sold dishonestly. When 
any inferior article is thus sold dishonestly as something 
better than it is, it becomes a damage to legitimate business. 

We believe that renovated butter, as it is ordinarily sold, 
is a menace to the business in natural butter. Notice that 
we use the word ' ' natural " butter, in distinction from ' ' reno- 
vated " butter. Kenovated butter is unquestionably the real 
product of the cow's udder, without adulteration, generally 
speaking (a little glucose is sometimes added, to give it body 
or grain) ; but the process of renovation so changes the sub- 
stance that, though it still remains real butter, it is no longer 
natural butter. It boils like oleomargarine, rather than nat- 
ural butter ; it appears under the polariscope more like oleo- 
margarine than natural butter ; in some kinds of cooking it 
will not take the place of natural butter. Consequently, we 
claim that renovated butter is not natural butter. Thouoh 
the wholesale trade, as stated above, almost unanimously 
oppose the use of a distinctive brand or label which shall 
apprise the consumer of its real character, there are those in 
the butter business who do not hesitate to say that as usually 
retailed it is as s^reat a menace as unreo^ulated oleomar2:arine 
would be. One dealer says that the trade is committing slow 
suicide in the course thino^s are takino^. 

Here are some facts which we can substantiate. When the 
best creamery butter was quoted in assorted size tubs, in a 
strictly wholesale way, at 22 to 22% cents per pound, a 
large Boston retailer advertised in a showy manner in the 
Sunday papers that he owned creameries in the finest dairy 
sections of the country and could therefore sell direct to 
the consumer an article of ''superb quality," at a very low 
price. This dealer, having made this boast, thereupon oifered 
''Locust Valley Elgin Creamery Butter" at 22 cents per 
pound in five-pound boxes, and at 21 cents per pound in 
tubs. A Bureau inspector purchased one of the five-pound 
boxes at 22 cents per pound, — less than the extreme whole- 
sale price of butter in tubs in round lots, — and the stuff 



14 



DAIKY BUREAU. 



[Jan. 



proved on analysis to be renovated butter. Such things 
seem to us to be more of an injury to business than the sin- 
gle transaction between the seller and the individual buyer, 
for the quoting such a price in such a misleading way tends 
to unsettle values, to impair confidence and to injure pro- 
ducer and middleman. At the same time alluded to above 
another large retailer was advertising fine Vermont dairy 
butter at 22 cents per pound ; our inspector bought some, 
and it proved to be renovated butter which probably never 
saw Vermont. In a suburban town a dealer sold his "best 
creamery butter " at 28 cents per pound to one of our in- 
spectors, and this, too, proved to be renovated butter. A 
creamery manager in the western part of the State writes 

us : " Mr. of this town advertises continuously ' Elgin 

creamery butter, 25 cents per pound.' This business ought 
to be stopped, for this figure is less than our wholesale price." 
We could multiply such statements almost indefinitely, but 
they would be merely cumulative. 

We have endeavored to present fairly the position of both 
sides of the case. We have no personal interest in the mat- 
ter, and regret that our convictions run counter to those of 
the trade and many personal friends who have stood loyally 
by the cause of honest butter in opposition to oleomargarine. 

Milk. 

The cost of production has greatly increased during the 
past year, particularly the latter portion, on account of the 
higher price of the grain fed to milch cows. This has re- 
sulted in movements in many places for an advanced price 
for milk. These agitations have generally been successful, 
and 7 cents seems to be the prevailing retail price, at least 
outside of Boston. There considerable milk is retailed at 8 
cents, and in case of superior milk an extra figure is secured. 
In some instances farmers have become discouraged at the 
low or unprofitable price, and curtailed their production. 
The demand for milk has been very good, or at least until 
near the close of the year. It is yet too early to tell the last- 
ing eff'ect of higher prices upon the consumptive demand for 
milk. But milk at retail has not yet reached such a figure 



1902.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 60. 



15 



as to take it out of the list of the cheapest foods one can 
purchase. When milk is 7 cents per quart, the dry, solid 
portion of average milk — every portion digestible, with no 
refuse — costs only 27 cents per pound. We think there 
is a steady gain in the quality of the milk retailed in the 
State. The literature circulated by the agricultural press 
and experiment stations is surely leading to improved and 
cleanlier methods, better ways of caring for the product, 
and more attention to details which have an important bear- 
ing upon the quality of milk. 

In the enforcement of the milk laws we have taken 189 
samples of milk or cream, and had 30 cases in court on the 
folio win o- charo^es : — 

Adulteration, 10 

Under standard, 20 

Total, 30 

Conviction followed in each instance. The adulterant used 
in 8 of the cases was some coloring matter to give an ap- 
pearance of richness, when a portion of the cream had been 
removed. In 2 instances the proportion of fat to solids not 
fat was such as to prove that water had unquestionably 
been used^ as the adulterant, and the charge was made ac- 
cordingly. Under the law of 1900 judges have more lati- 
tude than formerly in the matter of fines when milk is not 
of standard quality, and the fines imposed in the above cases 
ranged from $5 to $100. Most of them were the lower fig- 
ure, and the larofcr sum Avas an ao:o:ravated second ofi'ence. 
Under the old law, $50 was the minimum in all such cases. 
The analysis of the milk in the cases prosecuted showed 
total solids as follows : — 



10.90 


11.40 


11.50 


11.24 


11.54 


11.90 


11.40 


11.20 


12.50 


10.66 


11.10 


8.70 


12.10 


11.64 


9.70 


10.50 


10.06 


11.20 


11.28 


10.60 



With the increasing importance of the cream trade and 
the increasing amount of pasteurizing of cream, dairymen 
found a serious obstacle in their business. Pasteurizing 



16 



DAIRY BUREAU. [Jan. 



cream makes it more fluid, and hence less acceptable to 
people who have been educated to associate richness with 
thickness. It was impossible to convince them that a thin 
cream might have as much fat as a thick cream. As the 
increasing use of cream made it necessary to ship the ar- 
ticle considerable distances, compelling pasteurization, the 
trouble threatened to become serious, until Professor Bab- 
cock came to the relief of the situation with the statement 
that viscogen (sugar of lime) added to cream in very small 
amounts would restore its viscosity without adding any 
deleterious feature. Consequently this practice has been 
adopted to a considerable extent, and has the sanction of 
the best dairy authorities in the country, though it is a 
violation of Massachusetts law, which forbids the addition 
of " any foreign substance." During the past year informa- 
tion has come to us of the use of this substance to promote 
dishonesty and to injure the trade in cream. A gentleman 
who was selling a 50 per cent, cream came in competition 
with an article which was claimed to be "just as good," 
but which was sold at a cut price. Samples were taken, 
and the competing cream was found to have only 30 per 
cent, of fat ; but it was thickened with viscogen, so as to 
have the viscosity of the 50 per cent, article. An unfor- 
tunate feature of the business is the difficulty of determin- 
ing the addition of this adulterant with sufficient certainty 
to maintain a case in court, lime being a natural ingre- 
dient of cream, and in variable amounts. 

Boston Milk. 
The situation in Boston has been of exceptional interest 
during the past year, and milk history has been made rap- 
idly. As stated in a previous report, the wholesale price 
and the price to producers in October, 1900, advanced 4 
cents per can over the winter price which had prevailed for 
four years, for the winter period of six months, at the city 
end of the line. The advance to consumers, Avith an unwise 
agitation, proved too much for the market, and on the 1st 
of January, 1901, the producers' price dropped 2 cents. 
This was the first time in the history of the trade, or at 



1902.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 60. 17 



least for many years, when there was a change in one of the 
six months' periods. The unusual nature of the situation 
at the beginning of the year was increased, when negotia- 
tions for the summer price began, by a demand on the part 
of the producers for an abolition of the time-honored prac- 
tice as to the manner of computing the return to be made 
to the farmers for surplus milk. The wholesalers, con- 
tractors, had been in the habit of contracting for an indefi- 
nite quantity of milk at a fixed price, subject to the proviso 
that the farmers should be paid butter value for the surplus. 
This provision on the contractors' cards we find for the first 
time in September, 1886. Consequently, if Farmer A was 
to have 26 cents per can, and he shipped to market 1,000 
cans of milk in a month when the butter value of milk was 
15 cents per can, and the surplus was 25 per cent, of the 
receipts, his account would be accurately figured thus : — 

750 cans of milk, at 26 cents per can, . . . $195.00 
250 cans of milk, at 15 cents per can (butter 
value), 37.50 

Total, $232.50 

But the contractors reached this conclusion in a difierent 
way for their convenience in keeping their accounts. They 
first computed the average price per can for the month, 
which in the above case it will be seen was 23.25 cents per 
can ; this figure being 2.75 cents less than the regular price, 
the farmer's account would be made up by the contractors as 
follows : — 

1,000 cans of milk, at 26 cents per can, . . $260.00 
Discount for surplus, 27 . 50 

Balance due, $232.50 

The farmer got the same amount of money by each way of 
making the computation, but the contractors' method was 
blind, putting a premium on misunderstanding, and being a 
direct bid for confusion and trouble. An apparently arbi- 
trary discount, misunderstood and obscure, naturally was a 
source of great irritation, and for years it was the frequent 
theme for discussion at milk meetings. This surplus was 



.18 



DAIRY BUREAU. 



[Jan. 



most burdensome in 1897, when it reached the immense pro- 
portions of 3,059,619 cans, nearly 35 per cent, of the sales. 
Since then it has been decreasing, and had fallen off to 
1,632,146 cans in 1900. But in March of 1901 a formal 
demand was made by the Milk Producers Union for an abo- 
lition of the surplus provision, and for a " straight price," 
that is, one price for all milk sold to the contractors, so 
that the producer would know, when the milk left his dairy, 
exactly what he would receive for it. The contractors re- 
sisted this demand, and a milk "strike" followed. The 
farmers held together with great unanimity and praise- 
worthy harmony, keeping back a large proportion of the 
city's milk supply. But the contractors reached out far- 
ther, into adjoining States, and secured so much milk that 
the consumer would not know, except from the newspa- 
pers, that there was any disturbance in the market. At 
length the power of negotiation prevailed, and a com- 
promise was arranged, by which those who wanted a 

straight price " secured it by agreeing on a deduction for 
surplus, as explained above, of 2 cents per can. 

At the time for making the trade for the winter price of 
1901-2 the average price of last winter was fixed upon, 
with the agreement that the discount for the surplus for 
the next six months should be determined in advance to be 
1% cents per can. There were further agreements looking 
to a more even supply and guarding the producers if the 
actual surplus should fall below the prearranged discount. 
On account of the shortage of milk, which promised to be 
sei^ous on account of the increasing cost of production, the 
contractors voluntarily raised the price 4 cents per can in 
December, and the increase is to continue through Jan- 
uary. The following table shows the wholesale price of 
milk in Boston for twenty years. The price that the farmer 
received has been a fixed discount from this, varying accord- 
ing to the distance from Boston. We have included in the 
table the price which the producer in the middle belt has 
received during this time, the price being what he has re- 
ceived for all milk consumed as such in Boston, and not the 
average income of his dairy when both sale milk and butter 



1902.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 60. 19 



value of surplus are considered and averaged. The figures 
are for 8% quart cans. 



YEAR. 


Summer Bos- 
ton Price, — 
April to Octo- 
ber 
(Cents). 


Net to Pro- 
ducer in 

X irLn £dOiiQ 
(Cents). 


YEAK. 


Winter Boston 
Price, — October 
to April 
(Cents). 


Net to Producer 
in Fifth Zone 
(Cents). 


1882, 


35 


- 


1882-3, . 


43 


- 


1883, 


35 


- 


1883-4, . 


40 


- 


1884, 


34 


- 


1884-5, . 


42 


- 


1885, 


30-32 


- 


1885-6, . 


36-37 


- 


1886, 


30 


- 


1886-7, . 


36 


- 


1887, 


30 


- 


1887-8, . 


36 


24 


1888, 


32 


21 


1888-9, . 


38 


27 


1889, 


32 


21 


1889-90, 


38 


25 


1890, 


32 


21 


1890-1, . 


36 


25 


1891, 


33 


22 


1891-2, . 


37 


26 


1892, 


33 


22 


1892-3, . 


37 


.26 


1893, 


33 


22 


1893-4, . 


37 


26 


1894, 


33 


22 


1894-5, . 


37 


26 


1895, 


33 


22 


1895-6, . 


37 


26 


1896, 


33 


22 


1896-7, . 


35 


24 


1897, 


31* 


22 


1897-8, . 


33* 


24 


1898, 


31 


22 


1898-9, . 


33 


24 


1899, 


31 


22 


1899-0, . 


33 


24 


1900, 
1901, 


33 
33t 


24 
24 


1900- 1, . 

1901- 2, . 


5 37 to Jan. 

} 35 

s m 

I 40 in Dec. 


28 to Jan. 

26 

25. 5J 
29.5 in Dec. 



* This is a nominal rather than an actual change. With the dropping of the 
Boston price 2 cents the distance discount-schedule was also lowered 2 cents, so 
that producers received the same price. 

t Those producers who preferred had 31 cents, with no discount on account of 
the surplus. 

i In the trade with the contractors a surplus discount of 1.5 cents was agreed 
upon ; 25.5 is the net to the farmer after the surplus discount is deducted, and is 
equivalent to 27 cents, from the standpoint of the preceding figures. 

The following table gives the receipts, sales and surplus 
of railroad milk brought into greater Boston, in 8% quart 
cans, as reported .by the contractors' association : — 



20 



DAIEY BUREAU. 



[Jan. 



1901. 


Receipts. 


Sales. 


Surplus. 


January, ..... 


802,346 


701 026 


101,320 


February, .... 


728,076 


637,968 


90 108 


March, ..... 


867 095 


733,817 


133 278 


April, ..... 


643,164 


439,471 


103,693 


May, . . • . . 


972,067 


743,962 


228,105 . 


June, .... 


1,019,722 


746,889 


272,833 


Julv 

fj LIJ. J , ..... 


941,652 


796 560 


145 092 


August, ..... 


856,878 


728 592 


128 286 


September, .... 


813,127 


734,253 


78,874 


October, 


846,368 


768,461 


77,907 


November, .... 


739,101 


712,974 


26,127 


December, .... 


756,707 


712,164 


44,543 


Totals, .... 


9,886,303 


8,456,137 


1,430,166 






Receipts. 


Sales. 


Surplus. 


1900, 


10,607,684 


8,975,538 


1,632,146 


1899, 


11,234,764 


8,911,971 


2,322,793 


1898, . . 


11,317,761 


8,564,682 


2,753,079 


1897, 


11,798,191 


8,738,572 


3,059,619 


1896, 


10,772,108 


8,087,378 


2,684,730 


1895, 


9,856,500 


8,040,732 


1,815,768 


1894, 


9,705,447 


7,657,421 


2,048,026 


1898, 


9,263,487 


7,619,722 


1,643,765 


1892, 


9,212,667 


7,315,135 


1,897,532 



The record of receipts has shown a steady decline since 
1897, which is not a wholly undesirable condition, as con- 
sumption has held its own, or increased. Hence the smaller 



1902.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 60. 



21 



amount of receipts means a great reduction in the surplus. 
The receipts for 1901 were the smallest in six years, the sur- 
plus was the smallest for ten years. The receipts have run 
uniformly less during each month of the year, but the sales 
have been very uneven relatively from month to month ; one 
month they would be less than the average, or the smallest 
for several years, while the next month they would be the 
largest on record, Avith perhaps a single exception. The 
purchase of milk by the large wholesalers has not kept pace 
with the increase of population. 

The butter value of milk in cents per can for 1900 and 
1901 was : — 





1901. 


1900. 




1901. 


1900. 


January, 


16.20 


19.34 


July, . 


13.87 


13.59 


February, 


16.60 


18.00 


August, 


14.47 


14.70 


March, . 


16.85 


17.93 


September, . 


14.53 


15.19 


April, . 


11.62 


13.22 


October, 


14.92 


14.91 


May, . 


13.05 


13.95 


November, . 


15.94 


16.43 


June, 


13.78 


13.50 


December, . 


16.88 


17.52 



Milk in Other Cities. 

A number of milk inspectors have kindly furnished us 
some information about the milk business in their several 
cities, from which we compile the following : — 

Somerville : population, 61,643; consumption of milk, 
21,400 quarts per day ; trade fully as good as last year. 

Lowell: population, 94,966; consumption of milk, 
30,268 quarts daily ; about one-third is sold to boarding- 
houses and stores at wholesale ; nearly all is sold by middle- 
men ; there is a tendency to take better care of milk 
brought into the city. 

New Bedford : population, 62,442 ; consumption of milk, 
27,000 quarts per day ; about one-third is retailed by pro- 
ducers ; the quality is generally very good. 

Cambridge : population, 91,886 ; consumption of milk, 
•36,344 quarts per day; about one-half is sold from stores 



22 



DAIRY BUREAU. 



[Jan . 



and one-half from wagons ; 224 cans daily are raised in 
Cambridge, and 504 cans are sold by producers ; wagon 
milk comes in from Waltham, Lexington, Arlington, Bel- 
mont, Concord, Lincoln, Way land, Burlington, Dover, 
South Sudbury, Bedford, Holliston, Billerica, Needham, 
Sharon and Southborough ; there is a tendency on the part 
of the big contractors to absorb the retail routes ; con- 
densed milk has lately replaced fresh milk to some extent. 

Worcester: population, 118,421; consumption of milk, 
34,000 quarts daily ; 61 per cent, of the dealers are middle- 
men. 

Lawrence : population, 62,559 ; daily consumption of 
milk, 24,000 quarts ; about 40 per cent, is sold b}^ })ro- 
ducers ; the quality is improving. 

Lynn : population, 68,513 ; daily consumption of milk, 
22,950 quarts ; about two-fifths is retailed by the producers ; 
there is a tendency to concentration among the dealers. 

Holyoke : population, 45,712 ; consumption of milk daily, 
17,500 quarts ; a large proportion is sold by non-producers ; 
the quality is improving. 

Some years ago , in some figures for the national department 
of agriculture, the writer of this report endeavored to ascer- 
tain whether there was any law of average underlying the 
consumption of milk in the larger cities of New England, 
with the following result (the figures represent hundredths 
of a pint per capita of population) : — 

Boston, 96 

Hartford, 94 

Nashua, 84 

Burlington, 1.00 

Haverhill, 90 

The following is deduced from the above figures from 

Massachusetts cities : — 

Somerville, 69 

Lowell, . .03 

New Bedford, 86 

Cambridge, 79 

Worcester, o7 

Lawrence, . .76 



Lynn, . 
Hol3'oke, 



67 

,77 



1902.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 60. 



23 



Educational. 

The educational work of this department has not been 
neglected during the past year. Six meetings have been 
addressed by members of. the Bureau, and the general agent 
has been called upon fourteen times for addresses. There 
have been three calls on him for Babcock test demonstra- 
tions before audiences ; but the test is now so well known 
that this class of calls is . less than formerly. There have 
been three calls for the use of this test on other occasions. 
One of these was the awarding the sweepstakes dairy prize 
of the Worcester South Agricultural Society. The general 
agent has acted as judge of this class for the society for a 
number of years. 

Codification of Dairy Laws. 

The dairy laws of this State have been a growth. Almost 
every year since 1856 there have been amendments and new 
legislation, and in some instances the practice under these 
laws has been modified by court decisions. Hence the dairy 
laws needed codification and revision more perhaps than 
the laws in any other department. Revision, however, was 
beyond the scope of the Avork undertaken by the recent 
commission and the Legislature of last year but the codifi- 
cation has resulted in great improvement. 

Owing to the somewhat complicated nature of the case, 
the work left the codification commission with a few serious 
errors; for example, the selling of milk not of standard 
quality was not prohibited, two standards for skimmed milk 
were created, and a law relative to duplicate samples (de- 
clared by the supreme court -as repealed by implication) was 
continued. At the request of the sub-committee of the 
Legislature having the matter in charge, the general agent 
of the Bureau met with them several times and gave much 
attention to this work. As a result of their eff*orts, all seri- 
ous defects were remedied, and the codification seemed per- 
fect. But in the final copying and renumbering of sections 
a few relatively unimportant errors crept in. The attention 
of the legislative sub-committeQ was called to these, but they 



24 



DAIRY BUREAU. 



[Jan. 



replied : ' ' We deemed it wise not to offer any of the amend- 
ments. The Legislature seemed bound not to make any 
changes whatever except where the change was necessary on 
account of some provision of law which would be made in- 
operative unless the change was made." 

These errors are three. Section 42, relative to complaints 
to be instituted by inspectors of milk, omits allusion to the 
renovated butter law. Section 61, which imposes a penalty 
for milk inspectors conniving at or assisting in a violation 
of the provisions of several sections, includes in the list 
section 70, which relates to the inspection of meat and pro- 
visions. Section 64 orders milk inspectors to make com- 
plaints on information as to the violation of several laws, 
and includes those requiring the Hatch experiment station 
to inspect Babcock testers and the glassware connected 
therewith. 

The codification has improved the phraseology of the laws 
in several respects, particularly in a general definition of 
butter and oleomargarine, which saves several verbose repe- 
titions. The commission and the committee saw several 
places where the laws could be still further improved, but 
most of these changes seem to border on new legislation, 
and were therefore debarred. One chans^e seems to us to be 
required. Some of the fines go to the Commonwealth, and 
some go to the cities or towns where the offence is com- 
mitted. There is no reason for such lack of uniformity, 
which introduces an element of confusion, and sometimes 
occasions trouble. It would be much better, both in theory 
and practice, if all the fines arising under these laws were 
disposed of uniformly. We recommend that all take the 
same course, and go to the cities or towns where the offence 
is committed, as is the case with the greater portion of the 
fines for other offences. 

The codification makes a change in the spirit of and prac- 
tice under one law. Chapter 169, Acts of 1899, directed an 
officer who obtained a sample of milk for analysis to send, 
within ten days of the " procurement thereof," the result of 
the analysis to the person from whom the sample was taken. 
In the opinion of the Attorney-General and the codification 



1902.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — Xo. 60. 



25 



commission, the words "procurement thereof " referred to 
the nearest noun, to wit, analysis ; hence the Revised Law 
(section 63) requires the person who obtains the sample to 
send the prescribed notice within ten days after obtaining* 
the result of the analysis " from the chemist. 

National Association. — Massachusetts Courts. 
In October the general agent of the Bureau attended the 
annual Convention of Dairy and Food Commissioners at 
Buffalo. He read a paper on the practical enforcement of 
food laws. The paper showed that the enforcement of these 
laws is sometimes criticised from the theoretical stand-point 
by persons without knowledge of ordinary procedure under 
criminal law^s, and without experience. The theoretical critic 
seems to regard these laws like an automatic machine, which 
moves with the relentless precision of the buzz saw or pile 
driver. But the practical enforcement of food laws varies 
much from the inexorable blow of the inanimate machine, 
because of (1) the limitations and demands of the laws of 
evidence, (2) the personal element in judges and jurors, (3) 
the discretion allowed prosecuting officers, whether agents 
of food departments or district attorneys. This difference 
between the practical and theoretical enforcement of crim- 
inal laws in general and food laws in particular is not a weak- 
ness, when broadly considered. The defendant has the benefit 
of every precaution to prevent the innocent being unjustly 
condemned ; and when conviction is secured, justice can be 
tempered with mercy. We believe the laws have more re- 
spect from the community at large, and even from the crim- 
inal classes , on account of the human element that comes in 
play, from the fact that decisions are reached by men with 
the traits of a common human nature. 

These meetings with officers engaged in similar work in 
other States are always beneficial, and at times exceedingly 
interesting. One efi'ect is to impress us with the superiority 
of the Massachusetts system of courts, and the way in which 
the system Avorks. We believe one may justly take pride 
! in the same. The form of our procedure, the high character 
of our judges even in the lower courts, and the tone of pub- 



26 



DAIRY BUREAU. 



[Jan. 



lie sentiment here, are more highly appreciated after one has 
had an opportunity to learn the troubles of those engaged in 
similar work elsewhere. Imagine the only way to begin crim- 
inal proceedings to be through the grand juror or the grand 
jury ; imagine gi-and jurors appointed by selectmen or alder- 
men , and reflecting the views of the appointing power ; im- 
agine cases smothered by a district attorney, because he does 
not favor some law ; imagine the frequent failure of grand 
juries to indict, in spite of evidence, if they do not like any 
particular law ; imagine one grand jury at a single session 
refusing to find bills in 300 cases of violation of a law un- 
popular with the jurors ; imagine petit jurors being judges 
of law, as well as of evidence, and refusing to convict be- 
cause in their judgment some law is unconstitutional ; imag- 
ine being obliged to begin civil suits to collect fines after the 
criminal court has imposed them, — all these things happen 
in other States, not all in any one State. On one occasion 
the writer of this told a group of commissioners in the course 
of conversation that in Massachusetts it is no unusual thing 
for a judge to charge a jury that their opinions as to the 
merit of the law should not be a factor in the conclusion they 
might reach ; that their duty was merely to determine whether 
the evidence in the case bore out the charge in the complaint. 
More than one commissioner expressed surprise at the state- 
ment, and said that judges in his State would not do so. 

Miscellaneous . 
In many instances our inspector is the only witness to the 
violation of law, and sometimes his evidence in court is dis- 
puted by the defendant. There is then the word of one man 
against that of another. In such circumstances the witnesses 
are usually sharply cross-examined, with a view of getting 
at the facts in the case, to determine as far as may be the 
truth of their stories. To illustrate : During the jesiY an 
inspector found an imitation-butter pedler in Lawrence Avith 
some of the contraband article in his wagon. The inspector 
started to take a portion for analysis, but he was forcibly 
prevented from securing the sample. The pedler Avas 
brought before the police court, charged Avith interfering 



1902.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 60. 



27 



with an officer of the Dairy Bureau. At the trial of the case 
the inspector told his story, and the defendant denied sub- 
stantially every material portion of the inspector's evidence. 
The inspector was cross-examined by the defendant's lawyer, 
and the defendant was examined by the general agent of the 
Bureau, the judge himself asking several questions. As a 
result of this careful investigation, the fellow was found 
guilty and fined. He appealed, and in the superior court 
there was the same conflict of evidence and a similar cross- 
examination of witnesses by the defendant's lawyer and the 
district attorney. As a result of this sifting of the varying 
stories, the jury believed that the man was guilty, and so 
found. Now, Judge Berry of the Lynn police court inter- 
prets the law of evidence as requiring him to acquit a de- 
fendant against whom there is only one witness, if the 
defendant denies or even questions the story of that witness. 
This judge, therefore, says that, if we are to be allowed to 
swear out complaints in his court, we must duplicate our 
evidence, — have our inspectors travel in pairs, so that the 
story of one may be corroborated by the story of the other. 
If this is good law, the practice will eventually be adopted 
by the other courts and will result in halving the amount of 
work we can do, or will require double the present appro- 
priation, if the present degree of efficiency is to be main- 
tained. 

As the work of the Bureau continues, the increasing ex- 
perience of the official in charge causes the calls upon him 
to grow broader in their scope. He has been for a number 
of years a lecturer on dairy topics before one of the schools 
of domestic science in the city. In Januarj^ he w^as sent to 
Washington by the butter men of the Boston Chamber of 
Commerce, in the interests of the Grout bill, so called. 
This bill is of much interest to Massachusetts, as it Avill 
make its policy as regards imitation-butter legislation in 
harmony with the Constitution by act of Congress rather 
than by the divided opinion of the supreme court. The 
Bureau's general agent, as the representative of the dairy 
interests of the State, has been placed on the board of offi- 
cers of the National Farmer's Congress and also of the Na- 



28 



DAIKY BUREAU. 



[Jan. 1902. 



tional Association of Dairy and Food Commissioners. In 
August he was appointed a special expert of the national 
department of agriculture, to inspect dairy exports from the 
port of Boston in connection with recent national legisla- 
tion. The duties of the position will not be very large, as 
Boston is not much of an export point for dairy products, 
and as most of what exports there are come from the west 
on through bills of lading, and are transferred directl}^ from 
the cars to the boats. We expect that in a general way 
being in closer touch with the dairy business will be in the 
line of increased efficiency in work for the State. 

The following is a classified statement of the expenses of 
the year : — 

Members of the Bureau, travelling and per diem for attend- 
ing meetings, $297 56 

Educational work, 103 86 

Inspectors' salaries, 1,775 35 

Inspectors' expenses, 2,414 39 

Chemists, 1,650 36 

Geo. M. Whitaker, travelling expenses, postage, express, 

telegrams, etc., 652 07 

Printing and supplies, . 106 41 

$7,000 00 

GEORGE M. WHITAKER, 

General Agent. 

Accepted and adopted as the report of the Dairy Bureau. 

J. LEWIS ELLSWORTH. 
CARLTON D. RICHARDSON. 
FRED. W. SARGENT. 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT . . . 



No. 60. 



TWELFTH ANNUAL REPORT 



DAIRY BUREAU 



Massachusetts Board of Ageicultuee, 

REQUIRED UNDER 

Chapter 89, Section 12, Revised Laws. 



Ja^tuary 15, 1903. 




BOSTON : 

WRIGHT & POTTER PRINTING CO., STATE PRINTERS, 
18 Post Office Square. 
1903. 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT 



No. 60. 



TWELFTH ANNUAL REPORT 

OF THE 

' DAIRY BUREAU 



Massaceusetts Boaed of Agriculture, 

REQUIRED UNDER 

Chapter 89, Section 12, Revised Laws. 



January 15, 1903. 




BOSTON : 

WRIGHT & POTTER PRINTING CO., STATE PRINTERS, 
18 Post Office Square. 
1903. 



Approved by 
Thk State Board of Publication. 



2> 



Dairy Bureau — 1902. 



J. L. ELLSWORTH, Worcester, Chairmmi. 
C. D. RICHARDSON, West Bkookfield. 
F. W. SARGENT, Amesbuky. 



Secretary. 

W. STOCKWELL, Exemiiive Officer and Secretarij of the State 
Board of Agriculture. 



Gene7'al Agent. 
GEO. M. WHITAKER, Boston. 



EEPORT. 



The past year has been the most notable in the history of 
the Bureau, for two reasons. In the first place, there has 
been a record-breaking amount of work done. In no pre- 
vious year in the history of the Bureau have there been so 
many business places visited, so many prosecutions or so 
many convictions. In the next place, there have been sev- 
eral important changes in State and national laws, some of 
which have had a material influence on the nature of our 
work. Congress has placed the Massachusetts anti-color 
oleomargarine law on a surer footing. When the national 
government was organized, the States gave up to the central 
authority the right to regulate interstate traffic ; and there- 
fore the constitutionality of the Massachusetts anti-color 
law was attacked on the ground that this State had en- 
croached upon the prerogatives of the national government 
by interfering with interstate commerce. The supreme 
court did not uphold this view of the case, but maintained 
that Massachusetts, in regulating the sale of an imitation 
product, had acted within the scope of the police powers 
retained by the States at the organizing of the government. 
This opinion, however, was not unanimous, it being the 
view of a majority of the judges, a strong minority dis- 
senting. A change of two judges, by death or resignation, 
might have resulted in a reversal of the decision. But now 
Congress has given back to the States the right to legislate 
as to oleomargarine, and the principle of the Massachusetts 
law is doubly clinched. In the same act Congress increased 
the internal revenue tax on colored oleomargarine to 10 
cents per pound, and reduced the tax on the uncolored to 
1/4 cent. This maizes imitation butter cost 8 cents more 



6 DAIKY BUREAU. [Jan. 

than formerly, and 9% cents more than oleomargarine 
which has no artificial coloration. The result of this law, 
which went into effect July 1, has been to diminish the 
effort to violate the State law by pushing the sales of imita- 
tion butter, while uncolored oleomargarine has come upon 
the market in large amounts. Another thing which did 
much to increase and broaden our work was the giving us a 
larger appro})riation with which to enforce the renovated 
butter " law. 

The membershi}) of the Bureau has not been changed 
during the past year, the retiring member, Mr. C. I). Rich- 
ardson, having been reappointed. P. M. Harwood has con- 
tinued in service as an inspector, and R. M. Horton has 
been succeeded by A. W. Lombard. H. M. Merriam, 
(Mrs.) A. A. Bangs, and (Mrs.) Eva Myrick have been 
employed portions of the time. Others have worked for a 
few days occasionally, Avhen special service was needed. 
The chemical work has been done, as in previous years, by 
Dr. B. F. Davenport of Boston and Edward B. Holland of 
the Hatch Experiment Station. The administrative work 
has continued in the same hands as heretofore. 

Statistically. 
Statistically, the work of the year has been as follows : — 

Number of inspections, 3,895 

Number of samples of butter or oleomargarine, . 846 

Number of samples of milk, 232 

Cases in court, 285 

Meetings addressed, 21 

Adding the number of inspections where no samples Avcre 
taken and those where the inspector took specimens, we 
have a total of 4,97o places visited by our inspectors during 
the year. The number last year was 2,()()8, and in 1900 
2,488. 

We have during the year collected evidence and presented 
to different courts 300 cases of violation of law. In most 
courts the business of receiving complaints and issuing war- 
rants or summonses is done by the clerk, under })rovision 
of hiw. In Cambridge, however, the Judge hears all the 



1903.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 50. 7 

evidence in advance of his trial of the cases, arid authorizes 
the institution of proceedings only Avhen there seems to 
him probable guilt. This year the judge has refused to 
take the word of the State officer representing this depart- 
ment of the Commonwealth's service as to whom the wit- 
nesses in the several cases would be, and what the evidence 
of each one would be, demanding the personal appearance 
of each witness for a preliminary investigation. This not 
having been arranged as yet, and the cases in two other 
courts having been continued beyond the 1st of Januarj , 
the total number of cases prosecuted to completion has been 
285 ; but, with this reduction, we have a record of 33 cases 
more than last year, which at that time we felt was a phe- 
nomenal record breaker ; 107 cases more than in 1900, 
which broke the record up to that time ; and 198 cases more 
than in 1899. All this work means just so much service to 
the consuming public of the State in the interest of pure 
and honest dairy foods, which otherwise would not have 
been performed. 

The charges in the several cases were as follows : — 



Oleomargarine, in imitation of butter, ... 53 

Sold as butter, ....... 12 

Wagon unmarked, 2 

Wrapping paper unmarked, 10 

In restaurants, 13 

90 

Presen-ative in butter, 13 

Preservative in oleomargarine, .... 2 

Renovated butter, 120 

Milk, not of standard quality, 48 

Milk, adulterated, 5 

Obstructing an officer, 7 

Total, 285 



The comparison of the court cases for 1902 and some pre- 
vious years may be of interest : — 



1902, . 


. 285 




. 60 


1901, . 


. 252 


1897, 


. 27 


1900, . 


. 178 


1896, 


. 79 


1899, . 


87 


1895, 


. 82 



DAIRY BUREAU. [Jan. 

The result of these cases was as follows : — 

Discharged, 10 

Defaulted, 3 

Nol pros, 34 

Conviction after trial, pleas of guilty or of nolo con- 
tendere, 238 

Total, 285 



Several appealed cases have been pushed to a successful 
termination in the superior courts in various counties ; and 
the supreme court appeal, reported at length last year, 
resulted in a decision in our favor, the defendant's exceptions 
being overruled. 

OlE OMARG ARINE . 

The disparity of 9% cents per pound in the case of col- 
ored oleomaroarine and white oleomaroarine has driven 
much of the former imitation butter out of the market, and 
led the manufacturers to make a determined effort to get the 
uncolored article before the consuming public. This has 
done much to modify the nature of our work, and the 
results. We have been unable to relax our vigilance as 
regards oleomargarine colored in imitation of yellow butter. 
Although less of it has been sold in the State than hereto- 
fore, we have been obliged to keep a constant watch for it, 
as in many cases it has been in evidence ; and we hav e had 
in court this year, as Avill be seen by the above table, 53 
cases, as against 88 last year, 145 the year previous, 47 in 
1899 and 13 in 1898. On the very last day of the year, 
December 31, our inspectors found two dealers handling the 
imitation article in cities in different parts of the State. 
The uncolored oleomargarine has also increased our work, 
for all of the laws heretofore existing relative to stamps, 
brands, signs, etc., apply to all kinds of oleomargarine, 
regardless of color. Hence we were obliged to inspect the 
dealers handling olecmiargarine without artificial color, to 
see if the laws were complied with. The result has been 
that, instead of bringing cases under only two different 
laws, as was the case for the three previous years, in 1902 
we made complaints for violation of five laws. Sometimes 



nm.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. HO. 



9 



we have found the white oleomargarine sold as butter, 
though in most of these the olFenders Avere small dealers, 
some of them not familiar with our language and laws. In 
such instances we believed there Avas no intention of violat- 
ing the law ; but in one case a peddler, who was asked by 
an inquisitive customer why the butter was so white, replied 
that ''Vermont had just passed a law against coloring 
butter." 

The fluctuation of the oleomargarine business in Massa- 
chusetts, as indicated by the number of people paying the 
United States tax, is very significant. When the anti-color 
law was passed, in 1891, 485 people were paying a tax to 
sell imitation butter in this Commonwealth, — 34 at whole- 
sale, 451 at retail. The number was gradually reduced 
under the operation of the law, until in the years ending- 
June 30, 1897 and 1898, there were onl}^ 29 of these tax 
payers, one to do a wholesale business and 28 a retail busi- 
ness ; and in 1898 the number of cases we had in court for 
violating the anti-color law was as low as 13. But with the 
national fiscal year ending June 30, 1899, there became 
evident a strenuous attempt on the part of the oleomargarine 
people to push more sharply than ever, and more openly 
and wilfully to violate the State law. The number of per- 
sons paying this tax for that year increased to 88, and for 
the year ending June 30, 1901, to 109 ; while the number 
of our court cases increased in the year 1900 to 178, 145 of 
these being for a violation of the anti-color law. This sharp 
fight put up against the law breakers had the effect to curtail 
the business, and the number of taxes fell off more than one- 
half the next year ; but with the advent of the uncolored 
oleomargarine the number has increased to 346. 

So far the consuming public has not taken hold of the 
uncolored oleomargarine very readily, preferring the color 
of butter. Should success attend the efforts to educate 
consumers to prefer a lighter-colored butter and to use uncol- 
ored oleomargarine in any considerable quantities, the latter 
would become an important factor to be considered commer- 
cially. But the moral question would be eliminated, for the 
light-colored oleomargarine would not be a fraud, and w ould 



10 



DAIRY BUREAU. 



[Jan . 



be sold honestly. Some manufacturers are straining hard 
to inch up in the matter of color, and some brands are now 
on the market which, in our opinion, are very close to 
imitations of yellow butter." 

The number of persons who paid a United States tax the 
past seven 3^ears is shown by the following table : — 



Years ending June 30 — 



1897, .... 

1898, .... 

1899, .... 

1900, .... 

1901, .... 

1902, .... 
Current year, — colored, 
Current year, — imcolored. 



Wholesale. Retail. 

i 



I 


28 


1 


28 


12 


76 


3 


59 


6 


103 


3 


48 


1 


24 


7 


314 



Re NOVATE I) Butter. 
Last year's Legislature gave us an increased appropriation, 
so that we could enforce the " renovated butter" law. This 
is a law Avhich requires identifying marks on tubs and boxes 
when it is in bulk, and on the wrapping paper in case of 
small sales. By reason of delays, the legislation was not 
perfected until half of the yeai' had passed ; Ave have in the 
remaining half of the time expended about one-half of the 
appropriation . 

At first Ave took pains to give dealers information as to 
the laAv ; many copies of it were printed and circulated 
among the trade. In si)ite of this, when Ave began taking 
samples and making purchases, we found many violations 
of the law. In most instances, at first, the dealers thus 
caught Avere persons of honest instincts, Avho intended to 
comply with the laAvs of the Commonwealth, but Avho had 
not become familiar with this particular statute, in spite of 
our efforts to disseminate information concerning it. These 



1903.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — Xo. (lO. • 11 



dealers were an entirely different class of people from those 
w ho had been violating the oleomargarine (imitation butter) 
law, and therefore the former had a much better standing 
in court. This phase of the case gave rise to considerable 
perplexit}^, as we felt it necessary to proceed with great care 
and discretion, in order to do our duty faithfully and have 
the objects of the law secured, with a minmium of hardship 
and seeming oppression. 

In most cases hitherto where the charge had been a viola- 
tion of the " imitation butter" law there had been an evi- 
dent intent or a studied purpose to evade the law. That 
was different in these violations of the * ' renovated butter " 
law, and hence we have had an unusual number of appeals 
for recommending leniency to the courts. 

Another cause of some embarrassment has been the large 
penalty attached to the law, — a minimum of one hundred 
dollars, with no latitude to the courts for mitigating circum- 
stances except placing the case on file. Nevertheless, we 
believe the statute is very useful, both for consumers and 
producers. Previously renovated butter was sold decep- 
tively in nearly ever}^ instance. When put up in prints, it 
was labelled in a way particularly calculated to deceive the 
ordinary consumer. We have found it with such labels 
about'each individual print as Franklin County Creamery," 
" Sweet Clover Creamery," Fancy Creamery-Iowa Brand- 
Pure Butter," with nothing to show the real character of the 
article. Even after there began to be an enforcement of the 
law, the spirit of deception was not summarily exorcised, but 
in most cases it was attributable to the manufacturers rather 
than to the retailers in whose hands we found the goods. 

In AYorcester over a dozen samples were taken where the 
words ' ' renovated butter " on the wrapper were printed so 
dimly as to be almost imperceptible. Another batch of 
samples was labelled " Litchfield County Print Butter, put 
up expressly for family use, every package guaranteed," 
while the words renovated butter" were in small, skeleton 
letters, smaller than the law required. Another wrapper 
bore the mark " Meadow Brook-Pure Butter-Creamery," 
with the words ^' renovated butter" in skeleton type, which 



12 



DAIKY BUREAU. 



[Jan. 



would hardly be recognized by the average purchaser. As 
the work of enforcing the law has progressed, these decep- 
tive wrappers have to a very large extent disappeared, and 
more honest ones have taken their place. In this connection 
great assistance has been rendered by the United States law, 
which was added as a sort of rider to the Grout oleomarga- 
rine bill. Under this United States law a revenue tax of 
one-quarter cent a pound is imposed upon renovated butter, 
and there are a number of useful requirements as to brands, 
marks and stamps. 

In case of marks on the outside' wrapper, when two or 
more purchases are made and all packages are placed in an 
outside wrapper for the convenience of the customer in 
' diminishing the number of parcels, the Attorney-General 
gives us the opinion that 'Hhe outside of the parcel con- 
taining the several parcels of merchandise, within the law, 
does not require the specific label if such be upon each of 
the parcels originally made up and delivered to the purchaser. 
Such delivery is, in my opinion, the delivery contemplated 
by the statute ; and if, after such delivery, the customer 
requests, and in compliance with such request, expressed or 
implied, the seller, as agent for the purchaser, makes up the 
larger bundle, such transaction is no part of the original 
delivery ; and, the law having been complied with as to 
each of the original packages, no further labels need be 
affixed by the seller." 

In connection with the new national law, considerable 
was said in newspapers and elsewhere about the use of 
various preservatives in renovated butter ; and, with a view 
of studjdng the way the business was transacted in Massa- 
chusetts, we caused a number of samples to be analyzed. 
Boracic acid was found in about one-third of them, and 
thirteen cases were entered in court under the general food 
law, which declares a substance adulterated if any antiseptic 
or i)reservative is used except common salt, saltpetre, spices, 
alcohol and sugar. The manufacturers defended the cases, 
but became satisfied that the Massachusetts law was valid 
and was to be enforced. They have therefore agreed to use 
no more boracic acid in the butter Avhich is put upon the 
Massachusetts market. 



1903.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — Xo. (>(). 13 

Butter. 

The market has been in a healthy condition through the 
year, with prices very high, averaging much more than any 
records which we have kept during the past seven years. 
During that time anything in excess of 29 cents has been 
reported but once; in January, 1900, 29% cents was 
reached. During the past year in April the price went as 
high as 32 cents. Another peculiarity of the year 1902 was 
the fact that August averaged the lowest month, whereas 
May and June are ordinarily the low months of the year. 
The lowest quotation for any one week was the first week 
in September. The somewhat phenomenal advance in 
March and April let out the holders of storage butter at a 
good margin. For almost every month the price lias been 
higher than for the average of the corresponding months of 
previous years. 

The following table shows the extreme quotation for the 
best fresh creamery butter in a strictly wholesale way in 
the Boston market for the last seven years : — 





1902. 


1901. 


1900. 


1899. 


1898. 


1897. 


1896. 




Cents. 


Cents. 


Cents 


Cents. 


Cents. 


Cents. 


Cents. 


January, 


25.0 


25.0 


29.5 


21.0 


22.5 


22.0 


26.0 


February, . 


28.5 


25.0 


26.0 


24.0 


21.5 


22.0 


24.0 


March, 


29.0 


23.0 


27.0 


22.5 


22.0 


23. U 


24.0 


April, .... 


32.0 


22.0 


21.0 


21.0 


22.5 


22.0 


22.0 


May, .... 


25.0 


19.5 


20.5 


19.0 


18.0 


18.0 


17.0 


June, .... 


23.5 


20.0 


20.5 


19.0 


17.5 


16.0 


16.5 


July, . 


22.5 


20.0 


20.5 


19.0 


18.5 


16.5 


16.5 


August, 


21.5 


21.0 


22.5 


21.5 


19.5 


19.0 


17.5 


September, 


23.5 


22.0 


22.5 


23.5 


21.0 


22.0 


17.5 


October, 


24.5 


21.5 


22.0 


24.0 


21.5 


22.5 


20.0 


November, . 


27.0 


24.0 


25.0 


26.5 


21.0 


22.0 


21.0 


December, . 


28.5 


24.5 


25.5 


28.0 


21.0 


23.0 


23.0 


Averages, . 


25.0 


22.3 


23.5 


22.4 


20.5 


20.6 


20.4 



The Chamber of Commerce fio^ures resfardino- the butter 
business in Boston for 1902 and the immediately preceding 
years are as follows : - 



14 



DAIRY BUREAU. 



[Jan. 



® 5 
« = 


o cc 

CO 

Qo" t>r 

01 O 

OO »H 
(M" r-T 


54,005,033 
3,286,333 


50,718,700 
2,620,680 


48,098,020 


1898. 

Pounds. 


2,473,600 
50,609,652 


53,083,152 
1,574,682 


51,508,470 
2,829,160 


48,679,310 


1899. 

Pounds. 


2,829,160 
49,757,606 


52,586,766 i 
3,051,710 


49,535.056 
2,073,800 


47,461,256 


1900. 

Pounds. 


2,073,800 
51,502,840 


53,576,640 
1 ,002,374 


52,574,266 
3,285,960 


CO 

o 
co^ 

oo" 

00 

c^^ 
oT 


i 

1901. 

Pounds. 


3,285,960 
57,499,836 


60,785,796 
5,708,603 


55,077,193 
i 4,512,000 


50,565,193 


2 1 


4,512,000 
54,574,429 


59,086,429 
940,031 

1 


58,146,398 
6,248,920 


51,897,478 




On hand January 1, 

Total supi^ly, 

IStock on hand December 31, deduct, 



1903.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT— No. GO. 



15 



This shows an increased consumption, one million and a 
third pounds more than for the year 1901, and an average 
weekly consumption of about one million pounds. The 
table shows a steady increase in the consumption of butter 
from year to year, and the actual increase is much more 
than the figures show, because Boston is supplying a more 
and more restricted territory. Worcester, New Bedford, 
Lawrence and other cities are steadily becoming greater 
distributing centers, and are therefore supplying consumers 
who formerly received their product from the Boston market. 



16 



DAIRY BUREAU. 



[Jan. 




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1903.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 



GO. 



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18 



DAIRY BUREAU. 



[Jan. 



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PUBLIC 1)0CUMP]NT — No. (>(). 



19 



AVhen the creamery movement started in Massachusetts 
nearly all of the creameries were co-operative, and statistics 
connected with them were regarded as of a great deal of 
vahie, because every farmer and milk producer had an 
interest in the outcome of the operations of the creameries. 
The competition with the sale milk business in Boston, and 
other reasons, have made considerable of a change in this 
respect, and, as will be noticed by the above list, many of 
the creameries are now proprietary. Some of the co- 
operative creameries have continued, and we compile the 
following from their latest reports, showing something of 
their general methods : — 

Belchertown. — Amount of cream collected, 906,356 pounds. From 
this was made 201,352 pounds of butter after selling- cream to the 
value of $485. The total receipts for the year were $55,131. The 
amounts paid were as follows : — 



Gathering cream, $3,076 00 

Making butter, 1,040 00 

Selling and delivering, . . . . . 919 00 

Freight and express, 401 00 

Patrons for cream, ...... 42,526 00 

Officers, 637 00 

Testing cream, ' . 48 00 

Discounts, 299 00 

Other expenses, ' 1,431 00 



MoNTAGiTE. — This creamery received 287,467 pounds of cream, and 
made 68,084 pounds of butter. The average price of the butter was 
25.24 cents per pound, and the average paid for butter fat was 24 
cents. 

Hampton. — Received 890,823 pounds cream, producing 161,159 
pounds butter. The receipts of the year were $50,649.85. Payments 
were as follows : — 



Paid patrons, . . • $41,389 67 

Ordinary expenses, 6,628 57 

Dividends, 6 per cent, 150 00 

Balance to new account, 2,481 61 



$50,649 85 

Hinsdale Creamery. — Made 103,701 pounds butter. Its total re- 
ceipts were f 25,529.55. The payments were as follows : — 



20 



DAIRY BUREAU. 



[Jan. 



Patrons for cream, 

Expenses, 

Dividend on capital stock, 1900, 5 per cent, 
One half cent reserve, .... 
Supplies sold patrons, .... 

Error, 

Cash on hand, ...... 



fl9,503 48 



4,428 77 
171 25 
523 30 
15 08 



54 

887 18 



125,529 55 



Conway Ckeameky. — Made about 420,000 pounds butter, and sold 
about 28,600 pounds which it had to purchase from other sources. Its 
sales of cream and butter amounted to about fl25.000, and disburse- 
ments to i^atrons for cream ^100,575. 

Egremont Creamery. — Received 735,751 pounds cream, and made 
157,045 pounds butter. The total receipts were $36,453.61, expenses 
were $5,853.55, the balance going to the farmers who pioduced the 
cream. 



During the year the milk market has been in the main 
firm in price, with a fair demand and no great amount of 
surplus. The cold summer caused a mark falling oft' in the 
amounts of milk and cream used at summer resorts, and 
producers dependent upon that kind of a market did not do 
as good a business as some years. Later in the year the 
colder weather, coupled with the outbreak of the foot and 
mouth disease, caused a material shortening of the supply. 
The retail price of milk in the various towns and cities of 
the State varies somewhat, according to local competition, 
but is within the limits of 6 and 8 cents for ordinary milk. 
Fancy certified milk, of extra quality, sells at a higher price. 

Some things have come to our knowledge during the year 
which convince us that a certain class of city peddlers do 
quite a business in what may be called blended milk. 
They prepare an article which is uniform in composition, 
and substantially up to the standard. During the 12 per 
cent months they sell milk of about 11.8 per cent solids, 
and when the standard advances to 13 per cent, b}^ some 
form of lacteal necromancy their product easily follows the 
standard. We believe they would have no trouble in fur- 
nishing a milk of a greater per cent of solids, should the 
law require it. As reported in another place, we took 232" 
samples of milk during the year, and had 53 cases in court. 



Milk. 



1903.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 60. 21 

The amount of total solids in the milk, where the charge 
was milk below the standard, was as follows : — 



10.20 


11.92 


11.12 


10.84 


11.78 


12.32 


11.76 


9.92 


11.26 


12.52 


11.02 


11.22 


11.90 


12.50 


11.72 


11.76 


12.22 


12.52 


11.22 


11.76 


11.36 


12.42 


11.36 


11.14 


11.76 


11.44 


11.86 


11.32 


11.60 


11.70 


11.62 


10.26 


11.10 


10.40 


11.62 


9.56 


11.56 


11.76 


11.74 


10.38 


11.80 


10.50 


11.54 


10.76 


12.38 


• 11.44 


11.30 


10.80 



The price of Boston milk has been higher than for many 
years. At the meeting in the spring, to fix prices, the di- 
rectors of the milk producers union asked for 36 cents as a 
Boston price, less an agreed "surplus discount" of 2 cents, 
making a "straight price" of 34 cents. The contractors 
offered 1 cent less, with provisions tending to promote a 
more even production. The matter was finally adjusted by 
a compromise, by which 36 cents was made the price for 
April, July, August and September, and 35 cents for May 
and June. At the time of making the price for October 
there were a number of protracted conferences, which 
resulted finally in a trade for 391/^ cents as the Boston price, 
and 37% cents as the net price. In addition to this, the 
contractors agreed that the word "surplus" was not to 
appear in negotiations with producers, and that no alter- 
native propositions were to be made. The surplus provi- 
sions having disappeared from the contracts, the contractors 
felt under no oblio^ations to continue Hvinof the fio^ures of 
receipts and sales, and consequently we are unable to get 
that statistical information for this report, much to our 
regret. In other lines of business, full statistics are re- 
garded as essential to intelligent action. 

The following^ table shows the price of Boston milk for 
the past ten years, the report for last year giving the 
figures for eleven years previous to that. It should be un- 
derstood, by way of explanation, that previous to 1900 
farmers received a specified long price for what milk could 



22 DAIRY BUREAU. [Jan. 

be sold as sale milk, and butter value for the surplus. Un- 
der this trade they received two prices for milk, the average 
price being a little less than the long price for sale milk ; 
the amount of discount depended on the amoiuit of surplus 
and on the price of butter. The contractors, for conven- 
ience in bookkeeping, figured all of the milk at the long price, 
and then applied to the result a discount which would give, 
as the balance, the proper amount to be paid to the farmers. 
In this way the expression ' ' surplus discount " or ' ' dis- 
count on account of surplus" came into existence. That 
way of doing business, in its practical operation, having 
many evils and having become unpopular, the old-time 
method of getting at the net average price has been abol- 
ished, and the long price has been arbitrarily reduced 1% 
2 cents, in lieu of a surplus discount, figured on the actual 
conditions as to amount of surplus and value of butter. 

The price that the farmer received has been a fixed dis- 
count from this, varying according to the distance from 
Boston. We have included in the table the price which the 
producer in the middle belt has received during this time, 
the price being what he has received for all milk consumed 
as such in Boston, and not the average income of his dairy 
when both sale milk and butter value of surplus are con- 
sidered and averaged. The figures are for S^j H^^^'t cans. 



Suniiiier Price. 





Gross Boston 
Price. 
Cents. 


" Straight 
Price," Boston. 
Cents. 


Gross to Pro- 
ducer, Fifth 
Zone. 
Cents. 


straight 
Price to 
Producer, 
Fifth Zone. 
Cents. 


1893, April to October, . 




33 




22 




1894, " 




33 




22 




1895, " 

1896, " 




33 
33 




22 
22 




1897, " 

1898, *♦ 

1899, " 




31* 

31 

31 




22 
22 
22 




1900, " 




33 




24 




1901, " 




33 


31 


24 


22 


1902, " 


r 

\ 
[ 


36 in April, 
July, August, 

September. 
35 in May, June. 


34 in April, 
July, August, 

September. 
33 in May, June. 


26 


25 
24 



* This is a nominal rather than an actual change. With tlie dropping of the Boston 
price 2 cents the distance discount-schedule was also lowered 2 cents, so that producers | 
received the same price. 



1903.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. (50. 23 





Winte7' 


Price. 










Gross Boston 
Price. 
Cents. 


" Straight 
Price," Boston. 
Cents. 


Gross to Pro- 
ducer, Fifth 

Zone. 

Cents. 


Straight 
Price to 
Producer, 
Fifth Zone. 
Cents. 


1893-4, October to April, 


37 


_ 


26 


_ 


1894-5, 


37 


- 


26 


- 


1895-6, 


37 




26 




1896-7, 
1897 8, 


35 
33*. 




24 
24 




1898-9, 


33 




24 




1899-0, 


33 




24 




1900-1, " " j 


37 to January. 
35 to April. 


i _ ^ 
S 1 


28 to January. 
26 to April. 


i - 


1901-2, " " j 


36 

40 in December. 


341 

38|inDecember. 


27 
31 


25.5 
29.5 


1902-3, 


39 1 


37^ 


30\ 


29 



* This is a nominal rather tjiau an actual change. With the dropping of the Boston 
price 2 cents the distance discount-schedule was also lowered 2 cents, so that producers 
received the same price. 



Educatjonaj^ly . 
The work of the Bureau is unique and diflerent from that 
of any other department of the State government, because, 
under the statute, there is broad educational work as well 
as police duties. No other State department having police 
duties is required to do similar work along the line of col- 
lectino- and disseminatino- information. Durino- the last 

~ o ~ 

year the amount of educational work done has been less 
than usual, though the general agent has responded to about 
the average number of calls for addresses. In the discharge 
of this part of his work, he has spoken to 20 difterent gath- 
erings. Last year the number was 14, and the year before 
it was 19. At a number of these meetings object lesson 
demonstrations of the Babcock test have been given, nearly 
150 samples of milk having been tested in that manner. 
The general agent has again been called upon to award the 
sweepstakes dairy prize for the Worcester South Agricul- 
tural Society, based on the amount of butter fat produced 
on the grounds of the society by individual cows in twenty- 
four hours. The following table gives the results of the 
test for the past year : — 



24 DAIRY EUKEAU. [Jan. 



OWNER. 


D„„ J ! Pounds 
^ j Milk. 


Per Cent 
Fat. 


Pounds 
Fat, 


J. E. Kimball, Oxford, . . | Jersey, " Rosa," . 


12.87 
10.00 


5.!S 
4.8 


.75 
.48 






22.87 


1.23 


A. L. Woodle, North Brookfield, 


Ayrshire, 


17.25 
14.87 


3.4 
4.0 


.586 
.595 


32.12 


1.181 


J. E. Kimball, Oxford, 


Jersey, " Daisy," . 


12.00 
11.94 


5.0 
4.6 


.60 
.55 


23.94 


1.15 


J. E. Kimball, Oxford, 


Jersey, " Princess," 


11.87 
10.75 

22.62 


5.2 
4.8 


.617 
.516 


1.133 


C. L. Underwood, 


(xiieriisey, " Daisy," 


16.75 
17.62 


3.4 
3.2 


.57 
.56 

1.13 


33.37 


G. H. Bowker, . . . . 


Ayrshire, 


17.00 
14.50 


3.2 
4.0 


.54 
.58 


31.50 


1.12 


A. L. Woodis 


Ayrshire, 


13.87 
14.87 


3.4 

3.8 


.47 
.56 


28.74 


1.03 


J. E. Kimball, .... 


Jersey, " Beauty," 


12.75 
11.75 


4.4 
4.0 


.56 
.47 


24.50 


1.03 


E. D. Cole, Barre Plains, . 


Reg. Holstein, 


17.37 
17.12 


3.0 
3-0 


.52 
.51 


34.49 


1.03 


C. L. Underwood, . . . ' . 


Guernsey, " Gypsy," . 


11.25 
11.50 


4.8 
4.2 


.54 
.48 

1.02 


22.75 


C. L. Underwood, 


Guernsey, " Belle," 


14.00 
13.75 

27.75 


3.2 
3.2 


.45 
.44 


.89 



In addition, there has been published a compilation ot 
the Revised Laws relating to dairy matters and the deci- 
sions of the supreme court on the same, edited to conform 
to the new numberinir of the Revised Laws. 



1903.] PUBLIC DOCITMEXT — Xo. HO. 



25 



Expenses. 

The following is a cLissified statement of the expenses of 
the year : — 



Agents' salaries, $1,914 06 

Agents' expenses, 2,581 68 

G. M, Whitaker, general agent, for travelling expenses, post- 
age, mileage, etc., . . . , 821 03 

Chemists, 2,790 75 

Bureau, 346 20 

Supplies and printing, ....... 152 11 

Educational 12 33 



Total $8,618 21 

GEORGE M. AVHITAKER, 

General Agent. 

Accepted and adopted as the report of the Dairy Bureau. 

J. LEWIS ELLSWORTH. 
CARLTON D. RICHARDSON. 
FRED. W. SARGENT. 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT . 



No. 60. 



THIRTEENTH ANNUAL REPORT 



DAIRY BUREAU 



Massachusetts Boaed of Ageicultuee, 

REQUIRED UNDER 

Chapter 89, Section 12, Revised Laws. 



Jajsuary 15, 190 4. 




BOSTON : 

WRIGHT & POTTER PRINTING CO., STATE PRINTERS, 
18 Post Office Square. 
1904. 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT 



No. 60. 



THIRTEENTH ANNUAL HEPORT 

OP THE 

''dairy bureau 

OP THE 

Massachusetts Board of Agriculture, 

REQUIRED UNDER 

Chapter 89, Section 12, Revised Laws. 



January 15, 1904. 




BOSTON : 

WRIGHT & POTTER PRINTING CO, STATE PRINTERS, 
18 Post Office Square. 
1904. 



Approved by 
The State Board of Publication. 



3 



Dairy Bureau — 1903, 



C. D. RICHARDSON, West Brookfield, Chairman. 
JOHN M. DANFORTH, Lynnfield Centre. 
A. M. LYMAN, Montague. 



Secretary. 

J. LEWIS ELLSWORTH, Executive Officer and Secretary of the State 
Board of Agriculture. 



General Agent. 
R M. HARWOOD. 
Address, Room 136, State House, Boston. 



REPORT. 



The character of the work of the Bureau has been more 
or less affected by recent national laws and the rulings of 
our superior court judges ; more care and expense in secur- 
ing evidence are now necessary ; prima facie evidence is no 
longer as useful as formerly, and technical cases have disap- 
peared almost altogether, actual fraud now usually appearing 
in the evidence, if not always in the complaint. Whatever 
has been necessary in the way of expense in obtaining evi- 
dence has not been spared, and it has served the purpose 
of indicating whether the sale was a practice or an accident, 
also of helping materially in securing conviction in the 
courts. The result has been most satisfactory, there having 
been but one violation of law prosecuted during the year 
which ultimately failed, and that simply because the party 
could not afterwards be found ; the total convictions for the 
year being 34 more than in any previous year, and 72 more 
than the average for the three preceding years. About the 
usual amount of educational work has been done. The 
office of the general agent has been removed to the State 
House, and his ent^ire time is given to the work. 

The membership of the Bureau has been materially 
changed. The chairman, J. Lewis Ellsworth, retired July 
1, to become secretary of the State Board of Agriculture, 
and executive officer of the Dairy Bureau. CD. Kichard- 
son was elected chairman. F. W. Sargent was succeeded 
by John M. Danforth, and A. M. Lyman was appointed to 
fill the vacancy caused by the retirement of Mr. Ellsworth. 
At the annual meeting of the State Board of Agriculture, 
Jan. 14, 1903, P. M. Harwood was elected general agent. 
A. W. Lombard has been employed regularly as agent, and 
lour others have been employed as occasion required. The 



6 



DAIKY BUKEAU. 



[Jan. 



chemical work lias been done by Dr. B. F. Davenport of 
Boston and E. B. Holland of the Hatch Experinaent Station, 
Amherst. 

The work of the year has been as follows : — 



'Total number of inspections, 5,524* 

Number of inspections where no samples were taken, . . 4,135 
Number of samples of butter and oleomargarine, nearly all 

purchased, 1,379' 

Number of samples of milk and cream, 16. 

Cases in court, 28-9 

Meetings addressed by the general agent, .... 20 

Meetings addressed by the chairman of the Bureau, . . 7 



Cases prosecuted t during the year, by months and courts^ 
with law violated, and results, are as follows : — 



Court. 


Month. 


Num- 
ber. 


Law violated. 


Con- 
Tiited. 


Dis- 
charged. 


West Newton, . 


January, 


6 


Milk, . 


5 




Chicopee, . 


January, 


2 


Milk, . 


2 




Worcester, 


February, . 


2 


Oleomargarine, . 


2 




Lynn, 


February, . 


6 


Renovated butter, . 


6 




Salem, 


Februar}^, . 


1 


Renovated butter, . 


1 




Waltham, . 


February, . 


2 


Renovated butter, . 


2 




Cambridge, 


March, 


5 


Renovated butter, . 


5 




Newburyport, . 


March, 


2 


Renovated butter, . 


2 




Newburyport, . 


March, 


6 


Oleomargarine, . 


6 




Gloucester, 


March, 


2 


Renovated butter, . 


2 




Hudson, 


March, 


1 


Renovated butter, . 


1 




Marlborough, . 


March, 


1 


Renovated butter, . 


1 




Quincy, . 


April, . 


2 


Oleomargarine, . 


2 




Quincy, 


April, . 


3 


Renovated butter, . 


3 





* Six extra samples were taken during inspections, therefore this total is 6 
less than the sum of the next three items. 

t As this i§ a table of prosecutions, and not of cases entered in court, all nol 
pros cases — 10 in number — are eliminated. h 



1904.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 60. 



7 



Court. 


Month. 


Num- 
ber. 


Law violated. 


Con- 
victed. 


Dis- 
charged. 


Fitch burg, . 


April, . 


2 


Renovated butter, . 


2 


_ 


Franklin, . 


April, . 


2 


Renovated butter, . 


2 


_ 


Athol, 


April, . 


2 


Oleomargarine, . 


2 




Attleborough, . 


April, . 


4 


Renovated butter, . 


4 


_ 


Attleborough, . 


April, . 


2 


Oleomargarine, 


2 




Lynn, 


May, . 


2 


Renovated butter, . 


2 


_ 


Lynn, 


May, . 


4 


Oleomargarine, 


3 


1* 


Taunton, 


May, . 


4 


Renovated butter, . 


4 


_ 


Amesbury, 


May, . . 


2 


Oleomargarine, . 


2 




Amesbury, 


June, . 


1 


Oleomargarine, . 


1 




Amesbury^ 


June, . 


2 


Renovated butter, . 


2 




New Bedford, . 


June, . 


4 


Renovated butter, . 


4 




New Bedford, . 


June, . 


6 


Oleomargarine, . 


6 




Lowell, 


July, . 


10 


Oleomargarine, . 


10 




Lowell, 


July, . 


10 


Renovated butter, . 


10 




Provineetown, . 


July, . 


2 


Renovated butter, , 


2 




Cottage City, 


August, 


2 


Renovated butter, . 


2 




Maiden, . 


August, 


2 


Renovated butter, . 


2 




Chelsea, . 


September, . 


4 


Renovated butter, . 


4 




Plymouth, . 


September, . 


2 


Renovated butter, . 


2 




Dedham, . 


September, . 


2 


Renovated butter, . 


2 




Dedham, . 


October, 


2 


Renovated butter, . 


2 




Worcester, 


October, 


26 


Renovated butter, . 


26 


- 


Worcester, 


October, 


10 


Oleomargarine, 


10 




Somerville, 


October, 


4 


Renovated butter, . 


4 




Lawrence, . 


November, . 


10 


Renovated butter, . 


10 





* In this case, reported as discharged, a husband testified that his wife was 
the owner of the place. The wife was afterwards complained of for the same 
offence, and convicted. 



8 



DAIRY BUREAU. 



[Jan. 



Court. 



Num- 
ber. 



Law violated. 



Fall RivGr, 


Noveml^er, 


56 


TJ pnnvnt'iPrl VinffPT" 

X\V^1JV7\ CliLI^Vl MLILIC/X, 1 


50 


u 


Fall Rivpr 


"NTnx'Prn Hpt 


2 


01 pr>m n t* (tq t*i n p 


9 




T~)pflhflrn 


^ n V p m 1"^ p T" 

XI V ^111 k/^J- , • 


2 


TJpnovotpfl VinffpT* 


9 




T .vnn 


T^pppiTl Itpt" 

M-/ LXl KJKyA. ^ • 


4 


T?pnr»"Cfitpf1 Vkiitf'PT' 


A 




^DTthflTin'nfo'n 


F)pppm hpr 




T?pnr»votprl HntfpT* 


\ 






JL-'V/V'V>X111^C^X, • 


5 


T?pnr>T7nfpH V»nffpT* 


5 




Sfl.l pm 


T^ppprriVjpr 


2 


Ol pnm ft vcft Ti ri p 

V-/ ACvylXlCli ^ cli linr, • 


2 






p r>p mil PT* 


12 


TJpnnvnf Pfl V^nffPT* 

XVClJv-' \ clLCLl ULlLLC/l, . 


19 

Lit 




Pittsfield, . 


December, , 


2 


Renovated butter, . 


2 




North Adams, . 


December, . 


8 


Renovated butter, . 


8 


- 


Sj^ringfield, 


December, . 


14 


Renovated butter, . 


14 




Lowell, 


December, . 


4 


Renovated butter, . 


4 




Lowell, 


December, . 


4 


Oleomargarine, . 


4 




1 




279 




272 


7 



The charges in the several cases in court for the year have 
been as follows : — 



Selling renovated butter in unmarked packages, .... 226 

Oleomargarine sold as and for butter, 23 

Oleomargarine sold in unmarked packages, 14f 

Oleomargarine sold from unmarked vehicle, 1 

Oleomargarine sold in imitation of yellow butter, .... 3 

Oleomargarine served in restaurants without notifying guests, . 15 

Milk adulterated, 6 

Milk below standard, 1 



289 



* In 5 of these 6 cases, reported as discharged, complaint was afterwards 
brought against the clerks who actually made the sales, and all were convicted. 
In the sixth case our agents were unable to afterwards find the seller ; this case, 
therefore, is the only violation of law prosecuted during the year where convic- 
tion was not finally secured. 

t In 12 of these cases oleomargarine was sold as and for butter, but the cases 
were entered as above, for convenience. 



1904.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT— No. 60. 



9 



The following is a list of inspections without samples 
and the number of samples taken since the organization of 
the Bureau. In 1891 and 1892 none were reported. 



Year. 


Inspections 
without 
Samples. 


Samples 
taken . 


1893, * . 

1894, . 

1895, . 

1896, . 

1897, . 

1898, . 

1899, . 

1900, . 

1901, . 

1902, . 

1903, . 




382 

/ it) 

1,901 
1,949 
1,986 
1,351 
1,935 
1,612 
1,757 
3,895 
4,135 


113 

QQft 
OOO 

474 
495 
212 
1,140 
1,459 
826 
911 
1,078 
1,395 


Totals, . 




21,619 


8,491 



* stores. 



The following is a list of the number of cases entered in 
court and also the number of convictions secured each year 
since the organization of the Bureau : — * 



Year. 


Total 
Cases. 


Convictions. 


1891, . 

1892, . 

1893, . 

1894, . 

1895, . 

1896, . 

1897, . 

1898, . 

1899, . 

1900, . 

1901, . 

1902, . 

1903, . 




48 
104 
82 
76 
26 
60 
87 
178 
252 
285 
289 


30 
71 
42 
51 
24 
59 
70 
144 
218 
238 
272 


Totals, 




1,487 


1,219 



The following are averages of convictions since the estab- 
lishment of the Bureau : — 



10 



DAIRY BUREAU. 



[Jan. 



First two years, No convictions. 

Average convictions per year for first seven years 

after prosecutions were begun, .... 50 — 
Average convictions per year for the next three 

years, 200 

Convictions this year, 272 

Average convictions per year since prosecutions 

were begun by Bureau, Ill — 



Oleomargarine . 

Prior to the passage of the national law which went into 
eftect, July 1, 1902, and practically legislated oleomargarine 
containing foreign coloring matter out of our local markets, 
because of the tax of 10 cents per pound imposed, the profit 
of selling oleomargarine as and for butter w^as so great that 
violations of the Massachusetts anti-color law were frequent. 
The work of the agents of the Bureau in those days was very 
largely of a detective nature, months sometimes being con- 
sumed in w^orking up cases against pedlers and others who 
were persisting in violating the law. Now all is changed. 
But few of the old stores, where the law was formerly vio- 
lated, remain in the same hands, and a large number of the 
pedlers have gone out of business, rarely showing signs of 
prosperity as a result of money made from the illegitimate 
traffic. At the present time most of the goods are on sale by 
reputable grocers, are uncolored, and in the main, although 
by no means always, sold according to laiv ; but the sales 
are light and the profits small. It seems to us that this 
reversal of oleomargarine interests has been brought about 
in no small degree by the oleomargarine men themselves. 
Oleomargarine may be clean and wholesome when properly 
made, and cheap ; but the moment it is sold as and for butter 
it becomes a fraud, an imposition upon the public, and robs 
the butter maker of his legitimate market. Hence laws, 
State and national, have been enacted, until to-day oleomar- 
garine seems to be forced back upon its own merits ; and, 
unless the present laws are upset by supreme court decisions, 
it will have to remain there, winning whatever favor it can 
upon merit alone. This is as it should be. But it has not 
been brought about without a struggle. 

Early in the year Judge Bishop of the superior court in 



1904.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 60. 11 



Boston made a ruling which was afterwards endorsed by 
Judge Stevens, and which practically nullifies the anti-color 
law except in cases where foreign coloration can be proved. 
Prior to July 1, 1902, most of the complaints for illegal 
sale of oleomargarine were brought under the anti-color 
law, and the complainant was rarely, if ever, called upon to 
prove foreign coloration in order to win his cases. This 
was so because all oleomargarine then made in imitation of 
yellow butter contained foreign coloring matter in forms 
easily detected, and therefore no oleomargarine manufac- 
turer or dealer would or could successfully contest the point, 
and hence did not. But when the national law imposed a 
tax of 10 cents per pound on oleomargarine artificially col- 
ored in imitation of yellow butter, and allowed that not so 
colored to escape with a tax of ^ of a cent per pound, the 
manufacturers tried their best to produce an imitation of 
yellow butter which would not be construed by the internal 
revenue officers to be "artificially colored." In the first 
place, an attempt is said to have been made to use a par- 
tially bleached cotton-seed oil ; but this affected the flavor 
of the goods so unfavorably that it had to be given up. 
Then, it is claimed, a cotton-seed oil containing a small per- 
centage of palm oil was used. This went along for some 
time, making a good imitation of light yellow butter, until 
a method was discovered by a government chemist whereby 
the palm oil could be detected, the revenue department ruling 
that palm oil was an artificial coloration. This ruling is 
what has finally placed the oleomargarine situation where it 
is. This last attempt to color their goods in imitation of 
yellow butter shows the animus of the manufacturers, and 
also how vitally they consider the point of color in the suc- 
cess of their business. A strenuous effort has been made 
by them to introduce oleomargarine to the general trade, 
and a large number of retail merchants have taken out 
licenses. This was auspicious for the makers and whole- 
salers, for they were thus able to trade with prosperous 
merchants and men of good financial standing. The result, 
however, was not all that had been expected. There seems 
to be a considerable prejudice yet in the public mind against 
oleomargarine. 



12 



DAIRY BUREAU. 



[Jan. 



Fifty-six cases for violation of oleomargarine laws have 
been entered in court during the year. 

The number of persons who paid a United States tax the 
past four years is shown by the following table : — 



Years endjnq June 30. 


^Vholcsalc 


Retail. 


1900, 


3 


59 


1901, • . 


6 


103 


1902, 


3 


48 


1903 (colored), 


1 


24 


1903 (uncolored), 


7 


314 


Current year (colored), 




17 


Current year (uncolored), 


9 


326 



Notwithstanding the fact that the number of oleomargarine 
licenses has greatly increased since the passage of the national 
law of 1902, the total output has fallen oft' from 25 to 50 per 
cent in different sections of the country. 



Renovated Butter. 
With the partial disappearance of artificially colored oleo- 
margarine there has gradually come to the front violations 
of the " process "or " renovated " butter law. Never before 
in the history of the Bureau have there been so many notice- 
able violations. There have been 226 cases entered in the 
various courts during the year. The tendency on the part 
of some retailers to palm these goods off as creamery or 
dairy butter is remarkable. The color of the goods and the 
wholesale price make this easy, especially where the butter 
is cut from tubs or boxes. It is worthy of remark, how- 
ever, that but two Avholesalers, one in the central and the 
other in the western part of the State, have thus far been 
detected by the Bureau in violating this provision of law 
relating to the marking of packages. We are compelled to 
report that one of these, a very serious violation, has been 



1904.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 60. 



13 



discovered this year. This is a case where all stamps, 
brands or marks which would indicate in any way that the 
contents of the tubs was renovated butter had apparently 
been removed, and the tubs were not stamped top, bottom 
and side, as our State law requires, and the goods were sold 
as " Hawkeye Creamery Butter." One retail dealer alone 
testified that he had sold several hundred tubs of this brand, 
under the impression that it was straight creamery butter ; 
and we find indications that seven different stores were retail- 
ing this particular brand of goods. The wholesaler pleaded 
guilty, and was fined $100, the limit for first offences, most 
of the retailers being fined $25 each. 

Preservatives have been conspicuously absent from the 
renovated butter sold in this State during the past year. 

In prosecuting renovated butter cases the Bureau has 
adopted this year a somewhat different policy. No case 
has been entered in court except where a sufficient number 
of samples were previously purchased to indicate that the 
violation of the law was the habit of the dealer, and not an 
accident on either his part or that of his clerk. The result 
has been that all the violations of law entered in court since 
the adoption of this policy have finally been punished, with 
but the one exception elsewhere mentioned. As a rule, the 
proprietors or owners of stores are brought into court to 
answer these charges, whether the sales were made by them 
or their clerks, the Bureau believing this to be the correct 
policy. 

There is one marked result in the prosecution of these 
renovated butter cases, in contrast with violations of the 
oleomargarine anti-color law, namely, that it is seldom that 
a man is found violating the law a second time after con- 
viction. 

The last Legislature changed the penalty for violation of 
the renovated butter law, making the fine $25 to $100 for the 
first offence, with heavier penalties for subsequent oftences, 
the law going into effect June 20, 1903. Since that date but 
little difficulty has been experienced in securing the impos- 
ing and payment of fines. But two parties have appealed 
their cases during the year. 



14 



DAIRY BUREAU. 



[Jan. 



Educational Wokk. 

The field for labor along the line of educational work, a 
duty imposed by statute upon this Bureau, is no less broad 
and of no less importance than is the police side. A better 
dairy product, put up in a better manner and in better 
condition, handled with greater care, and finally fed more 
wisely, will add not only to the enjoyment but also to the 
health of the consuming public, and incidentally to the 
financial benefit of the producers. The be^^t dairy product, 
whether milk, cream, butter or cheese, has no competitor, 
no imitator. Were there no butter that needs "renovat- 
ing," there would be no "renovated" butter. Were it not 
that butter is often of an inferior quality, oleomargarine 
would find little place in the markets of the world, and the' 
possibility of palming it ofi" " as and for butter " would be 
practically removed. It is along these lines that the Dairy 
Bureau is interested in its educational duties, and is work- 
ing so far as the limited funds at its disposal will allow. 

The general agent has addressed twenty meetings during 
the year, and the chairman of the Bureau seven meetings. 
Several of the more important milk depots and creameries 
have been inspected by the Bureau, and it is with pleasure 
that we note the interest in all matters appertaining to the 
betterment of dairy products, and especially the improvement 
noticeable in the handling of milk for the Boston market. 
It is but a few years since when milk brought to Boston was 
not as well cared for as it might have been, either at the farm 
or in transit. To-day the milk contractors insist on sanitary 
conditions at the farm where the milk is produced, and year 
by year there is improvement. There is also improvement at 
the handling end, as any one can see by inspecting the various 
milk depots. There is, however, still room for greater im- 
provement. It is a long road to perfection, and the doctrine 
of "clean milk" needs to be impressed upon all, until this 
most useful and nourishing food, in whatever form, reaches 
the consumer in its highest state of perfection. 



1904.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 60. 



15 



Butter. 

Notwithstanding the fact that the average wholesale price 
of butter for the entire year has been slightly higher than 
for the seven years next preceding, the summer price was 
abnormally low, and this low price extended well into the 
autumn. The copious rains and a consequent large amount 
of green food were apparently responsible for this. Massa- 
chusetts creameries have been obliged, however, to sell 
their butter at lower prices than formerly. Report comes 
from the west just at the close of the year that there is a 
shortage of butter production in some sections. 

The following table shows the extreme quotation for the 
best fresh creamery butter in a strictly wholesale way in 
the Boston market for the last eight years : — 





1903. 

Cents. 


1903. 

Cents. 


1901. 

Cents. 


1900. 

Cents. 


1899. 

Cents. 


1898. 

Cents. 


1897. 

Cents. 


1896. 

Cents. 


January, 


28.0 


25.0 


25.0 


29.5 


21.0 


22.5 


22.0 


26.0 


February, 


27.0 


28.5 


25.0 


26.0 


24.0 


21.5 


22.0 


24.0 


March, . 


27.0 


29.0 


23.0 


27.0 


22.5 


22.0 


23.0 


24.0 


April, 


27.5 


32.0 


22.0 


21.0 


21.0 


22.5 


22.0 


22.0 


May, 


22.5 


25.0 


19.5 


20.5 


19.0 


18.0 


18.0 


17.0 


June, 


22.75 


23.5 


20.0 


20.5 


19.0 


17.5 


16.0 


16.5 


July, 


20.5 


22.5 


20.0 


20.5 


19.0 


18.5 


16.5 


16.5 


August, . 


20.0 


21.5 


21.0 


22.5 


21.5 


19.5 


19.0 


17.5 


September, 


22.0 


23.5 


22.0 


22.5 


23.5 


21.0 


22.0 


17.5 


October, 


22.5 


24.5 


21.5 


22.0 


24.0 


21.5 


22.5 


20.0 


November, 


23.5 


27.0 


24.0 


25.0 


26.5 


21.0 


22.0 


21.0 


December, 


24.5 


28.5 


24.5 


25.5 


28.0 


21.0 


23.0 


23.0 


Averages, 


26.23 


25.0 


22.3 


23.5 


22.4 


20.5 


20.6 


20.4 



The Chamber of Commerce's fiofures reefardinof the butter 
business in Boston for 1903 and the immediately preceding 
years are as follows : — 



DAIRY BUREAU. 



[Jan. 



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2 § 



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1904.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 60. 



17 



Milk. 

The milk market has been good throughout the year. 
Prices have ruled higher than before for many years. It is 
claimed by the Milk Producers' Union that in the bringing 
about of the increased price over four years ago the equal- 
ization of production and the holding in check of extension 
of territory have been important factors. In attempting to 
fix the price of milk (as is done twice each year), great 
struggles have occurred between the milk producers and the 
milk contractors, but each time serious trouble has been 
avoided. 

But few prosecutions for violation of the milk law have 
been made during the year, a less number of complaints 
than usual having come in. Sixteen samples have been 
taken, six cases prosecuted for adulteration and one for milk 
below standard. The adulterations were, in one case, 
water; in two, formaldehyde; and in three, boracic acid. 

The usual tables, with the 1903 prices added, are here 
given : — 

Summer Price. 





GrroBS Boston 
Price. 
Cents. 


*' Straight 
Price," Boston. 
Cents. 


Gross to Pro- 
ducer, Fifth 

Zone. 

Cenie. 


Straight 
Price to 
Producer, 
Fifth Zone.* 
Cents. 


1893, April to October, . 

1894, " 

1895, " 

1896, " «« 
1897, 

1898, " 

1899, " 


33 

33 

33 

33 

31t 

31 

31 




22 
22 
22 
22 
22 
22 
22 




1900, « 


33 




24 




1901, " 


33 


31 


24 


22 


1902, •« «« <; 


36 in April 
July, August, 
September. 
35 in May, June. 


34 in April, 
July, August, 
September. 
33 in May, June. 


1 27 

26 


25 
24 


1903, " 


37^ 


35i 


281 


26^ 



* The price in the fifth zone, i.e., the middle territory, is approximately the average price 
which the producers receive for their milk. 

t This is a nominal rather than an actual change. With the dropping of the Boston price 
2 cents the distance discount-schedule was also lowered 2 cents, so that producers received 
the same price. 



18 c DAIRY BUREAU. [Jan. 



Winter Price. 





vTI'OSS dOSiOII 

Price. 
Cents. 


Price," Boston. 
Cents. 


Gross to Pro- 
ducer, Fifth 
Zone. 
Cents. 


Straight 
Price to 
Producer, 
Fifth Zone.* 
Cents. 


1893-4, October to April, . 


37 




26 




1894-5, " . 




_ 


26 




1895-6, " " . 


37 


- 


26 


- 


1896-7, " " . 


35 


- 


24 


- 


1897-8, " " . 


33 1 




24 




1898-9, " «' . 


33 




24 




1899-0, " " . 


33 




24 




1900-1, " j 


37 to January. 
35 to April. 


I - ! 


28 to January. 
26 to April. 


i - 


1901-2, " " j 


36 

40 in December. 


34| 

38i in December. 


27 
31 


25.5 
29.5 


1902-3, " " . 


39 i 


371 


30^ 


29 


1903-4, " " . 


39^ 


371 


301 


281 



* The price in the fifth zone, i.e., the middle territory, is approximati ly the average price 
which the producers receive for their milk. 

t This is a nominal rather than an actual change. With the dropping of the Boston price 
2 cents the distance discount-schedule was also lowered 2 cents, so that producers received 
the same price. 



1904.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 60. 



19 



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20 



DAIRY BUREAU. 



[Jan. 



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1904.] PUBLIC 



DOCUMENT — No. 60. 



21 



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22 



DAIKY BUREAU. 



[Jan. 



a 
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1904.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 60. 23 

Expenses. 

The following is a classified statement of the expenses for 
the year : — 

Bureau: compensation and travelling expenses, . . . 1325 10 

Agents : compensation, 1,542 50 

Agents : travelling expenses and samples purchased, . . 2,387 98 

General agent : travelling expenses, postage, telephone, . 496 68 

Chemists : analyses, tests, court attendance, .... 1,864 00 

Supplies and printing, 175 69 

Educational, 208 05 



17,000 00 

P. M. HARWOOD, 

General Agent. 

Accepted and adopted as the report of the Dairy Bureau, 



C. D. RICHARDSON. 
JOHN M. DANFORTH. 
A. M. LYMAN. 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT .... .... No. 60. 



FOUIITEENTH ANNUAL REPORT 



PAIRY BUREAU 



Massachusetts Boaed of Agricultuee, 



REQUIRED UNDER 



Chapter 89, Section 12, Revised Laws. 



January 15, 1905. 




I 



BOSTON : 

WRIGHT & POTTER PRINTING CO., STATE PRINTERS, 
18 Post Office Square. 
1905. 



I 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT 



No. 60. 



FOURTEENTH ANNUAL HEPORT 



DAIRY BUREAU 



Massachusetts Board of Agriculture, 



REQUIRED UNDER 



Chapter 89, Section 12, Revised Laws. 



Jan^uary 15, 1905. 




BOSTON : 

WRIGHT & POTTER PRINTING CO., STATE PRINTERS, 
18 Post Office Square. 
1905. 



Approved by 
The State Board of Publication. 



3 



Daiky Bureau — 1904. 



CARLTON D. PvlCIIARDSOX, West Brookfield, Chairman. 
JOHN M. DANFORTII, Lynnfielu Centre. 
HENRY E. PAIGE, Amherst. 



Secretary. 

J. LEWIS ELLSWORTH, Executive Officer and Secretary of the 
State Board of Ag7Hc2ilture. 



Oeneral Agent. 
P. M. HARWOOD. 
Address, Room 136, State House, Boston. 



REPORT. 



Any one looking over the work of the Dairy Bureau for 
the past few years can but notice the difierent conditions 
which it has been called upon to meet, particularly along the 
line of police duties. In its early history the larger part of 
the work was in the prosecution of oleomargarine dealers. 
Later, renovated butter came to the front ; this was followed 
by a curtailment in the oleomargarine trade. Last year vio- 
lations of the renovated butter laAv reached a climax, and 
when it was found that the law was being enforced the dealers 
became more law-abiding, until to-day we have a healthier 
condition of law observance on the part of both oleomargarine 
and renovated butter dealers than we have had for some 
years. Another phase of work has appeared this year, as a 
result of which we have had 55 cases in court for the adul- 
teration of cream with formaldehyde. 

During the four years next preceding the one covered by 
this report there were many violations of law discovered, and 
these seemed to increase in number, though varying in kind, 
until last year the maximum of cases in court (289) was 
reached. The annual number of inspections has also con- 
stantly increased until this year, the State being covered 
more systematically and thoroughly than ever before ; we 
have found but 168 cases of violation of law to enter in 
court. 

The matter of educational work has been entered into 
more fully than formerly, with future promise of increased 
work along that line ; and the Bureau has purchased special 
equipment for the purpose of giving stereopticon lectures 
and instruction upon questions relating to better production, 



6 



DAIRY BUREAU. 



[Jan. 



care, handling and a more rational consumption of dairy 
products. 

There has been but one change in the membership of the 
Bureau. Mr. A. M. Lyman, whose term as a member of 
the Board of Agriculture expired in January, became no 
longer eligible, and was succeeded by Dr. Henry E. Paige. 
Mr. C. D. Richardson has continued as chairman and Mr. P. 
M. Harwood as general agent. Mr. A. W. Lombard has 
been regularly employed as agent, and five others have been 
temporarily employed, as occasion required. Most of the 
chemical Avork has been done by Dr. B. F. Davenport, 
although three other chemists have been incidentally em- 
ployed in some of the oleomargarine cases. 

The general agent has acted as judge in special dairy tests 
at two fairs, Sturbridge and Palmer ; and, by special appoint- 
ment by the Governor, was sent as delegate to the Pure 
Food Congress at St. Louis, September 2(3 to October 1, 
inclusive. 

The work of the year has been as follows : — 



Total number of inspections, ...... *5,59t 

Number of inspections where no samples were taken, . . 4,456 
Number of samjiles of butter and oleomargarine, nearly all 

purchased, ......... 887 

Number of samples of milk and cream, . . . . . 270 

Cases in court, ......... 168 

INIeetings addressed by the general agent, .... 28 

JNIeetings addressed by the chairman of the Bureau, . . 15 



Cases prosecuted during the year, by months and courts, 
with law violated, and results, are as follows : — 



Court. 


Alontli. 


Num- 
ber. 


Law violated. 


Con- 
victed. 


Dis- 
charged. 


l.owell, . 


January, 


4 


Oleomargarine, 


4 




(^uincy, . 


January, 


4 


Renovated butter, . 


4 




('aml)ridge, 


January, 


5 


Keiiovat(^d butter, . 


5 





* Nineteen extra sanii)les were taken durino; inspections, therefore this total is 
nineteen less than the sum of the next tlivee items. 



1905.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. GO. 



Court. 


Montli. 


ber. 


Law violated. 


Con- 
victed. 


Dis- 
charged. 


Maiden, . 


January, 


2 


Renovated butter, . 




Haverhill, 


January , 


2 


Renovated butter, . 


2 


- 


Abington, 


February, . 


2 


Benovated butter, . 


- 


2 


Waltham, 


February, . 


2 


Oleomargarine, 


2 


- 


New Bedford, . 


Februar}^ . 


20 


Renovated butter, . 


20 


- 


Newbiiryport, . 


February, . 


^ 4 


Renovated butter, . 




- 


Attleborough, . 


March, 


2 


Renovated butter, . 


2 


- 


Brockton, 


March, 


6 


Renovated butter, . 


6 


- 


Worcester, 


March, 


4 


Renovated butter, . 


4 


- 


Lowell, . 


April, 


2 


Renovated butter, . 


2 


- 


Taunton, 


April, 


2 


Renovated butter, . 


2 


- 


Gloucester, 


May, . 


2' 


Renovated butter, . 


2 


- 


Clinton, . 


May, . . 


1 


Oleomargarine, 


1 


- 


Lowell, . 


May, . 


1 


Oleomargarine, 


1 


- 


Worcester, 


June, . 


3 


Oleomargarine, 


3 


- 


Waltham, 


June, . 


1 


Oleomargarine, 


1 


- 


Lowell, . 


June, . 


2 


Oleomargarine, 


2 


- 


Boston, . 


June, . 


3 


Oleomargarine, 


3 


- 


Lowell, . 


June, , 


1 


Oleomargarine, 


1 


- 


Boston, . 


June, . 


8 


Milk, . 


8 


- 


Lawrence, 


August, 


1 


Oleomargarine, 


1 




Chelsea, . 


August, 


2 


Benovated butter, . 


2 




Lawrence, 


September, . 


9 


Milk, . 


9 






oepiemijei, . 


9 




2 




Cottage City, . 


September, . 


5 


Milk, . 


5 




Kew Bedford, . 


October, 


14 


Milk, . 


14 





8 



DAIKY BUREAU. 



Court. 


Month. 


Num- 
ber. 


Law violated. 


Con- 
victed. 


Dis- 
charged. 


Fall River, 
Attleboroiigii, . 
Is ew Bedford, . 
PI}' mouth, 
New Bedford, . 
New Bedford, . 
Worcester, 


October, 
October, 
November, . 
November, . 
December, . 
December, . 
December, . 


12 
U 
4 
7 
10 
1 
4 


Milk, . 
JNIilk, . 
M'lYk, . 
Milk, . 

Renovated butter, . 
Oleomargarine, 
Renovated butter, . 


12 
14 
4 
7 
10 
1 
4 


- 






168 




166 


2 



The charges in the several cases in court for the year have 
been as follows : — 

Selling renovated butter in unmarked packages, ... 73 

Oleomargarine in imitation of yellow butter, .... 20 

Oleomargarine served in restaurants without notifying guests, . 2 

INlilk adulterated, ......... 55 

Milk below standard, . . . . . . . . 18 

Total, 1G8 



The following is a list of inspections without samples and 
the number of samples taken in the years 1900-1904 inclu- 
sive : — 



Year. 


Inspections 
without 
Samples. 


Samples 
taken. 


1900, . 




1,612 


826 


1901, . 




1,757 


911 


1902, . 




3,895 


1,078 


1903, . 




4,135 


1,395 


1904, . . . 




4,456 


1,157 


Totals, . 




15,855 


5,367 


Averages, 




3,171 


1,073 + 



1905.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 60. 



9 



The following is a list of the number of cases entered in 
court and also the number of convictions secured in the 
years 1900-1904 inclusive : — 



Yeak. 


Total Cases. 


Convictions. 


1900, 


178 


144 


1901, 


252 


218 


1902, 


285 


238 


1903, 


289 


272 


1904, • . . 


1G8 


16G 


Totals, 


1,102 


1,038 


Average convietions, .... 




208— 



Oleomargarine . 

The oleomargarine situation is always a matter of public 
interest. Considered on its merits, oleomargarine is one 
thing; as a counterfeit of butter, it is quite another. As 
showing the effect of the United States law of 1902, the fol- 
lowing figures are of interest. The total output of oleomar- 
garine in the United States for the year ending June 30, 
1902, was 126,316,472 pounds ; while that for the year 
ending June 30, 1904, was 48,071,480 pounds. Of this lat- 
ter amount, only 1,639,102 pounds paid the ten-cent tax 
as colored goods. As showing the combined elfect of the 
United States law and the enforcement of the State laws, the 
whole number of licenses as per last year's report was 352 ; 
this year 151 , — a falling off of 201 ; a shrinkage of 76 -j- per 
cent in the number of " colored " and of 55 — percent in the 
number of " uncolored" licenses. 

Notwithstanding this decrease, and the fact that oleomar- 
garine can be sold uncolored under certain restrictions in 
this State, there have been attempts to violate the laws, both 
State and national. Three Rhode Island factories tried this 
in the early part of the year. Some of our chemists sue- 



10 



DAIKY BUREAU. 



[Jan. 



ceedecl in discovering- the presence of extraneous coloration, 
and the Bureau immediately set about prosecuting the dealers 
for selling oleomargarine in imitation of yellow butter. This 
was followed by the United States Internal Revenue Depart- 
ment taking action, with the result that two of the factories 
Avent out of business, the other apparently mending its ways. 
Obviously, this is a business that will bear watching at all 
times. 

The number of persons who paid a United States tax the 
past three years is shoAvn by the following table : — 



Years ending June 30. 


"Wholesale. 


Retail. 


1903 (colored), 


1 


24 


1903 (imcolored) 


7 


314 


1904 (colored), 




17 


1904 (imcolored), 


9 


32G 


Current year (colored) , .... 




4 


Current j'-ear (uncolored), .... 


9 


138 



Renovated Butteh. 
Undoubtedly butter will and should be renovated, as long 
as an inferior article, whether improperly made or improp- 
erly kept, exists. The Inisiness has grown, until, according 
to Secretary AYilson's report, 54,000,000 pounds was the 
product of the year ending June 30, 1904. Much of this is 
sold in such form that there can be no mistaking what it is ; 
sometimes, however, it is sold for butter, put up in plain, 
unmarked wrappers. This latter method the law expressly 
forbids, and our prosecutions have been where such prac- 
tices occur ; and never, during the last two years, have wo 
put a case in court where there Avere not two or more viola- 
tions of the law, tending to show that it was the actual 
practice of the offender and not an accident. 



1905.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT— No. 60. 



11 



Educational. 

As has already been intimated, the Bureau is doing what 
it can to educate towards the production of clean milk, to 
better methods of handling, and to a better care of milk 
and its products in the hands of the purchaser. We have 
endeavored to lose no opportunity to enforce this idea upon 
the public. We believe there is improvement year by year, 
but recognize that there is room for more. 

The producer naturally thinks that, if he could get a 
better price for his milk product, he could then afford to 
take more pains with it, which is undoubtedly true ; and the 
consumer owes it to himself, to his family and to the Avel- 
fare of everybody, not to so much question the price of 
milk and cream, within certain limits, as to insist upon its 
quality and condition. No one ought to expect milk con- 
taining 5 per cent fat for the same price as that containing 
3.7 per cent fat. The producer ought to be able to sell his 
milk on its merits, just the same as the dry goods merchant 
does his cloth ; and this should apply to freedom from 
deleterious bacteria, as well as to fat content. It seems as 
though an adjustment of prices along this line would assure 
to the consumer clean milk, and give the producer encourage- 
ment to produce better goods, and also a fair remuneration 
for his labor. 

At the same time, it should be recognized that there is 
more than one way to increase income ; and that clean milk, 
clean cream and tirst-class butter or cheese will increase 
consumption, and thereby enlarge the market for these most 
desirable articles of food. Many a business man has suc- 
ceeded by increasing his production to a paying point 
without increasing the price. 

Habits of cleanliness are not so expensive as they are 
hard to form ; but, when once formed, it is believed that 
they pay for themselves in one's increased standing, repu- 
tation, improved physical health, mental power and moral 
worth ; all of which contribute not only to happiness, but 
increase earning power as well. 

Much of the cream brought into our market to-day comes 



12 



DAIRY BUREAU. 



[Jan. 



from without the State. Most of this is pasteurized cream. 
In a smaller way a still better product is produced under 
superior sanitary conditions, such, in fact, that the cream 
keeps readily ten or more days, and with no other treatment 
than to keep it sufficiently cool and tightly sealed. Some 
dealers warrant such cream to keep sweet two weeks, if held 
at or below 50° Fahrenheit. The use of glass or paper 
bottles, in sizes suited to the wants of the customer, in hand- 
ling milk or cream, is of great advantage : first, because 
standard milk thus put up must still analyze to law require- 
ments ; second, because of convenience in handling ; third, 
milk or cream put up in such bottles need not be opened 
until ready for use ; and the consumer who wants the best of 
milk will never unseal a can or bottle until it is wanted, and 
will not allow unsealed bottles of milk or cream to stand in 
or out of a refrigerator for any considerable length of time. 

It should not be overlooked that we are only a little more 
than twenty-four hours distant from the great milk-pro- 
ducing centre of our country, where the cost of production 
is much less than here ; and that the day has now arrived 
when sanitarily produced cream can be shipped long dis- 
tances, and in such condition that it will keep sweet a week 
or more after arrival, if properly cared for. Our local 
cream, however, prepared under like conditions, is good for 
some hours or days longer, and our cost of transportation 
less. Massachusetts to-day does not send beyond New 
England, except for pasteurized cream, some 6,000 to 8,000 
gallons of which are brought from Iowa ; but she does send 
thousands of dollars to neighboring States for cream which 
keeps well, for the reasons above given, and which, much of 
it, could be profitably produced Avithin our own borders. It 
seems as if Massachusetts producers could get a large share 
of this trade, if they pushed for it. 

The chairman of the Bureau has delivered fifteen and the gen- 
eral agent twentj^-eight lectures, bearing upon dairy topics 
during the year. 

Butter. 

There has been, according to the best reports available, a 
large increase in the annual production of butter in this 
country, — probably ten per cent and possibly more in the 



1905.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 60. 13 

last two years. Ten per cent of the product of June 30, 
1902, to June 30, 1903, which was estimated at 1,500,- 
000,000 pounds, would amount to 150,000,000 pounds ; 
the falling off of the oleomargarine product of 78,000,000 
pounds, which it took an equal amount of butter to replace, 
would leave a net increase of 72,000,000 pounds of butter 
for the year 1903-1904 to depress the market. Then, too, 
the 54,000,000 pounds of renovated butter, elsewhere re- 
ferred to, comes much nearer competition with creamery 
butter than would that which was renovated. This accounts 
to a considerable extent for the ruling low price, and argues 
that the farmer has not only had a larger market for his 
butter, but the consumer has not been obliged to pay an 
extra price for it. 

The following table shows the extreme quotation for the 
best fresh creamery butter in a strictl}^ wholesale way in 
the Boston market for the last eio:ht years : — 





1904. 

Cents. 


1903. 

Cents. 


1903. 

Cents. 


1901. 

Cents. 


1900. 

Cents. 


1899. 

Cents. 


1898. 

Cents. 


1897. 

Cents. 


January, 


22.7 


28.0 


25.0 


25.0 


29.5 


21.0 


22.5 


22.0 


February, . 


24.6 


27.0 


28.5 


25.0 


26.0 


24.0 


21.5 


22.0 


JNIarch , 


24.1 


27.0 


29.0 


23.0 


27.0 


22.5 


22.0 


23.0 


April, . 


21.6 


27.5 


32.0 


22.0 


21.0 


21.0 


22.5 


22.0 


May, . 


19.9 


22.5 


25.0 


19.5 


20.5 


19.0 


18.0 


18.0 


June, . 


18.4 


22.75 


23.5 


20.0 


20.5 


19.0 


17.5 


16.0 


July, . 


18.3 


20.5 


22.5 


20.0 


20.5 


19.0 


18.5 


16.5 


August, 


19.1 


20.0 


21.5 


21.0 


22.5 


21.5 


19.5 


19.0 


September, . 


20.8 


22.0 


23.5 


22.0 


22.5 


23.5 


21.0 


22.0 


October, 


21.5 


22.5 


24.5 


21.5 


22.0 


24.0 


21.5 


22.5 


November, . 


24.1 


23.5 


27.0 


24.0 


25.0 


26.5 


21.0 


22.0 


December, . 


25.7 


24.5 


28.5 


24.5 


25.5 


28.0 


21.0 


23.0 


Averages, 


21.73 


26.23 


25.0 


22.3 


23.5 


22.4 


20.5 


20.6 



14 DAIRY BUREAU. [Jan. 

The Chamber of Commerce's figures regarding the butter 
business in Boston for 1903 and 1904 are as follows : — 





1904. 

Pounds. 


1903. 

Pounds. 


On hand January 1, . 


7,567,360 


6,248,920 


Receipts for the year, .... 


55,435,207 


54,347,056 


Total supx^ly, ..... 


63,002,564 


60,595,976 


Exports, deduct, ..... 


1,373,815 


842,692 


Net supply, ..... 


61,628,749 


59,753,284 


Stock on hand December 31, deduct, . 


5,612,592 


7,567,360 


Consumption, ..... 


56,016,157 


52,185,924 



Milk. 

The wholesale price of milk in Boston the past year has 
been the same as in 1903, and with but few exceptions the 
retail price the same. If the condition of milk as it leaves 
the farm or arrives in the market is on the whole improving 
year by year, it is largely attributable to the agitation of 
the clean milk question by those especially interested. 

As to violations of the milk laws, this department has 
been called upon to do more work than usual. In conjunc- 
tion with Dr. Harrington 8 cases were brought in Boston, 
and with Milk Inspector Scanlon of Lawrence 9 cases in that 
city ; 55 cases for formaldehyde in cream were brought in 
Cottage City, New Bedford, Fall River, Attleborough and 
Plymouth. 

The following tables show the wholesale prices of milk sent 
to the Boston market for the last ten years : — 



1905.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. GO. 15 



Stimmer Price. 





Gross Boston 
Price. 
Cents, 


Straight 
Pi'ice," Boston. 
Cents. 


Gross to Pro- 
ducer, Fiftli 
Zone. 
Cents. 


Price to 
I*ro(iucer, 
Fifth Zone.* 
Cents. 


lS9o, April to October, . 


33 




22 




1S96, " " . 


33 


- 


22 


- 


1897 " " 


31t 




22 




1898, " " 


31 




22 




1899, " " . 


31 


- 


22 


- 


1900, " " . 


33 




24 




1901, " . 


33 


31 


24 


22 


f 

l!)0-2, " " { 


36 in April, 
July, August, 

September. 
35 in May, June. 


34 in April, 
July, August, 
September. 
33 in May, June. 


1 27 

26 


25 
24 


1903, " " . 


371/2 


35y2 


2SV2 


26V2 


1904, " " . 


37^2 


35^2 


28M: 


26V2 


Winter Price. 


189.>-6, October to April, 


37 




26 




1896- 7, 

1897- 8, 


35 
33t 




24 
24 




1898-9, 


33 




24 




1899-0, 


33 




24 




19W-1, " " j 


37 to January. 
35 to ApriL 


1 - ! 


28 to January. 
26 to April. 


i - 


1901-2, " " 1 


36 

40 in December. 


34Vo 

38ir^ in December. 


27 
31 


25.5 
29.5 


1902-3, 


39i,l> 




30^2 


29 


M)3-4, 


391,1. 


37^2 


301,1; 


28^2 


1904-5, 


39^2 


37V2 


301/2 


281/2 



* The price in the fiftli zone, i.e., the middle territory, is approximately the average 
price which the producers receive for their milli. 

t This is a nominal rather than an actual change, ^yith the dropping of the Boston 
price 2 cents the distance discount-schedule was also lowered 2 cents, so that producers 
received the same price. 



16 



DAIKY BUREAU. 



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1905.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — 



No. 60. 



17 



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DAIRY BUREAU. 



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1905.] 



PUBLIC 



DOCUMENT — No. 60. 



19 



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20 



DAIRY BUREAU. [Jan. 1905. 



Expenses. 

The following is a classified statement of the expenses for 
the year : — 

Bureau: compensation aud travelling expenses, . . . $406 21 

Agents: compensation, ....... 1,584 75 

Agents: travelling expenses and samples purchased, . . 2,438 54 

General agent : travelling and necessary expenses, . . 581 02 

Chemists: analyses, tests, court attendance, . . . 1,100 00 
Printing and supplies, including new outfit for educational 

work, 591 18 

Educational, 298 30 

Total, $7,000 00 

P. M. HARWOOD, 

General Agent. 

Accepted and adopted as the report of the Dairy Bureau. 

CARLTON D. RICHARDSON. 
JOHN M. DANFORTH. 
HENRY E. PAIGE. 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT 



No. 60. 



FIFTEENTH ANNUAL REPORT 

OF THB 

DAIRY BUREAU 

OF THB 

Massachusetts Boaed of Ageiculture, 

REQUIRED UNDER 

Chapter 89, Section 12, Revised Laws. 



January 15, 1906. 




PUBLIC DOCUMENT 



No. 60. 



FIFTEENTH ANNUAL REPORT 



' DAIRY BUREAU 



Massachusetts Boaed of Ageicultuee, 



REQUIRED UNDER 



Chapter 89, Section 12, Revised Laws. 



January 15, 1906. 




BOSTON : 

WRIGHT & POTTER PRINTING CO., STATED PRINTERS. 
18 Post Office Square. 
1906. 



Approved by 
The State Boakd of Publication. 



Daiky Bukeau — 1905. 



CARLTON D. RICHARDSON, West Bkookfield, Chairman. 
JOHN M. DANFORTH, Lynnfield Centre. 
HENRY E. PAIGE, Amherst. 



Secretary. 

J. LEWIS ELLSWORTH, Executive Officer and Secretary of the 
State Board of Agriculture. 



General Agent. 
P. M. IIARWOOD. 
Address, Room 136, State House, Boston. 



J 



REPORT. 



The nature of the Bureau's work has not materially 
changed from that of the two preceding years. In the number 
of cases prosecuted, violations of the renovated butter, oleo- 
margarine and milk laws have been as in the order named. 
It gives us pleasure, however, to announce that violations of 
these laws are, on the whole, decreasing. In 1903 the Bu- 
reau made 5,524 inspections and secured 272 convictions; 
in 1904, 5,594 inspections and 166 convictions; while in 
1905, with 5,836 inspections, the number of convictions was 
but 155. The total convictions, 593 for the three years, 
were secured from 596 violations of law, — a net loss of but 
a trifle over one-half of one per cent. This year there were 
no cases lost. 

Many calls have been made upon this department during 
the year for lectures, use of the stereopticon, publications, 
dairy demonstrations, judging of dairy stock and dairy prod- 
ucts, etc. These have been responded to so far as time and 
appropriation would permit, and as a result an increased 
amount of educational work has been done. 

There has been no change in the membership of the Bureau. 
C. D. Richardson, reappointed by Governor Douglas, has 
remained as chairman ; P. M. Harwood, re-elected by the 
Board of Agriculture, has continued as general agent ; A. 
W. Lombard has served as agent, and four others have been 
temporarily employed. The chemical work has been done 
by Dr. B. F. Davenport. The summary of the work is as 
follows : — 



6 DAIRY BUREAU. [Jan. 

Total number of inspections, ...... ^ 5,836 

Number of inspections where no sample was taken, . . 4,887 
Number of samples of butter and oleomargarine, nearly all 

ljurchased, ......... 851 

Number of samples of milk and cream, mostly purchased, . 120 

Cases in court, ......... 155 

Meetings addressed by the chairman of the Bureau, . . 15 

Meetings addressed l^y the general agent, .... 21 



Cases prosecuted during the year, by months and courts, 
with law violated, and results, are as follows : — 



Court. 


Month. 


Num- 
ber. 


Law violated. 


Con- 
victed. 


Dis- 
charged. 


Walpole, 


January, 


2 


Renovated butter, . 


2 


_ 


Worcester, 


January , 


2 


Oleomargarine, 


2 


— 


Hol^^oke, 


January, 


2 


Renovated butter, . 


2 




Quincy, . 


January, 


4 


Renovated butter, . 


4 




Fall River, 


February, . 


15 


Renovated butter, . 


15 


- 


Haverhill, 


March, 


4 


Renovated butter, . 


4 




Lowell , . 


March, 


30 


Renovated Inittcr, . 


30 




Lowell, . 


March, 


5 


Oleomargarine, 


5 




Charlemont, 


March, 


1 


Milk, . 


1 




Gloucester, 


Marcli, 


6 


Renovated butter, . 


6 




Worcester, 


April, 


8 


Renovated butter, . 


8 




Worcester, 


April, 


2 


Oleomargarine, 


9 




Fitchburg, 
Boston,2 . 
Boston, 2 . 


April, 
April, 
April, 


6 
1 
18 


Renovated l)utter, . 

Uieneral food laws, 
J Boron preservative, 

Renovated butter, . 


6 

18 




Cambridge, 


May, . 


4 


Renovated butter, . 


4 





^ Twenty-two extra samples were taken during inspections, therefore this 
total is twenty-two less than the sum of the next three items. 
- In connection with milk inspector of Boston. 



1906.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 60. 



7 



Court. 



Month. 



Num- 
ber. 



Law violated. 



Worcester, ' 


May, . 


8 


Oleomargarine, 


8 




New Bedford, . 


June, . 


4 


llenovated butter, . 


4 




New Bedford, . 


August, 


4 


Renovated butter, . 


4 




Haverhill, 


August, 


6 


Milk, . 


6 




New Bedford, . 


September, . 


3 


Oleomargarine, 


3 




New Bedford, . 


September, . 


2 


Renovated butter, . 


2 




Worcester, 


October, 


8 


Oleomargarine, 


8 




Peabody, 


November, . 


1 


Milk, . 


1 




Pittsfield, 


December, . 


5 


Renovated butter, . 


• 5 




North Adams, . 


December, . 


4 


Renovated butter, . 


4 




Totals, 




155 




155 





Con- 
victed. 



Dis- 
charged. 



^ In connection with milk inspector of Worcester, 



The charges in the several cases in court for the year have 
been as follows : — 



Selling renovated butter in unmarked packages. 
Boron preservative in renovated butter, . 
Oleomargarine in imitation of yellow butter. 
Oleomargarine sold as butter, . 
Oleomargarine sold in unstamped wrappers. 
Oleomargarine sold without a license. 
Oleomargarine sold without registering, . 
Milk below standard, .... 
Interference with an officer, 



118 
1 
17 
2 
5 
1 
1 
8 
2 



Total, 



155 



8 



DAIRY BUREAU. 



[Jan. 



The following is a list of inspections without samples and 
the number of samples taken in the years 1900-1905 inclu- 
sive : — 



Year. 


Inspections 
without 
Samples. 


Samples 
taken. 


1900, . 




1,612 


826 


1901, . 




1,757 


911 


1902, . 




3,895 


1,078 


1903, . 




4,135 


1,395 


1904, . 




4,456 


1,157 


1905, . 




4,887 


971 


Totals, . 




20,742 


6,338 


Averages, 




3,457 


1,056-1- 



The following is a list of the number of cases entered in 
court and also the number of convictions secured in the 
years 1900-1905, inclusive : — 



Year. 


Total Cases. 


Convictions. 


1900, 


178 


144 


1901, . . 


252 


218 




285 


238 


1903, 


289 


272 


1904, 


168 


166 


1905, 


155 


155 


Totals, 


1,327 


1,193 


Average convictions, .... 




199— 



11)06.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 60. 



9 



Oleomargarine . 
According to statistics of the Treasury Department at 
Washington, the output from the factories of the United 
States for the past six years is as follows : — 





Pounds. 




f 1900, 


107,045,028 




1901, 


104,943,856 


Under the old law, < 






1902, . . . . . 


126,316,472 




^1903, 


71,804,102 




' 1904, 


48,071,480 


Under the new law, < 








,1905, 


49,880,982 



In Massachusetts the Dairy Bureau had in court for viola- 
tion of the oleo laws : in 1900, 178 ; in 1901, 215 ; in 1902 
(new national law going into effect during this year), 90 ; 
in 1903, 56 ; in 1904, 22 ; and in 1905, 26. 

There are indications that certain peddlers in this State 
are also manufacturers, in the sense that they buy uncolored 
oleomargarine, color it and peddle the same, which is not 
only violation of our own anti-color law, but is also viola- 
tion of national laws. One such violator has served a jail 
sentence, imposed by the United States courts during the 
year. 

There are also indications and even statistics which show 
that oleomargarine does not meet with great popular favor 
in its uncolored (natural) condition, but that its sales depend 
to a large extent upon the retailer being able to pass it off as 
butter, when colored in imitation of the latter article. For 
I instance, the output of artificially colored oleomargarine in 
1904 was 1,639,102 pounds for the whole country ; in 1905 
the output was 3,284,850 pounds, an increase of 1,645,743 
pounds, which nearly covers the 1,809,502 pounds total in- 



10 



DAIRY BUREAU. 



[Jan. 



crease over the previous year, leaving but 153,784 pounds as 
the increase of uncolored goods during the year. 

The oleomar«:arine business needs watchino^ all the time. 

The number of persons who paid a United States tax the 
past four years is shown 1)y the following table : — 



Years ending June 30. 


Wholesale. 


Retail. 


1903 (colored), 


1 


24 


1903 (uncolored), 


7 


314 


1904 (colored), 




17 


1904 (uncolored), ..... 


9 


326 


1905 (colored), 




4 


1905 (uncolored), ..... 


9 


138 


Current year (colored), .... 




4 


Current year (uncolored), .... 


10 


120 



Renovated Butter. 
The business of manufacturing renov^ated butter is still on 
the increase in this country, so far as the total output is 
concerned; but, according to Secretary Wilson, "The law 
[national] has not proven in any way detrimental to the 
makers of country butter, whose product forms the bulk of 
the stock worked up in factories." The same authority 
reports an improvement of (quality in renovated butter. The 
Commissioner of Internal Revenue at Washington reports 
that the output of process or renovated butter for the year 
ending June 1, 1905, was (U, 366, 400 pounds as against 
55,747,730 pounds for the preceding fiscal year. The same 
report shows a falling off in the number of factories of about 
30 per cent. 

The real value of our State law lies in securing honest 
dealing, quite as much as in the protection of dairy inter- 
ests ; and the condition as we have found it during the past 



1906.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 60. 



11 



two years is encouraging, inasmuch as the number of cases 
of violations of the renovated butter law found in this State 
during 1904 and 1905 together were 35 less than the number 
in 1903. 

Educational. 

For the past three years this Bureau, through lectures 
delivered b}^ its general agent, and otherwise, has been en- 
couraging the farmers to produce a better dairy product, 
especially a cleaner milk. We believe that it is for the in- 
terest of the dairyman, as well as for every one else that this 
be accomplished, and we do not believe that the production 
of clean milk is a prohibitively expensive operation. There 
can be no nol)ler work done by any one than improving the 
quality of food for our people, especially such an important 
and universal food as milk, thus adding to the health, hap- 
piness and general welfare of the human race. Milk can 
never be too clean or in too good condition for human con- 
sumption. The mortality of young children is yet far too 
high, especially in our large cities. Every possible effort 
should be made on the part of an intelligent public to im- 
prove this condition. 

But, meanwhile, let us not be unmindful of existing facts, — 
facts sometimes overlooked when this question is consid- 
ered, — one of which is, that there has been a constant im- 
provement in the quality and condition of milk furnished 
the peddlers for the city of Boston for the last thirty years 
at least. Of this we have personal knowledge. The gen- 
eral public little realizes the efforts put forth during that 
time by the various milk contractors and others to urge bet- 
ter care at the farms, and these same contractors have spared 
no expense to improve their own plants year after year, by 
adding latest and most up-to-date appliances.^ Only those 
who have personally observed through the period mentioned 
know these facts ; the general public has hardly kept informed. 
Then, too, a considerable number of well-known, public-spir- 

^ Mr. Tower, late of the firm of C. Brigham Company, spent most of his time 
during the last few years of his life in going about among farmers and improving 
conditions at the stables, and as a result many separate milk rooms were built. 



12 



DAIRY BUREAU. 



[Jan. 



ited individuals have come to the front in recent years, with 
their sanitary dairies ; agricultural colleges and experiment 
stations have done their work ; the national government has 
issued circulars and bulletins ; farmers' institute lecturers and 
grange speakers have expostulated ; physicians and city 
boards of health have been active ; not to forget the work 
now being done by the various State departments. All 
these have yielded results, until it is safe to say that not 
only has the condition of the milk supply of the city of Bos- 
ton improved steadily for the last thirty years, but never 
before was the public so sure of getting a fairly clean article 
as it is to-day ; and it may reasonably be questioned whether 
Massachusetts has a peer among all her sister States in the 
quality and marketable condition of her milk supply, though 
perhaps far from perfect at that. This to our mind is encour- 
aging, and also the very best argument for still better farm 
conditions. 

Of course there are some filthy dairies, — dairies perhaps 
where owners should and may go out of the business for lack 
of requisite neatness of habit, and most dairies can be im- 
proved ; but it seems that the time is at hand when the shafts 
of reformers should be also aimed at consumers in our cities 
and towns, to the end that the milk be properly caved for 
and suitably prepared for consumption, and that the milk 
producer be not called upon to bear undue share of blame 
for child mortality. He certainly may have much to answer 
for, but he is not to blame for neglected children, filthy 
rooms, stulfy atmosphere, cold milk, irregular meals, im- 
proper or insufficient quantity, the lashes of poverty or the 
whims of fashion, both of which often place the child in the 
hands of a third and more or less disinterested and not 
unfrequently incompetent person, — and many other things 
which might be named. The campaign of true progress is 
the one which keeps ever in view the mutual benefit of both 
producer and consumer ; thus making no undue demands or 
reflections upon the one, and observing the rightful needs of 
the other. It is along this line that this Bureau is conduct- 
ing its educational work. We have during the year offered 
many suggestions, some of which at least have been adopted ; 



1906.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 60. 



13 



and we have received, both verbally and by letter, very cor- 
dial appreciation of our efforts. 

In support of our contention of an improved condition, 
we quote from the last annual report of the Boston Board of 
Health. In 1875, 43.84 per cent of all the deaths were of 
children under five years of age, and in 1904 the percentage 
was 28.87; under one year of age in 1875 the percentage 
was 24.98, and in 1904 it was 20.52. Thus it will be seen 
that the death rate among children under five years has been 
reduced in that time practically one-third, and of children 
under one year about one-fifth. Of course milk is not the 
only cause of this decrease, any more than it is the cause of 
the entire mortality ; but as 80 to 85 per cent of children 
are brought up on cow's milk, this food may possess the con- 
trolling influence. 

Taking the State as a whole, we find that in 1875 the death 
rate of children under one year per 1,000 living at that age 
was 226.56, and in 1900 it was 190.10, — an improvement 
of nearly one-sixth. In 1875 the death rate of children un- 
der five years of age per 1,000 living at that age was 73.96, 
and in 1900, 57.79, — a reduction of practically one-fifth. 

These figures for 1900 and 1904 are the latest obtainable, 
and 1875 is taken for comparison because it was in that year 
that the firm of C. Brigham Company opened up a fresh 
milk supply in Barre, Hard wick and New Braintree, which 
was the beginning of our experience with the milk business 
of Boston. We realize that figures such as these are at best 
simply pointers, but it is gratifying to know that they all 
point in the right direction. 

The price paid the farmer to-day is practically the same 
as in 1875. The quality of the milk has been much im- 
proved, as has been shown. Is not the farmer, then, in a 
fair position to demand a better price, as a matter of justice, 
and can such demand, in any spirit of justice, be refused? 

Butter. 

The butter market of 1905 has been in some respects 
remarkable. The appended tables, relating to the Boston 
market, virtually tell the story. With but about five and 



14 



DAIRY BUREAU. 



[Jan. 



one-half million pounds on hand Jan. 1, 1905, nearly two 
million pounds less than the year previous, followed b}^ four 
successive months of light receipts and consequent high 
prices, the arrival of May witnessed the beginning of un- 
paralleled receipts, which continued, with the exception of 
November, unbroken throughout the year, leaving, after un- 
precedented consumption, a stock on hand of ten million 
pounds, or almost double the amount on hand the year 
previous. High as butter was during the early part of the 
year, the average price for the year is below that for 1902 
and 1903, but is well above the average of 1904. As a re- 
sult of the high price in the early part of the year, there was 
a stimulated activity in " imitations,'' which resulted in in- 
creased prosecutions wherever the law was broken. 

The following ta])le shows the average quotation for the 
best fresh creamery butter in a strictly wholesale way in 
the Boston market for the last eight years : — 





1905. 

Cents. 


1904. 

Cents. 


1903. 

Cents. 


1903. 

Cents. 


1901. 

Cents. 


1900. 

Cents. 


1899. 

Cents. 


1898. 

Cents. 


January, 


28.0 


22.7 


28.0 


25.0 


25.0 


29.5 


21.0 


22.5 


February, . 


31.6 


24.6 


27.0 


28.5 


25.0 


26.0 


24.0 


21.5 


March, 


28.0 


24.1 


27.0 


29.0 


23.0 


27.0 


22.5 


22.0 


April, 


29.1 


21.6 


27.5 


32.0 


22.0 


21.0 


21.0 


22.5 


May, . 


23.9 


19.9 


22.5 


25.0 


19.5 


20.5 


19.0 


18.0 


June, . 


20.7 


18.4 


22.75 


23.5 


20.0 


20.5 


19.0 


17.5 


July, . 


20.6 


18.3 


20.5 


22.5 


20.0 


20.5 


19.0 


18.5 


August, 


21.6 


19.1 


20.0 


21.5 


21.0 


22.5 


21.5 


19.5 


September, 


21.2 


20.8 


22.0 


23.5 


22.0 


22.5 


23.5 


21.0 


October, 


22.1 


21.5 


22.5 


24.5 


21.5 


22.0 


24.0 


21.5 


November, . 


23.0 


24.1 


23.5 


27.0 


24.0 


25.0 


26.5 


21.0 


December, . 


23.9 


25.7 


24.5 


28.5 


24.5 


25.5 


28.0 


21.0 


Averages, 


24.47 


21.73 


26.23 


25.0 


22.3 


23.5 


22.4 


20.5 



1906.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT— No. 60. 



15 



The Chamber of Commerce's figures regarding the butter 
business in Boston for 1904 and 1905 are as follows : — 





1905. 

Pounds. 


1904. 

Pounds. 


Carried over, 


5,612,592 


7,567,360 


Receipts for Januafj', .... 


2,097,952 


2,345,447 


Receipts for February, .... 


2,015,265 


2,400,922 


Receipts for March, ..... 


2,698,064 


3,087,017 


Receipts for April, . . . . 


2,393,951 


2,658,679 


Receipts for May, ..... 


5,260,758 


3,776,547 


Receipts for June, ..... 


10,696,890 


8,076,244 


Receipts for July, ..... 


10,068,394 


8,513,155 


Receipts for August, ..... 


10,376,813 


7,480,505 


Receipts for September, .... 


7,743,859 


6,512,408 


Receipts for October, .... 


6,549,119 


4,554,447 


Receipts for November, .... 


3,135,224 


3,238,005 


Receipts for December, .... 


3,688,555 


2,791,828 


Total supply, ..... 


72,337,436 


63,002,564 


Yi"»nf fsi foT* 1"wj't:»lTrc» ■nmnflia rlarlnff 

A-i-A. IJIJI to XUJ. LVVCiVt/ lllvJliLllo, vltJLlLll^t, . • 




i,0 1 0,01.0 


Net supjjly, ..... 


69,786,117 


61,628,749 


Stocks in storage December 30, deduct. 


10,189,575 


5,612,592 


Consumption for twelve months, 


59,596,542 


56,016,157 


Increase in consumption for 1905, 


3,580,385 




Milk. 

There is considerable variation in 


the price 


of milk, as 



now sold in Massachusetts. The retail price of average 
market milk throughout the State varies from 5 to 8 cents 
per quart. In Boston, "fancy" or sanitary" milk, so 
called, sells at from 10 to 12 cents per quart and upward. 



16 



DAIRY BUREAU. 



[Jan. 



Milk sold by the half-pint jar at 5 cents means 20 cents per 
quart ; that sold by the glass at 5 cents, usually the same. 
At 10 cents per glass, holding one-third quart, the price 
rises to 30 cents per quart ; and sanitary milk, modified and 
put up by prescription for babies' use, ranges from 25 to 50 
cents per quart. In the suburbs of Boston the usual price 
which the householder has to pay is 7 to 8 cents for average 
milk, and 1) to 10 cents for sanitary milk. There is a con- 
stantly increasing number of small dairies springing up 
among the Avealthy fancy farmers in the eastern part of the 
State, which are producing sanitary milk and cream, and get- 
ting an extra price for it. Even a few farmers of limited 
means are now undertaking the project, as a business venture. 

There is also variation in the wholesale price of milk, 
which the producer receives, dependent mainly upon his dis- 
tance from market. The farmer who sells milk to Boston 
contractors is paid according to his distance from market, 
the average distance being 56 to 76 miles ; and, as may be 
seen by the tallies, the average price to the farmer in this 
zone for milk delivered to his local railroad station is 26^^ 
cents in summer and 281/2 cents in Avinter, provided he does 
not exceed his limit (see footnote with table) ; but in case 
the contractor returns clean cans, % ^^^^^ esich is, under the 
present contract, to be deducted for washing. The farmer is 
obliged to put up 8I/2 quarts for a can. Thus his average 
price per quart through the year is 27^/2 cents, divided by 
8%, or practically 31/4 cents at the railroad station or 3 
cents at the farm. Farmers 150 miles out get 2.88 -|- cents 
per quart, and those 25 miles out get 3.47 -|- cents per quart, 
for average milk. In some instances producers wholesaling 
their milk direct to peddlers get 4 to 4I/2 cents per quart 
for it. 

High-class sanitary milk is rarely ever Avholesaled. In 
the only case Ave know of the price quoted was 8i/'2 cents, 
Avhich was said to pay expenses, but yielded no profit. 

There is no question but that the average price for average 
milk, which really means the bulk of all the milk sold in 
Massachusetts, is far too low, so far as the return to the 
producer is concerned ; and it is undoubtedly true that no 
important food is cheaper than milk, at present prices. Even 



1906.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 60. 



17 



the consumer can easily aflbrd to pay an increased price for 
the better article of milk now demanded. 

The following table shows the wholesale price of milk 
sent to the Boston market for the last ten j^ears : — 



Bummer Price. 





Gross Boston 
Price. 
Cents. 


" Straight 
Price," Boston. 
Cents. 


Gross to Pro- 
ducer, Fifth 

Zone. 

Cents. 


Straight 
I'rice to 
Producer, 
Fifth Zone.i 
Cents. 


1896, April to October, . 


33 


- 


22 


- 


1897, " 


312 




22 




1898, " " . 


31 




22 




1S99, " 


31 




22 




1900, " 


33 




24 




1901, " 


33 


31 


24 


22 


r 

1902, " " <j 
I 


36 in April, 
July, August, 

September. 
35in j\ray,June. 


34 in April, 
July, August, 
September. 
33 in May, June. 


1 

26 


25 
24 


1903, " " . 


37^2 


351/2 


28^2 


261/3 


1904, " 


37^2 


351/2 


281/2 


261/2 


1905,3 «' 


37y2 


351/2 


281/2 


26^2 


Winter PiHce. 


1896-7, October to April, 


35 




24 




1897- 8, 

1898- 9, 


332 
33 




24 
24 




1899-0, " 


33 




24 




1900-1, " " j 


37 to January. 
35 to April. 


! - 1 


28 to January. 
26 to April. 


1 - 


1901-2, " " j 


36 

40 in December. 


341/2 

381/2 in December. 


27 
31 


25.5 
29.5 


1902-3, 


39V2 


37^2 


30V^2 


29 


1903-4, 


39^2 


37V2 


30i,'2 


28^2 


1904-5, 


39y2 


37^2 


3OV2 


28V2 


1905-6,4 " 


39^2 


37V2 


30^2 


281/2 



1 The price in the fifth zone, i.e., the middle territory, is approximately the average 
price which the producers receive for their milk. 

2 This is a nominal rather than an actual change. With the dropping of the Boston 
price 2 cents the distance discount-schedule was also lowered 2 cents, so that producers 
received the same price. 

s The so-called Knapp tables, allowing a variation of 16% per cent either way from 
the given basis of uniform production, were made a part of this year's contract. Should 
the producer exceed this limit, up to a certain point the penalty is that he is obliged to 
take 1 cent less per can for his entire month's production; if he exceeds that point or 
second limit, another cent less and so on. 

* It was agreed that in case the cans were washed and returned clean, 1/2 cent per 
can should be deducted. 



18 



DAIRY BUREAU. 



[Jan. 



Creameries and Milk Depots. 
Appended we give a revised list of the principal cream- 
eries and milk depots owned and operated by Massachusetts 
individuals and corporations. There are in this State, in 
addition to these, a number of distributing plants for cream- 
eries owned and operated in other States. For instance, the 
Maine Creamery Company of Bangor, Me., has offices at 12 
Foster Wharf, Boston. The Turner Centre Creamery of 
Auburn, Me., has distributing houses in Boston, Worcester, 
Taunton and Lowell, and ships to these points butter, cream, 
and to one at least skimmed milk.^ The New Enofland 
Creamery of Livermore Falls, Me., distributes through a 
Massachusetts company of the same name in Everett, 
which also distributes the ' ' Hampden Creamery " goods. 
The Lyndonville Creamery of Lyndonville, Vt., has a plant 
at Watertown, from which it distributes milk, cream and 
butter. J. L. Humj)hrey, Jr., has four })lants, one each 
in New Bedford, Fall River, Taunton and Brockton, for 
the distribution of butter and renovated butter (and some- 
times cream) from his Iowa - creameries. The Armours, 
Swifts, Hammonds, Morrises and other large packing houses, 
all representing western-made goods, distribute quantities 
of butter and renovated butter from their numerous estab- 
lishments scattered over the State. Some of these also put 
out oleomargarine. Besides these, there is a considerable 
number of creamery companies and so-called creameries 
which buy their stock of producers in this and other States. 
These in the aggregate do a large business. Other i)rivate 
dairies or creameries also have town offices, restaurants, etc. 



^Pasteurized skimmed milk and cream are put together in the ])roper propor- 
tions required for standard milk, in the Boston jjlajit, and the milk thus made 
is placed upon the market. 



1906.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 60. 









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20 



DAIRY BUREAU. 



[Jan. 




1906.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 60. 




DAIRY BUREAU. 



[Jan. 




1906.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 60. 23 




K C/5 H HH 

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24 



DAIKY BUREAU. 



[Jan. 19()(]. 



Expenses. 

The following is a classified statement of the expenses for 



the year : — 

Bureau : compensation and travelling expenses, . . $488 92 

Agents: compensation, 1,953 00 

Agents : travelling expenses and samples purchased, . 2,493 12 

General agent : travelling and necessary expenses, . . 501 32 

Chemists analyses, tests, court attendance, . . . 864 50 

Printing and supplies, ....... 195 18 

Educational, . . • 503 9 G 



Total, $7,000 00 



P. M. HARWOOD, 

. General Agent. 

Accepted and adopted as the report of the Dahy Bureau. 

C. D. RICHARDSON. 
JOHN M. DANFORTH. 
HENRY E. PAIGE. 



— ^ 

PUBLIC DOCUMENT .'TT . .... No. 60. 



SIXTEENTH ANNUAL REPORT 



DAIRY BUREAU 



Massachusetts Boaed of Ageicultfee, 



REQUIRED UNDER 



Chapter 89, Section 12, Revised Laws. 



January 15, 1907 




BOSTON: 

RIGHT & POTTER PRINTING CO., STATE PRINTERS, 
18 Post Office Square. 
1907. 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT .... .... No. 60. 



SIXTEENTH ANNUAL REPORT 



or THE 

""DAIRY BUREAU 



OF THE 

Massachusetts Boaed of Agriculttjee, 

REQUIRED UNDER 

Chapter 89, Section 12, Revised Laws. 



January 15, 1907. 




BOSTON: 

WRIGHT & POTTER PRINTING CO., STATE PRINTERS, 
18 Post Office Square. 
1907. 



Approved by 
The State Board of Publication. 



3 



Dairy Bureau — 1906 



CARLTON D. RICHARDSON, West Brookfield, Chairman. 
JOHN M. DANFORTH, Lynnfield Centre. 
HENRY E. PAIGE, Amherst. 



Secretary. 

J. LEWIS ELLSWORTH, Executive Officer and Secretary of the 
State Board of Agriculture. 



General Agent. 
P. M. HARWOOD. 
Address, Room 136, State House, Boston. 



drommantDealtlj of ||lassat^us£tts. 



REPORT. 



By act of the Legislature of 1905 a new fiscal year for 
State departments was established, beginning Dec. 1, 1906, 
therefore this report covers only eleven months, — Jan. 1 to 
Dec. 1, 1906. Hereafter reports will cover twelve months, 
from December 1, annually. 

This year we have had occasion to bring a total of 113 
cases in court, against 155 last year, 168 in 1904 and 289 in 
1903, notwithstanding increased and thorough inspection. 
Therefore, we note a reduced tendency to violate the dairy 
laws. The number of oleomargarine licenses has fallen off 
from that reported in previous years ; but, as we have brought 
cases under a wider range of statute violations, the number 
of prosecutions has increased. 

It is a pleasure to be able to announce that the year has 
been one of general improvement along lines of sanitary 
milk production, especially as regards general market milk ; 
and due credit for this should be given to the State Board 
of Health for its inspection of dairies, to the farmers who 
have responded to the suggestions made, and to the im- 
proved plants and methods of the Boston milk contractors. 
• A beginning has been made by interested parties during the 
year in the matter of certified milk. What the result of 
this movement will be it is yet too early to determine. 

This Bureau has worked unceasingly for a better dairy 
I product, and the calls for lectures along this line have 
greatly increased over any previous year. We believe that 
ftindamentally the farmers should reform their own condi- 



6 



DAIRY BUREAU. 



[Jan. 



tions, and that it is largely due to their failure to do so that 
inspection and regulation become necessary. The chairman 
of the Bureau has responded to fifteen and the general agent 
to forty-five different calls within the State. Expert dairy 
work has been done at various fairs and other places during 
the year. The Bureau has also inspected many of the cream- 
eries and milk depots throughout the State. 

After a careful review of the dairy situation, we Ijelieve 
that the Massachusetts dairymen, a majority of whom are 
producers of market milk, should unite in a State organiza- 
tion for self-education and betterment. The lack of such 
organization, faith in one another and general tone and con- 
fidence is to a large degree responsible for present condi- 
tions. To be sure, we have the Massachusetts Creamery 
Association, the Massachusetts Cattle Owners Association, 
etc. ; but a State organization of broader scope is needed, 
one open to membership for all dairymen in the State, hold- 
ing annual meetings and institutes to be addressed by the 
best experts this or any country affords, where butter and 
cheese may be exhibited and scored in various classes and 
suitable prizes awarded, where milk and cream produced 
under different conditions may be entered for competition 
for prizes for flavor, cleanliness, keeping quality, etc., where 
the most improved dairy machinery and methods can be ex- 
hibited and demonstrated, and where leading questions of 
the hour can be discussed, — to the end that Massachusetts 
dairymen may become united, better informed, more enthu- 
siastic and more successful. 

The personnel of the Bureau has remained the same as in 
previous years. H. E. Paige has been reappointed by Gov- 
ernor Guild, C. D. Richardson has continued as chairman, 
J. Lewis Ellsworth as secretarj^ P. M. Harwood as general 
agent, A. W. Lombard as agent, B. E. Daven})ort as chem- 
ist, and eight others have been tem})orarily employed during 
some part of the year. 

The sunmiary of the year's work is as follows : — 



1907.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 60. 7 

Total number of inspections, . . . . . . ^ 5,628 

Number of inspections where no sample was taken, . . 4,985 
Number of samples of butter and oleomargarine, nearly all 

purchased, . . . . . . . . . 583 

Number of samples of milk and cream, mostly purchased, . 65 

Cases in court, ......... 113 

Meetings addressed by the chairman of the Bureau, . . 15 

Meetings addressed by the general agent, .... 45 



Cases prosecuted during the eleven months ending Nov. 30, 
1906, by months and courts, with law violated, and results, 
are as follows : — 



Court. 


Month. 


Ntun- 
ber. 


Law violated. 


Con- 
victed. 


Dis- 
charged. 


TTnl vnlrp 




Q 


l?PT10Vfl,tpd bllttPT 


6 




J: ciii XVI vci, 


O iljLl LittX y , . 


» 

o 


T-v PTiovntpfl ImffpT 

XtCllw V CitCLl U Lit Id, . 


ft 

o 




Fall Rivpr 


-T'l nnn t^t 

O till Llcil \ , . 


3 


(y] pom ft ViYfi "PI n p 

KJlK^yj ILlclX ^iXi. lllKj J 


o 






•Tfl n 11 !i,rv 

f / ctxi 11 CAix y , • 




T^PDOvfltpd bnttpf 


8 




Lawrence, 


January, 


2 


Renovated butter, , 


2 


- 


Walpole, 


January, 


2 


Renovated butter, . 


2 




Worcester, 


February, . 


6 


Renovated butter, . 


6 




Attleborough, . 


February, . 


2 


Renovated butter, . 




2 


Amesbury, 


March, 


4 


Renovated butter, . 


4 




Lowell, . 


March, 


10 


Oleomargarine, 


10 




Newburyport, . 


March, 


2 


Renovated butter, . 


2 




Gloucester, 


March, 


2 


Renovated butter, . 


2 




Boston,2 . 


March, 


2 


Renovated butter, . 


2 




Charlestown, . 


March, 


1 


Renovated butler, . 


1 




Holyoke, 


April, 


2 


Renovated butter, . 


2 




Haverhill, 


April, 


2 


Renovated butter, . 


2 





^ Five extra samples were taken during inspections, therefore this total is 
five less than the sum of the next three items. 
^ In connection with Milk Inspector Jordan of Boston. 



8 



DAIRY BUREAU. 



[Jan. 



Court. 


Month. 


ber. 


Law violated. 


Con- 
victed. 


Dis- 
charged. 


Hyde Park, 


April , 


2 


Renovated butter, . 


2 


_ 


Amesbury, 


April, 


1 


Oleomargarine, 


1 


_ 


Newburyport, . 


April, 


2 


Oleomargarine, 


2 


_ 


Fall River, 


May, . 


14 


Oleomargarine, 


14 


_ 


New Bedford, . 


May, . 


6 


Renovated butter, . 


8 


_ 


New Bedford, . 


May, . 


2 


Oleomargarine, 


2 


_ 


Somerville, 


June, . 


3 


Oleomargarine, 


3 


_ 


Worcester, 


July, . 


4 


Oleomargarine, 


3 


1 


Southbridge,' . 


August, 


1 


Oleomargarine, 


1 


_ 


Waltham, 


August, 


3 


Oleomargarine, 


3 


_ 


Chelsea, . 


October, 


7 


Milk, . 


7 




Graf ton, 2 . 


November, . 


1 


Milk, . 


1 




Lowell, . 


November, . 


5 


Oleomargarine, 






Totals. 




113 




110 3 



' In connection with Deputy Sheriff Jacobs of Southbridge. 
^ In connection with Milk Inspector Berg of Worcester. 



The charges in the several cases in court for the eleven 
months ending Nov. 30, 1906, have been as follows : — 



Selling renovated butter in unmarked jjackages, ... 57 

Oleomargarine in imitation of yellow butter, . . . . 13 

Oleomargarine sold as butter, ....... 2 

Oleomargarine sold in unstamped wrappers, .... 2 

Oleomargarine : stores without posted signs, . . . . 13 

Oleomargarine : stores without placard on exposed contents, . 8 

Oleomargarine : peddling without signs on wagons, ... 3 

Oleomargarine sold in restaurants without notice, ... 7 

Milk below standard, ......... 5 

Milk containing boron preservative, ...... 3 

Total, 113 



1907.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 60. 



9 



The following is a list of inspections without samples and 
the number of samples taken in the years 1900-1906, inclu- 
sive : — 



Tear. 


Inspections 
without 
Samples. 


Samples 
taken. 


1900, . 




1,612 


826 


1901, . 




1,757 


911 






3,895 


1,078 


1903, . 




4,135 


1.395 


1904, . 




4,456 


1,157 


1905, . 




4,887 


971 


1906, . 




4,985 


576 


Totals, . 




25,727 


6,914 


Averages, 




3,675+ 


987+ 



The following is a list of the number of cases entered in 
court and also the number of convictions secured in the 
years 1900-1906, inclusive : — 



Yeak. 


Total Cases. 


Convictions. 


1900, 


178 


144 


1901 


252 


218 


1902, 


285 


238 


1903, 


289 


272 


1904, 


168 


166 


1905, . 


155 


155 


1906, 


113 


110 


Totals, 


1,440 


1,303 


Average convictions, 




186+ 



10 



DAIRY BUREAU. 



[Jan. 



• Oleomargarine. 

The effect of the national law, and its enforcement, on the 
oleomargarine output of the United States, is graphically set 
forth b}^ the following figures : under the old law, for the 
year ending June 30, 1902, the output was 126,316,472 
pounds ; while under the new law, for the year ending June 
30, 1903, it was 71,804,102 pounds; for that ending June 
30, 1904, it was 48,071,480 pounds ; for that ending June 30, 
1905, it was 49,880,982 pounds and for that ending June 
30, 1906, it was 53,146,659 pounds. 

In 1903 there were in Massachusetts 24 licenses to sell 
colored oleomargarine, while in 1906 there was but 1 such 
license, and the parties taking out that license have appar- 
ently given up attempts to use it. In 1904 there were 326 
licenses issued for the sale of uncolored oleomargarine, while 
at the same date in 1906 there were but 90 such licenses issued. 
In Boston the oleomargarine receipts were 16,494 packages, 
as against 2 % ,808 packages in 1905. This department has had 
in court during the year 48 cases for violations of oleo laws, 
as will be seen by the tal)ulatcd statement elsewhere given. 

At the present writing, with the price of butter unusually 
high, there appears a prospect of increased activity in the 
oleo business. 

Renovated Butter. 

The renovated butter trade shows an increased disposition 
to comply with the law. In 1900 the number of violations 
of law prosecuted was 226 ; in 1904, 73 ; in 1905, 118 ; while 
in 1906, for eleven months, the number was 57. Secretary 
Wilson of the national department reports an improvement 
in the sanitary condition of the renovated butter factories of 
the United States. Two firms took out licenses earty in the 
year to make renovated butter in this State ; later, one of 
these, the American Farm Products Company, gave up the 
manufactmnng business here, they having several factories in 
other States, and established a distributing house instead ; 
the other, the Eastern Butter Company, continues, the only 
local factory now in operation. 

The output of the renovated butter factories of the United 



19070 PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 60. 



11 



States, according to the Secretary of Agriculture, for the 
year ending June 30, 1906, was 53,795,321 pounds, as com- 
pared with 60,164,783 pounds for 1905, — a decrease of 
6,369,462 pounds. 

Butter. 

The production of a strictly high-class butter, simple as it 
seems, is an extremely difficult problem, requiring knowl- 
edge, care, skill and perseverance. One man thinks he 
makes as good butter as another ; but when two or more 
makes are compared, the difference becomes manifest. In 
examining butters of various exhibits at dairj^ conventions, 
fairs, etc., the writer has been struck with the fact that even 
where all are good, perhaps scoring above 90 per cent, not 
more than one in ten will go over 95 per cent. There can 
be little doubt that there is much yet to be learned, or, if 
not learned, to be put in practice, by the dairymen and but- 
ter makers. More attention must be given to the care of 
cream ; possibly a local inspection of the dairies, such as is 
made where milk is produced for market, Avill become neces- 
sary, — not, hoAvever, if ever}^ patron learns how to care for 
his milk and cream, and then puts his knoAvledge in practice. 
This is not offered in a spirit of criticism, but is rather a hint 
as to Avhat is necessary to make gilt-edged butter. 

The butter market for the year has been in some respects 
unique. It Avill be noted, by reference to the appended 
tables, that an unusually large stock was carried over in 
Boston from last year, and that this was followed by an in- 
crease the first fiA^e months, after which there was a falling 
off in the supply from the corresponding months of the pre- 
vious year. This, occurring in the face of an increased 
demand, caused an advance in price during the summer, 
which has continually increased up to the close of the year, 
at Avhich time butter is selling at a higher price than any 
corresponding period for many years. The average is practi- 
cally the same, however, as in 1905, Avhen the price Avas at 
its maximum height in the early part of the year. 

The folloAving table shows the average quotation for the 
best fresh creamery butter in a strictly wholesale Avay in 
the Boston market for the last eight years : — 



12 



DAIRY BUREAU.. 



[Jan. 





1906. 

Gents. 


1905. 

Cents. 


1904. 

Cents. 


1903. 

Cents. 


1902. 

Cents. 


1901. 

Cents. 


1900. 

Cents. 


1899. 

Cents. 


January, . 


25.2 


28.0 


22.7 


28.0 


25.0 


25.0 


29.5 


21.0 


February, . 


25.2 


31.6 


24.6 


27.0 


28.6 


25.0 


26.0 


24.0 


March, 


25.5 


28.0 


24.1 


27.0 


29.0 


23.0 


27.0 


22.5 


April, 


22.2 


29.1 


21.6 


27.5 


32.0 


22.0 


21.0 


21.0 


May, 


19.9 


23.9 


19.9 


22.5 


25.0 


19.5 


20.5 


19.0 


June, 


20.2 


20.7 


18.4 


22.75 


23.5 


20.0 


20.5 


19.0 


July, 


21.0 


20.6 


18.3 


20.5 


22.5 


20.0 


20.5 


19.0 


August, 


23.8 


21.6 


19.1 


20.0 


21.5 


21.0 


22.0 


21.5 


September, 


25.6 


21.2 


20.8 


22.0 


23.5 


22.0 


22.5 


23.5 


October, . 


26.9 


22.1 


21.5 


22.5 


24.5 


21.5 


22.0 


24.0 


November, 


27.6. 


23.0 


24.1 


23.5 


27.0 


24.0 


25.0 


26.5 


December, 


30.7 


23.9 


25.7 


24.5 


28.5 


24.5 


25.5 


28.0 


Averages, . 


24.48 


24.47 


21.73 


26.23 


25.0 


22.3 


23.5 


22.4 



The Chamber of Commerce figures regarding the butter 
business in Boston for 1905 and 1906 are as follows : — 





1906. 

Pounds. 


1905. 

Pounds. 


Carried over, ...... 


10,189,575 


5,612,592 


Receipts for January, . . . . 


3,530,291 


2,097,952 


Receipts for February, .... 


2,848,633 


2,015,265 


Receipts for March, ..... 


3,367,031 


2,698,064 


Receipts for April, ..... 


2,427,304 


2,393,951 


Receipts for May, ..... 


5,856,768 


5,260,758 


Receij^ts for June, ..... 


8,603,945 


10,696,890 


Receipts for July, ..... 


9,238,974 


10,068,394 



1907.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 60. 



13 





1906. 

Pounds. 


1905. 

Pounds. 


Receipts for August, 


8,778,101 


10,376,813 


Receipts for SeiDtember, .... 


6,688,729 


7,743,859 


Receipts for October, ..... 


6,983,522 


6,549,119 


Receipts for November, .... 


3,990,993 


3,135,224 


Receipts for December, .... 


2,838,032 


3,688,555 


Total supply, 


75,341,898 


72,337,436 


Exports for twelve months, deduct. 


5,146,297 


2,551,319 


Net supply, . . ' . 


70,195,601 


69,786,017 






XU, i-OV < o 


Consumption for twelve months, . 


63,343,776 


59,596,542 


Increase in consumption for 1906, 


3,747,234 





Milk. 

The price of market milk has been raised in various cities 
in the Commonwealth during the year 1 cent per quurt to 
the consumer, but it has rarely been the case that there has 
been a net gain of 1 cent per quart to the producer. The 
price of milk in Boston was nominally raised 1 cent per quart 
to the consumer Octol)er 1. The price paid the farmer was 
raised 1% cents per eight-quart can. As these cans actually 
hold eight and one-half quarts, the net raise to the farmer 
per quart was .1764, or between % and % of a cent per 
quart, — nearer % than i^^, — hardly enough, it would seem, 
to meet the additional expense of present cost of and care in 
producing clean market milk. Allusion has been made else- 
where to the improvement in matters of handling on the part 
of the milk contractors in recent years. This has not come 
about all at once, but nevertheless it has reached a point 
where the cost of running business has very materially in- 
creased. Just what this cost is no one knows but themselves. 
There is no doubt, however, upon one point, and that is, if 



14 



DAIRY BUREAU. 



[Jan. 



the milk producers of this Commonwealth are to be put on a 
safe financial basis, more than 3% cents per quart must be the 
net price paid to the farmer at his door. The actual neces- 
sary cost of producing a quart of milk, even under crude 
conditions, is not far from 3 cents at the present time. 

According to the report of the United States Department 
of Agriculture last year, after investigating the milk supply 
of the city of Boston, Mr. Whitaker estimated that from 80 
to 85 per cent of the milk consumed in greater Boston is 
brought in by the railroads. In the twelve months from 
Dec. 1, 1905, to Dec. 1, 1906, these railroads reported to 
the Railroad Commissioners 114,233,976 quarts of milk 
brought into Boston, which is understood to be exclusive of 
the cream which is shipped in by freight. If we call the 
milk brought into greater Boston by the railroads four-fifths 
of that consumed, we have 142,762,470 quarts as the total 
amount brought in ; and a raise of 1 cent per quart, when- 
ever such raise actually takes place, means an increase of 
$1,427,624.70, which looks like a yery large sum. 

Professor Alvord found that the average consumption of 
milk in the country was practically two-thirds of a pint per 
day per capita. On this basis, a raise of 1 cent per quart 
would mean not far from $1.20 per person per year, or $6 
for an average family of five persons, from which standpoint 
it does not look large, and can hardly be said to be a burden. 
The consumer, the contractor and the farmer Avill have to 
adjust this matter some day, when the latter may get a fair 
price for clean, pm'e milk. 

That market milk has improved in the matter of tempera- 
ture and cleanliness is shown by the last report of the board 
of health of the city of Boston , from which we learn that the 
milk samples taken from contractors in 1904 showed 35.6 
per cent over 50° F., and in 1905 only 6.33 per cent, — a 
reduction of nearly 600 per cent. In 1904, 18.87 per cent 
showed over 500,000 bacteria per cubic centimeter ; and in 
1905, only 12.25 per cent, — a reduction of practically 33^/^ 
per cent ; and we may reasonably expect the present year 
will show further improvement. 



1907.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 60. 



15 



Appended are the figures concerning carred milk, as 
reported by the various raih'oads to the Raih'oad Commis- 
sioners. 



Milk brought into Boston by the Different Railroads, December, 1904, 
to December, 1905, as reported to the Railroad Commissioners. 



Date. 


Boston & Albany 
(Quarts). 


Boston & Maine 
(Quarts). 


New York, 
New Haven & 
Hartford 
(Quarts). 


Total Quarts. 


1904. 

December, . 


1,042,236 


5,766,858 


1,680,430 


8,489,524 


190.>. 

January, 


1,042,236 


5,812,340 


1,785,684 


8,640,260 


February, . 


982,702 


5,367,590 


1,658,750 


8,009,042 


March, 


1,225,445 


6,248,083 


1,859,833 


9,333,361 


April, 


1,539,268 


5,897,420 


1,891,945 


9,328,633 


May, . 


1,693,217 


6,740,252 


1,942,144 


10,375,613 


June, . 


1,689,188 


7,030,686 


1,832,331 


10,552,205 


July, . 


1,618,783 


6,810,708 


1,795,917 


10,225,408 


August, 


1,483,684 


6,370,690 


1,780,497 


9,634,853 


September, 


1,426,876 


5,838,342 


1,680,085 


9,945,303 


October, 


1,457,418 


6,296,463 


1,849,950 


9,603,431 


November, . 


1,239,461 


5,662,587 


1,727,047 


8,629,095 


Totals, 


16,440,514 


73,842,019 


21,484,595 


111,767,128 



16 



DAIRY BUREAU. 



[Jan. 



Milk brought into Boston by the Different Railroads, December, 1905 ^ 
to December, 1906, as reported to the Railroad Commissioners. 



Date, 


Boston & Albany 
(Quarts). 


Boston & Maine 
(Quarts). 


New York, 
New Haven & 
Hartford 
(Quarts). 


Total Quarts. 


1905. 

December, 


1,283,500 


6,198,697i 


1,779,626 


9,261,823i 


1906. 

January, . 


1,332,604 


6,147,20ia 


1,857,863 


9,337,668!l 


February, . 


1,205,300 


5,320,639 


1,699,607 


8,225,546 


March, 


1,536,120 


6,134,064 


1,837,624 


9,507,808 


April, 


1,587,060 


6,051,116 


1,902,188 


9,540,364 


May, 


1,769,768 


6,596,392 


1,876,023 


10,242,183 


June, 


1,759,177 


6,964,326 


1,913,221 


10,636,724 


July, 


1,695,886 


6,640,927 


1,724,948 


10,061,-761 


August, 


1,630,869 


6,372,150 


1,610,180 


9,613,199 


September, 


1,541,245 


6,369,436 


1,623,933 


9,534,614 


October, . 


1,524,968 


6,266,043 


1,686,887 


9,477,898 


November, 


1,383,409 


5,812,806 


1,598,172 


8,794,387 


Totals, 


18,249,906 


74,873,798 


21,110,272 


114,233,976 



1907.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 60. 



17 



The following table shows the wholesale price of milk 
sent to the Boston market for the last ten years : — 



Suimner Price. 





Gross Boston 
Price 
(Cents). 


" Straight 
Price," Boston 
(Cents). 


Gross to Pro- 
ducer, Fifth 
Zone 
(Cents). 


Straight 
Price to 
Producer, 
Fifth Zone 1 
(Cents). 


1897, April to October, . 


31 


- 


22 


- 


1898, " 

1899, " 




31 
31 


- 
- 


22 
22 


- 
- 


1900, " 




33 




24 




1901, " 




33 


31 


24 


22 


1902, 


I 


36 in April, 
July, August, 

September. 
35in May .June. 


34 in April, 
July, August, 
September. 
33 in May, June. 


1 

26 


25 
24 


1903, " 


C ( 


37V2 


35^2 


281/2 


261/2 


1904, " 




37V2 


35V2 


28y2 


26V2 


1905,2 '< 


(1 


37yo 


35V2 


28^2 


26V2 


1906, " 




371/2 


35V^2 


28i,'2 


26V^2 



Winter Price. 



1897- 8, October to April, 

1898- 9, 

1899- 0, '« " 


33 
33 
33 




24 
24 
24 




1900-1, " " j 


37 to January. 
35 to April. 


1 - 1 


28 to January. 
26 to April. 


! - 


1901-2, " " j 


36 

40in December. 


34y2 

38y2inDecember. 


27 
31 


25.5 
29.5 


1902-3,. " 


39V2 


37y2 


3oy2 


29 


1903-4, 


39^2 


37y2 


3oy2 


28y2 


1904-5, 


39y2 


37y2 


3oy2 


28y2 


1905-6,3 «' " 


39^2 


37y2 


3oy2 


28y2 


1906-7, 


41 


39 


32 


30 



1 The price in the fifth zone, i.e., the middle territory, is approximately the average 
price which the producers receive for their milk delivered at the railroad station. 

2 The so-called Knapp tables, allowing a variation of 16% per cent either way from 
the given basis of uniform production, were made a part of this year's contract. Should 
the producer exceed this limit, up to a certain point the penalty is that he is obliged to 
take 1 cent less per can for his entire month's production; if he exceeds that point or 
second limit, another cent less and so on. 

' It was agreed that in case the cans M ere washed and returned clean, y2 cent per 
can should be deducted. 



18 



DAIRY BUREAU. 



[Jan. 



Creameries and Milk Depots. 
Appended we give a revised list of the principal cream- 
eries and milk depots owned and operated by Massachusetts 
individuals and corporations. There are in this State, in 
addition to these, a number of distributing plants for cream- 
eries OAvned and operated in other States. For instance, the 
Maine Creamery Company of Bangor, Me., has offices at 12 
Foster Wharf, Boston. The Turner Centre Creamery of 
Auburn, Me., has distributing houses in Boston, Worcester, 
Taunton and Lowell, and ships to these points butter, cream, 
and to one at least skimmed milk.^ The New England 
Creamery of Livermore Falls, Me., distributes through a 
Massachusetts company of the same name in Everett, 
which also distributes the "Hampden Creamery" goods. 
The Lyndonville Creamery of Lyndonville, Vt., has a })lant 
at Watertown, from which it distributes milk, cream and 
butter. J. L. Humphre}^ Jr., has four plants, one each 
in New Bedford, Fall River, Taunton and Brockton, for 
the distribution of butter and renovated butter (and some- 
times cream) from his Iowa creameries. The Armours, 
Swifts, Hammonds, Morrises and other large packing houses, 
all representing western-made goods, distribute quantities 
of butter and renovated butter from their immerous estab- 
lishments scattered over the State. Some of these also put 
out oleomargarine. Besides these, there is a considerable 
number of creamery companies and so-called creameries 
which buy their stock of producers in this and other States. 
These in the aggregate do a large business. Other private 
dairies or creameries also have town offices, restaurants, etc. 
The above is difficult of strict classification. 



^ Pasteurized skimmed milk and cream are put together in the j^roper propor- 
tions required for standard milk, in tlie Boston plant, and the milk thus made 
is placed upon the market. 



1907.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT— No. 60. 



19 



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20 



DAIRY BUREAU. 



[Jan. 




1907.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 60. 



21 



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DAIRY BUREAU. 



[Jan. 










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PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 60. 






24 



DAIRY BUREAU. 



[Jan. 1907. 



Expenses. 

The following is a classified statement of the expenses for 
the eleven months ending ]^ov. 30, 1906 : — 



Bureau : comi)ensation and travelling expenses, . . $-445 74 

Agents: compensation, . . . . - . . . 1,901 50 

Agents : travelling expenses and samples purchased, . . 2,300 23 

General agent : travelling and necessary expenses, . . 555 01 

Chemists : analyses, tests, court attendance, . . . 763 50 

Printing and supplies, ....... 200 99 

Educational, . . . 249 66 



Total $6,416 66 



P. M. HARWOOD, 

Oenord Agent. 

Accepted and adopted as the report of the Dairy Bureau. 

C. D. RICHARDSON. 
JOHN M. DANFORTH. 
HENRY E. PAIGE. 



Public Document " No. 60 



SEVENTEENTH ANNUAL EEPOE.T 

OF THE 



DAIRY BUREAU 



OF THE 

Massachusetts Board of Agricultuee, 

REQUIRED UNDER 

Chapter 89, Section 12, Revised Laws. 



January 15, 1908. 




BOSTON: 

WEIGHT & POTTER PRINTING CO., STATE PRINTERS, 
18 Post Office Square. 
1908. 



Public Document 



No. 60 



SEVENTEENTH ANNUAL REPORT 

OF THE 

= DAIRY BUREAU 

OF THE 

Massachusetts Board of Aoricultuee, 

REQUIRED UNDER 

Chapter 89, Section 12, Revised Laws. 



Januaky 15, 1908. 




BOSTON: 

WRIGHT & POTTER PRINTING CO., STATE PRINTERS, 
18 Post Office Square. 
1908. 



Approved by 
The State Board of Publication. 



3 



Daiky Bureau — 1907. 



CARLTON D. RICHARDSON, West Brookfield, Chairrnan. 
JOHN M. DANFORTH, Lynnfield Centre. 
HENRY E. PAIGE, Amherst. 



Sec7^etari/. 

LEWIS ELLSWORTH, Executive Officer and Secretary of the 
State Board of Agricultu7^e. 



General Agent. 
P. M. HARWOOD. 
Address, Room 136, State House, Boston. 



Olnmttnintupallli of lMas0arIjuspltH. 



IlEPORT. 



Each year hrinas with it changed conditions and results in 
new and varying work. We liave found less violations of 
the renovated butter law and an increase in violations of the 
oleomargarine laws. This is accounted for by the fact that 
fewer dealers are now handling the former, while the number 
handling the latter has increased. It is believed that the 
amount of oleomargarine sold in the State has somewhat 
increased, although the Boston receipts show a falling off* 
of nearly 2,000 packages. As the oleomargarine now on the 
market is not prohibited by State law, as was the case with 
that formerly sold, the various laws governing registration 
of dealers, the marking of vehicles, the labelling of })ackages, 
placing of signs, and, above all, the selling of oleomargarine 
as and for butter, are the only means of protecting the public 
against fraud, and the butter makers and dealers against un- 
fair competition. We have presented in court, during the 
year, 101 cases of violation of the various oleomargarine laAVS, 
79 cases of violation of the renovated butter law and 18 cases 
for the adulteration of milk. Two of the cases were for 
milk containing formaldehyde ; the ])alance were undoubtedly 
watered. Most of this milk Avork has been done in conjunc- 
tion with the local milk inspectors. 

We have during the year come into closer touch with 
these otScers than ever before, and have gathered from them 
information which has aided us materially in our work, for 
which we record our indebtedness. We notice that in places 
where the campaign for pure milk has waged longest and 
much high-priced milk is sold the rate of consumption of 
milk per capita is high. This is encouraging, and shows 



6 



DAIRY BUREAU. 



[Jan. 



what can be accomplished by furnishing consumers with a 
good article. It is the assurance that milk is clean and right 
that counts in obtaining the confidence of the public, thus 
increasing consumption, especially after the consumer has 
become accustomed to paying the higher price. It is along 
these lines that those in authority are working, and we trust 
that the assurance of improved quality and condition of milk 
now being produced in this State will increase the consump- 
tion still further in the near future, and that the price to the 
farmers will soon be such as will fairly recompense them for 
its production. 

The milk standard question was agitated before the Legis- 
lature last winter, and several bills were offered by inter- 
ested parties, but none prevailed. We are of the opinion that 
the day will some time come when milk will be sold on its 
merits, and that fat content will l)e the measure of its com- 
mercial value. We also believe that some way should be 
provided to permit the legal sale of any and all milk pro- 
duced by healthy, properly fed and well-cared-for cows. 
We do not believe that the present milk standard law is 
right, in so far as it calls for too wide a variation between 
summer and winter milk. It would perhaps be better not 
to have any variation at all. We are decidedly of the 
opinion that milk from other States should be sul)ject to all 
the requirements as to its i)roduction which prevail in this 
State. 

Elsewhere will be found a list of the prosecutions and some 
interesting analyses of market milk as it is being produced 
to-day, and also figures illustrative of adulterated and un- 
adulterated milk. 

We are glad to note an increase in the price of milk, in- 
dicative of better conditions for the dairyman. What is 
needed to-day perhaps more than ever before is confidence 
and co-operation between all parties concerned in the milk 
business. If all will pull together, more milk will be con- 
sumed, a better price paid and the producers properly 
remunerated. Care must be taken, however, that no legis- 
lation is allowed that will make the producer worse off than 
he is at present. 



1908.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 60. 



7 



The personnel of the Bureau and its stalf has remained 
unchanged. J. M. Danforth was reappointed by Governor 
Guild, C. D. Richardson has continued as chairman, H. E. 
Paige as a member, J. Lewis Ellsworth secretary, P. M. 
Harwood general agent, A. W. Lombard agent, B. F. 
Davenport and H. C. Emerson chemists, and four persons 
have been temporarily employed as agents during some 
part of the year. 

The summary of the year's work is as follows : — 



Total number of inspections, . . . . . .^6,779 

Number of inspections where no sample was taken, . . 4,538 
Number of samples of butter and oleomargarine, nearly all 

purchased, ......... 1,182 

Number of samples of milk and cream, mostly purchased, . 192 

Cases in court, . . . . . . . . . 202 

Meetings addressed by chairman of the Bureau, . . . 17 

Meetings addressed by the general agent, .... 27 



Cases prosecuted during the eleven months ending Nov. 
30, 1907, by months and courts, with law violated, and re- 
sults, are as follows : — 



Court. 


Month. 


Num- 
ber. 


Law violated. 


Con- 
victed. 


Dis- 
charged. 


Worcester, 


January, . 


12 


Oleomargarine, 


12 




Pittsfield, 


January, . 


4 


Renovated butter, . 


4 




North Adams, 


January, . 


11 


9 oleomargarine, 2 


11 








renovated butter. 






Boston, . 


January, . 


5 


Renovated butter, . 


5 




Lowell, . 


February, . 


18 


4 renovated butter. 


18 








14 oleomargarine. 






Boston, . 


February, . 


4 


Renovated butter, . 


4 




Lawrence, 


February, . 


4 


Renovated butter, . 


4 




Chicopee, 


February, . 


4 


Oleomargarine, 


4 




Taunton, 


March, 


8 


2 renovated butter, 


8 










6 oleomargarine. 






New Bedford, . 


March, 


16 


Renovated butter, . 


15 


1 



1 There were 133 extra samples taken during inspections, therefore this number is 
133 less than the sum of the next three items. 



8 



DAIRY BURP:AU. 



[Jan. 



Court. 


Month. 


Num- 
ber. 


Law violated. 


Con- 
victed. 


Dis- 
charged. 


Worcester, 


March , 


3 


Milk, . 


3 




Boston, . ' . 


March, 


4 


Renovated l^utter, . 


4 




Springfield, 


March, 


3 


Renovated butter, . 


3 




Northampton, . 


March, 


2 


Renovated butter, . 


2 


- 


Holyoke, 


March, 


8 


Renovated butter, . 


8 




Boston, . 


April, 


2 


Oleomaroarine, 


2 




Lynn, 
Beverly, . 


April, 
April, 


9 
4 


4 oleomargarine, 5 

renovated butter. 
Oleomargarine, 


9 

4 




Holyoke, 


April, 


19 


Oleomargarine, 


17' 




Springfield, 


April, 


2 


Oleomargarine, 


2 




Worcester, 


April, 


2 


Milk, . 


2 




Worcester, 


Mav 


4 


Oleomargarine, 


4 




Southbridge, . 


Mav 


3 


Oleomargarine, 


3 




Worcester, 


June, 


1 


Milk, . 


1 




Worcester, 


August, 


3 


Milk, . 


3 




Woburn, 


August, 


1 


Milk, . 


1 




Worcester, 


September, 


1 


Milk, . 


1 


- 


Chicopee, 


October 


2 


Milk, . 


2 




Salem, 


Octoljcr, 


6 


Milk, . 


6 




Warelfam, 
Fall River 


October, . 
No vpm V)P V 


10 
12 


4 renovated butter, 
6 oleomargarine. 
Ol poma'TO'a.ri ri p 


10 
12 


- 


New Bedford, . 


November, 


6 


Oleomargarine, 


6 




Quincy, . 
Dedham, 


November, 
November, 


5 
2 


4 oleomargarine, 1 

renovated butter. 
Renovated butter, . 


r 

a 
2 




Maiden, . 


November, 


2 


Renovated butter, . 


2 




Totals, . 




202 




199 


1 



1 Two cases nol-prossed by agreement, defendant paying $100 fine on another com- 
plaint. 



1908.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 60. 



9 



Note. — The milk cases in Worcester were prosecuted in conjunction 
with G. L. Berg, in Chicopee with C. W. King, in Salem with J. J. 
McGrath, and in Woburn with P. T. McUonough ; and the renovated 
butter work in Boston with James O. Jordan. The Bureau is also in- 
indebted to the milk insj^ectors of Worcester, Lowell, Lynn, Holyoke, 
Chicopee, Springfield, Northampton, Greenfield and Taunton for 
valuable assistance in oleomargarine and milk work. 

The charges in the several cases in court for the year end- 
ing Nov. 30, 1907, have been as follows : — 

Selling renovated butter in unmarked packages, . . . 79 

Selling oleomargarine in imitation of yellow butter, ... 4 

Selling oleomargarine without sign on exposed contents, . . 7 

Selling oleomargarine when butter was asked for, . . . 22 

Selling oleomargarine without being registered, ... 10 

Selling oleomargarine without sign in store, .... 17 

Selling oleomargarine in unmarked packages, . . . . 12 

Selling oleomargarine from wagon without license, ... 3 
Selling oleomargarine from wagon not bearing the words 

" licensed to sell oleomargarine,". . . . . . 7 

Selling oleomargarine from restaurant without notice to guests, 23 

Selling milk containing formaldehyde, ..... 2 

Selling milk containing added water, ..... 14 

Selling milk below standard, 2 

202 



The following is a list of inspections without samples and 
the number of samples tal^en in the years 1903-1907, inclu- 
sive : — 



Year. 


Inspections 
without 
Samples. 


Samples 
taken. 


1903, . 




4,135 


1,395 


1904, . 




4,456 


1,157 


1905, . 




4,887 


971 


1906, . 




4,985 


576 


1907, . 




4,538 


1,374 


Totals, . 




23,001 


5,473 


Averages, 




4,600 + 


1,096-1- 



^ This milk was undoubtedly adulterated, but was entered as above for convenience. 



10 



DAIRY BUREAU. 



[Jan.. 



The following is a list of the number of cases entered in 
court and also the number of convictions secured in the 
years 1903-1907, inclusive : — 



Yeak. 


Total Cases. 


Convictions. 


1903, 


289 


272 


1904, 


168 


166 


1905, ■ . 


155 


155 


1906, 


113 


110 


1907, 


202 


199 


Totals, 


927 


902 


Average convictions, .... 


185+ 


180-1- 



Oleomargarine . 
For the first time we are able to report that there are no 
licenses taken out in this State for the sale of colored oleo- 
margarine, and no case has been discovered during the year 
where oleomargarine which contained foreign "coloration," 
" which caused it to look like yelloAV butter," has been sold. 
There are, however, upon the market several brands of oleo- 
margarine which look like yellow butter, apparently made 
so by the ingredients which they contain. The wording of 
our statute seems to many to prohibit the sale of even such 
goods, but our Superior Court judges rule otherwise. The- 
United States orovernment officials also allow such o^oods to 
be made and sold upon the payment of the one-fourth cent 
tax, as uncolored oleomargarine. So strongly impressed 
were we that the wording of our statute prohibited the sale 
of these goods that we took a sample from a prominent 
wholesale dealer and attempted to make a test case of it for 
decision by the Supreme Court. The dealer and the manu- 
facturers were agreeable to this, and an agreed statement of 
fact was drawn up by their counsel and the district attorney 
of Worcester County ; but the presiding judge (Brown), sup-^ 



1908.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 60. 11 



ported by a previous decision by Judge Bishop, which had 
been endorsed by several other Superior Court judges, over- 
ruled the attempt, and the matter stands just where it did 
before. If this sort of oleomargarine is to be sold in this 
State, then it becomes necessary, in order to safeguard the 
consuming public as well as the dairy interests, that all laws 
regulating the sale of the same shall be rigidly enforced. 
This we have done, and 101 violations have been found and 
the cases have been entered in court during the past year. 

The output of oleomargarine in the United States for the 
year ending June 30, 1907, was greater than at any time 
since the enactment of the last national oleomargarine law, 
but is still far below that of the years previous to its enact- 
ment. The appended statistics tell the story : — 



Under Neiv Law. 

Pounds, 

1907, 68,988,850 

1906, 53,146,657 

1905, 49,880,982 

1904, 48,071,480 

1903, 71,804,102 

Under Old Law. 

1902, 126,316,472 

1901, 104,943,856 

1900, 107,045,028 

The licenses issued in this State have also increased, be- 
ing as follows : — 

Retail, uncolored, 229 

Wholesale, uncolored, ....... 17 



Total, 246 



The Boston oleomargarine receipts were 14,581 packages 
for the year 1907, — a decrease of 19,131 packages from the 
previous year. 

Renovated Butter. 
It is an interesting fact that the sales of renovated butter 
have apparently fallen off in this State. We are at a loss 
to account for this, unless it be that the price of renovated 
JDutter, which only follows a few cents behind creamery 



12 



DAIRY BUREAU. 



[Jan. 



butter, has been carried at too high a point, those who were 
ol)liged to use lower-priced goods using a cheaper grade of 
butter or oleomargarine instead. There is but one factory 
license issued in this State. The number of cases in court 
this year for violation of the renoA^ated butter law was 79. 
The output of the renovated butter factories of the United 
States for the year ending June 30, 1907, was 62,919,998 
pounds. 

Butter. 

The price of butter has ruled higher than for many years, 
which was natural, and in conformity with the general ad- 
vance of prices and the advanced cost of milk production. 
We believe that the quality of butter upon the market is 
slowly but surely improving. A more intelligent care of 
the dairy and more skill in the use of the starter by the 
butter maker are undoubtedh^ to a large extent responsible 
for this. High prices, however, are not conducive to the 
increase of volume of business, and the Boston supply has 
fallen considerably below that of 190(). This is apparently 
largely due to the decrease in export trade, for there is still 
a balance of 224,4(34 pounds, representing the increased 
local consumption, — a figure much below that of last year. 

The winter meeting of the Massachusetts Creamery Asso- 
ciation was the most enthusiastic and successful held for 
some years. The quality of the butter exhibited showed im- 
provement. The association is harmonious, intelligent and 
progressive. 

The average price paid per pound of butter fat by the 
local creameries to patrons, so far as reported, was 30.79+ 
cents. 

The following table shows the average (luotation for the 
best fresh creamery l)utter in a strictly wholesale way in 
the Boston market for the last eight j ears : — 



1908.] PUBLIC DOCmiENT — No. 60. 



13 





1907. 

Cents. 


1906. 

Cents. 


1905. 

Cents. 


1904. 

Cents. 


1903. 

Cents. 


1903. 

Cents. 


1901. 

Cents. 


1900. 

Cents. 


January, 


30.4 


25.2 


28.0 


22.7 


28.0 


25.0 


25.0 


29.5 


February, 


31.7 


25.2 


31.6 


24.6 


27.0 


28.5 


25.0 


26.0 


March, . 


30.2 


25.5 


28.0 


24.1 


27.0 


29.0 


23.0 


27.0 


April, 


32.2 


22.2 


29.1 


21.6 


27.5 


32.0 


22.0 


21.0 


May, 


31.4 


19.9 


23.9 


19.9 


22.5 


25.0 


19.5 


20.5 


June, 


24.3 


20.2 


20.7 


18.4 


22.75 


23.5 


20 


20.5 


July, 


25.9 


21.0 


20.6 


18.3 


20.5 


22.5 


20.0 


20.5 


August, . 
September, 


26.0 


23.8 


21.6 


19.1 


20.0 


21.5 


21.0 


22.0 


29.2 


25.6 


21.2 


20.8 


22.0 


23.5 


22.0 


22.5 


October, 


29.9 


26.9 


22.1 


21.5 


22.5 


24.5 


21.5 


22.0 


November, 


27.1 


27.6 


23.0 


24.1 


23.5 


27.0 


24.0 


25.0 


December, 


27.5 


30.7 


23.9 


25.7 


24.5 


28.5 


24.5 


25.5 


Averages, 


28.48 


24.48 


24.47 


21.73 


26.23 


25.0 


22.3 


23.5 



The Chamber of Commerce figures regarding the butter 
business in Boston for 1906 and 1907 are as follows : — 





1907. 

Pounds. 


1906. 

Pounds. 


Carried over, ...... 

ReceijDts for January, .... 

Receipts for February , . . . . 

Receipts for March, ..... 

Receipts for April, ..... 

Receipts for May, ..... 

Receipts for June, ..... 

Receipts for July, ..... 

Receipts for August, ..... 

Receipts for September, .... 

Receipts for October, ..... 

Receipts for November, .... 

Receipts for December, .... 

Total supply, ..... 
Exports for twelve months, deduct, . 

Net supply, ..... 
Stocks in storage December 29, deduct. 

Consumption for twelve months. 
Increase in consumption for 1907, 


6,851,825 
2,652,155 
2,669,598 
2,731,791 
3,504,867 
5,339,155 
8,559,668 
10,711,647 
8,703,341 
6,778,041 
5,982,162 
3,302,617 
2,654,185 


10,189,575 
3,530,291 
2,848,633 
3,367,031 
2,427,304 

' 5,856,768 
8,603,945 
9,238,974 
8,778,101 
6,688,729 
6,983,522 
3,990,993 
2,838,032 


70,441,052 
18,052 


75,341,898 
5,146,297 


70,423,000 
6,854,760 


70,195,601 
6,851,825 


63,568,240 
224,464 


63,343,776 



14 



DAIRY BUREAU. 



[Jan. 



Milk. 

The summer price of milk for the Boston market was 
raised to 28^^ cents per can (where the cans were returned 
clean by the contractors) in the 9-cent or so-called average 
zone. This was an increase of 21^ cents per can over the 
price paid in 1906, when it was 26 cents, making the 1907 
summer price per quart to producers at railroad station 
3.35+ cents. The winter price was raised to 351/^ cents 
per can (clean cans), Avhich was 6 cents more than was paid 
in the winter of 1906-07, and 7 cents increase over the sum- 
mer price of 28% cents, making the 1907-08 winter price 
per quart to the producer at railroad station 4.17+ cents. 
One-half cent more per can is paid where farmers wash their 
own cans. 

The difference l)etween the net Boston price of milk and 
the price paid the producer at the railroad station depends 
upon the distance from Boston, and the discounts from the 
Boston price are as follows : — 

Cents. 

For stations between 17 and 23 miles, ..... 6 
For stations between 23 and 36 miles, ..... 7 
For stations between 36 and 56 miles, ..... 8 
For stations between 56 and 76 miles, ..... 9 

This last is called the middle or average zone, although it 
is undoubtedly inside the average. The zones beyond 76 
miles are 20 miles wide, and 1 cent per can additional is de- 
ducted in each of these zones as the distance increases. The 
payment for milk on part of a majority of the larger con- 
tractors is governed by the so-called Knapp tables. The 
object of this system is to secure even production, and still 
allow a producer to increase or decrease his business by 
askinc: at the beo^innino^ of the six months for the ratino^ he 
desires. We have thought best to publish a sample sheet of 
these tables, that the public may have a better knowledge 
of the system.^ One of the contractors pays on a different 
basis, paying 2 cents per can less for unrestricted production. 
Another one of the smaller contractors buys milk paying a 

1 See pages 16, 17. 



1908.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 60. 



15 



standard price for that between 3.6 and 4 per cent butter fat ; 
for milk testing above 4 percent and not above 4.2 per cent, 
1 cent extra per can is paid ; for milk testing above 4.2 per 
cent and not above 4.4 per cent, 2 cents, and above 4.4 per 
cent, 8 cents. If milk falls below 3.6, the price is decreased 
relatively ; and if Ijelow 3 per cent, is not accepted. Another 
of the smaller firms buys a part of its supply on the butter- 
fat basis, paying a premium for all over 4 per cent fat. 

The milk in southwestern Massachusetts is shipped to the 
New York market. The system of payment on part of the 
Willow Brook Dairy at Sheffield, for example, is the New 
York exchange price ; at present writing, December, 4 cents 
per quart, subject to change at any time, but is based upon 
4.2 per cent butter fat, 21/^ cents being added to or sub- 
tracted from the price of a 40-quart can for each one-tenth 
above or below. In West Stockbridge the F. D. Shove 
Milk Factory pays by the hundred weight. This winter's 
price is as follows : October, $1.80 ; November, December, 
January and February, $2 ; and March, $1.80 per hundred 
weight. 

The retail price in many of the cities and towns in the 
Commonwealth has been increased approximately 1 cent per 
quart over that of the winter of 1906. In some cases the 
consumption fell off temporarily, but it is believed that it is 
now rising towards normal. The producers supplying milk 
to such cities and towns have in the main received an ad- 
vance in price, the price to the producer as a rule having 
been advanced about i/^ cent per quart over that of last Avin- 
ter. This has given the producers near Boston about 5 
cents at the farm on the average, those more remote 4:y2 
cents, while in the western part of the State about 4 cents 
per quart is the prevailing winter price. 

Forty-four samples of milk were taken at Barre Plains in 
November from the firm of C. Brigham Company, just as it 
was received from the farmers. For results of analyses and 
refractometer tests, see page 18. 

One interesting case of adulterated milk Avas procured in 
another locality. A sample was taken from a peddler, and 
found to be wrong. Upon being notified of the result this 



16 



DAIRY. BUREAU. 



[Jan. 



peddler came at once to the office and declared that the milk 
was as he bought it, and asked as a favor that the dairies 
from which he was obtaining his supply be sampled. We 
did so, and on November 27 took a sample of the milk from 
one dairy, which analyzed 3.2 per cent fat; other solids, 
8.24 ; total, 11.44 ; refractometer test, 39°. This tarm had 
been delivering to the peddler for a month or moue exactly 
16 cans per day. On November 29 we saw this herd milked, 
took samples of known purity from the milk of each cow, 
and also of the mixed milk of the herd, Avith the result that 
the latter analvzed 4 per cent fat ; other solids, 9.4S; total 
solids, 13.48 ; refractometer test, 42.50.^ The daily amount 
furnished the peddler from this dairj^ promptly fell off. 
The owner was tried later in the district court, found 
guilt}'' and fined |50, from which he appealed. For full 
results of analyses in this case see pages 18, 19. 

For amount of milk received in Boston by railroad see 
page 19. 



JOicqyj^ Table, loith Ratings, showing the Discounts for Overj^rodnction 
and Underproduction in the 9 -Cent Zone. 











1907 


Minimum 
and 








Table for Underproduction. 


and 


Maximum 


Table for Overproduction. 










1908. 


for the 
Month. 








32 cts. 


33 cts. 


34 cts. 


35 cts. 


Oct. 


35 cts. 


34 cts. 


33 cts. 


32 cts. 


34 cts. 


35 cts. 


36 cts. 


37 cts. 


Dec. 


37 cts. 


36 cts. 


35 cts. 


34 cts. 


33 cts. 


34 cts. 


.35 cts. 


36 cts. 


Jan. 


36 cts. 


35 cts. 


34 cts. 


33 cts. 


31 cts. 


32 cts. 


33 cts. 


34 cts. 


Mar. 


34 cts. 


33 cts. 


32 cts. 


31 cts. 










Rating. 








106-114 


42- 


51- 59 


60- ()6 


67- 77 


21/2 


78- 89 


90- 96 


97-105 


riO- 60 


61- 70 


71- 79 


80- 92 


3 


93-10() 


107-115 


116-125 


126-136 


58- 71 


72- 83 


84- 92 


93-108 


3V2 


10<>-125 


126-134 


1^5-146 


147-160 


66- 81 


82- <)4 


95-105 


10(;-123 


4 


124-142 


143-1.53 


154-166 


167-182 


75- 91 


92-106 


107-119 


120-139 


41/2 


14()-1(J0 


161-173 


174-188 


189-205 


83-101 


102-118 


119-131 


132-1.54 


5 


15.5-178 


179-191 


192-208 


209-227 


99-122 


123-141 


142-158 


159-185 


6 


186-213 


214-230 


231-249 


250-273 


116-142 


143-l(i5 


1()6-184 


18.5-21() 




217-249 


250-268 


269-291 


292-318 


133-163 


164-189 


190-211 


212-247 


8 


248-284 


28.5-306 


307-332 


333-363 


149-183 


184-212 


213-237 


238-278 


9 


279-320 


321-345 


346-374 


375-409 


166-203 


204-236 


237-264 


265-309 


10 


310-3.55 


3.56-383 


384-416 


417-4.54 


182-224 


225-260 


261-290 


291-340 


11 


341-391 


392-421 


422-457 


4.58-500 


199-244 


245-283 


284-317 


318-371 


12 


372-426 


427-4(iO 


461-499 


.500-545 


216-265 


266-307 


308-343 


344-402 


13 


403-462 


463-498 


499-540 


541-590 


232-285 


2f<6-331 


332-370 


371-433 


14 


434-497 


498-53(5 


537-582 


583-636 


249-306 


307-355 


356-3i)6 


397-464 


15 


465-.533 


534-574 


575-623 


624-(;81 


2fi5-325 


326-378 


379-423 


424-495 


16 


' 496-5()8 


569-613 


614-(i66 


667-727 


282-346 


347-402 


403-449 


450-526 


17 


.527-604 


605-651 


652-707 


708-772 


2i)8-366 


367-426 


427-476 


477-5.57 


18 


558-639 


640-689 


690-749 


75(;-Sl8 


315-387 


388-448 


449-502 


503-588 


19 


589-675 


676-729 


730-79fl 


791-863 
832-908 


332-408 


409-473 


474 -529 


.530-619 


20 


620-710 


711-766 


767-831 



1908.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — Ko. (30. 17 



Knapp Table, icith Ratings, etc. — Concluded. 













Minimum 


















and 








Table for Underproduction. 


1907. 


Maximum 


Table for Overproduction. 












for the 


















Month. 








34 cts. 


35 cts. 


36 cts. 


37 cts. 


Nov. 


37 cts. 


30 cts. 


35 cts. 


34 cts. 










Rating. 










40- 48 


49- .56 


57- 64 


6.5- 74 


2V2 


75- 85 


86- 93 


94-101 


102-110 


49- 59 


60- 68 


69- 76 


77- 89 


3 


90-103 


104-111 


112-120 


121-131 


57- 68 


69- 79 


80- 89 


90-104 




105-120 


121-130 


131-141 


142-153 


64- 78 


79- 91 


92-102 


U>3-119 


4 


120-137 


138-148 


149-161 


162-176 


72- 88 


89-103 


104-115 


116-134 


41/0 


135-154 


155-166 


167-181 


182-198 


81- 98 


99-114 


115-127 


128-149 




150-172 


173-185 


186-201 


202-219 


96-118 


119-137 


138-153 


154-179 


(3 


180-206 


207-222 


223-241 


242-264 


112-138 


139-160 


161-178 


179-209 




21(1-241 


242-259 


26(1-281 


282-308 


128-157 


1.58-183 


184-2' 14 


205-239 


8 


24(1-275 


27(;-2',l6 


297-322 


323-352 


144-177 


178-205 


20f;-230 


231-26'.) 


9 


270-309 


;5lii-3:i4 


335-362 


363-396 


160-197 


198-228 


229-255 


256-299 


10 


300-344 


345-371 


372-402 


403-440 


177-217 


218-251 


252-281 


282-329 


11 


330-378 


379-408 


409-442 


443-483 


193-236 


237-274 


275-307 


308-359 


12 


360-412 


413-445 


446-483 


484-527 


209-256 


257-297 


298-332 


333-389 


13 


390-447 


448-482 


483-,523 


524-571 


225-276 


277-320 


321-358 


359-419 


14 


420-481 


482-519 


520-563 


564-615 


241-296 


297-343 


344-384 


385-449 


15 


450-515 


516-556 


557-603 


604-659 


257-316 


317-366 


367-409 


410-479 


16 


480-550 


551-593 


594-643 


644-703 


273-335 


336-389 


390-435 


436-509 


17 


510-584 


585-630 


631-684 


685-747 


289-355 


356-412 


413-460 


461-.539 


18 


540-619 


620-667 


668-724 


725-791 


305-375 


376^35 


436-486 


487-569 


19 


570-653 


654-704 


705-764 


765-835 


321-395 


396-458 


459-512 


513-.599 


20 


600-687 


688-741 


742-804 


805-879 













Minimum 


















and 








Table for Underproduction. 


1908. 


Maximum 


Table for Overproduction. 












for the 


















Month. 








31 cts. 


32 cts. 


33 cts. 


34 cts. 


Feb. 


34 cts. 


33 cts. 


32 cts. 


31 cts. 










Rating. 










39- 47 


48- 55 


56- 62 


63- 72 


21/2 


73- 84 


85- 90 


91- 98 


99-107 


46- 56 


57- 66 


67- 73 


74- 86 


3 


87-100 


101-107 


108-117 


118-128 


54- 66 


67- 77 


78- 86 


87-101 


31/2 


102-117 


118-126 


127-237 


138-150 


61- 76 


77- 88 


89- 98 


99-115 


4 


116-133 


134-143 


144-155 


156-171 


69- 85 


86- 99 


100-111 


112-130 


4V2 


131-1.50 


151-162 


16.8-176 


177-193 


77- 95 


96-110 


111-123 


124-144 


,5 


14.5-166 


167-179 


180-194 


195-213 


92-114 


11.5-132 


133-148 


149-173 


6 


174-199 


200-215 


216-233 


234-256 


105-133 


134-154 


155-172 


173-202 




203-233 


234-251 


2.52-272 


273-298 


123-152 


153-175 


176-197 


198-231 


8 


232-266 


267-208 


289-311 


312-341 


138-171 


172-199 


200-222 


223-260 


9 


261-299 


300-322 


323-350 


351-384 


154-192 


193-221 


222-247 


248-289 


10 


290-332 


333-358 


359-387 


388-426 


169-210 


211-243 


244-272 


273-318 


11 


319-365 


366-394 


39.5-427 


428-469 


184-229 


230-265 


266-296 


297-347 


12 


348-399 


400-430 


4.31-476 


467-512 


200-248 


249-287 


288-321 


322-376 


13 


377-432 


433-466 


467-505 


506-554 


215-267 


268 309 


310-346 


347-405 


14 


406-465 


466-502 


503-544 


545-597 


231-286 


287-332 


333-371 


372-434 


15 


435-498 


499-537 


538-583 


584-639 


246-305 


306-354 


355-395 


396-463 


16 


464-532 


533-573 


574-622 


623-682 


261-324 


325-377 


378-420 


421-492 


17 


493-565 


566-608 


609-661 


662-725 


277-344 


.345-398 


399-445 


446-521 


18 


522-598 


599-645 


646-699 


700-767 


292-363 


364-420 


421-470 


471-550 


19 


551-631 


632-681 


682-738 


739-810 


307-382 


383-443 


444-495 


496-579 


20 


580-664 


665-716 


717-777 


778-853 



Tfadiiirv outruns the limits of overproduction or underproduction printed in the 
Table, payment will be miide at a price proportional to (lie production. 
Please cancel all previous scliedules. 



18 



DAIRY BUREAU. 



[Jan. 



Samples of Milk for Boston Market, as delivered at Car by Farmers, 
taken from C. Brigham Company, at Barre Plains, Mass. 



o£lIIipl6 


of Cans. 


■NT V^ 

of Cows.' 


Tint V^txt 
nut X a>t> 


Fat. 


Total 


Ash. 


Refraotometer 
Reading 
(Degrees) . 


1 


5 


9 


8.90 


4.80 


13.70 


.60 


41.3 


2 


6 


10 


9.20 


4.50 


13.70 


.60 


41.3 


3 


12 


18 


8.90 


3.90 


12.80 


.56 


40.8 


4 


20 


18 


8.72 


4.10 


12.82 


.54 


40.5 


5 


10^ 


10 


8.84 


3.30 


12.14 


.62 


40.6 


6 


16 


23 


9.02 


4.20 


13.28 


.62 


41.3 


7 


2 


2 


8.92 


4.60 


13.52 


.60 


40.3 


8 


5 


9 


9.10 


4.20 


13.30 


.54 


41.3 


9 


9 


11 


8.78 


4.00 


12.78 


.62 


40.4 


10 


6 


8 


8.58 


4.00 


12.. 58 


.68 


40.8 


11 






9.24 


3.80 


13.04 


.64 


41.3 


12 


13 


14 


8.62 


3.90 


12.52 


.62 


40.5 


13 


3 


7 


8.84 


5.10 


13.94 


.66 


41.0 


14 


11 


12 


8.90 


3.60 


12.50 


.66 


41.0 


15 


9 


12 


8.84 


4.10 


12.94 


.60 


42.1 


16 


10 


14 


8.54 


4.00 


12.54 


.60 


40.9 


17 


3 




9.10 


4.40 


13.50 


.66 


42.1 


18 


13 


16 


8.66 


3.90 


12.56 


.62 


40.2 


19 




7 


8.58 


4.00 


12.58 


.60 


42.1 


20 


16 


17 


8.56 


3.80 


12.36 


.60 


41.9 


21 


16 


16 


8.02 


4.70 


12.72 


.64 


42.2 


22 


8 


12 


9.32 


4.20 


13.52 


.68 


42.9 


23 


5 




9.14 


4.30 


13.44 


.68 


41.9 • 


24 


13 


25 


8.88 


4.20 


13.08 


.60 


41 .1 


25 


5 




9.36 


4.60 


13.96 


.61 


42.1 


261 


5 


5 


8.66 


3.90 


12.56 


.60 


42.2 


271 


2 




9.801 


3.201 


13.00 


.621 


41.21 


28 


6 




9.16 


3.80 


12.96 


.66 


41.6 


29 


5 


- 


9.04 


4.20 


13.24 


.64 


41.8 


50 


6 




9.08 


3.90 


12.98 


.62 


41.6 


31 






9.28 


4.50 


13.78 


.62 


42.3 


32 


3 


5 


9.16 


4.80 


13.96 


.66 


41.8 


33 


6 


6 


8.84 


4.40 


13.24 


.60 


41.1 


34 


12 




8.92 


4.40 


13.32 


.60 


41.3 


351 


4 


10 


7.281 


3.701 


10.98 


.481 


36.11 


36 




10 


8.82 


4.40 


13.22 


.60 


41.9 


37 


9 


11 


8.90 


4.20 


13.10 


.60 


42.0 


38 


7 


15 


8.. 58 


4.20 


12.78 


.62 


41.3 


39 


8 


9 


8.90 


4.10 


13.00 


.60 


42.2 


402 
















41 


5 


8 


8.56 


3.60 


12.16 


.62 


41.2 


42 


6 


11 


9.12 


4.70 


13.82 


.64 


42.7 


43 


12 




8.94 


4.40 


13.34 


.64 


42.2 


44 


8 


10 


8.90 


4.90 


13.80 


.64 


41.9 


Average of normal samples, . 


8.89 


4.21 


13.10 


.62 


41.50 



Samjyles taken from the Mixture of NighVs Milk as brought from a 
Farm and delivered to a Peddler. 



Date. 


Fat. 


Other 
Solids. 


Total. 


Water. 


Ash. 


Refractometer 
Reading 
(Degrees) . 


Nov. 25, 1907 


3.3 


7.80 


11.10 


88.50 


.60 


39.00 


Nov. 27, 1907,3 .... 


3.2 


8.24 


11.44 


88.. 56 


.60 


39.00 


Nov. 29, 1907,4 .... 


4.0 


9.48 


13.48 


86.52 


.72 


42.50 



1 Abnormal milk. 
Sample lost. 



3 Witnessed. 

4 Milk of known purity. 



1908.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 60. 19 



Milk of Known Purity from Individual Cows of Same Herd as Above, 
Nov. 29, 1907. 



Cow. 


Quarts. 


Fat. 


Other 
olids. 


Total. 


Water. 


Ash. 


Refractometer 
Reading 
(Degrees). 


No. 1, Holstein and. Jersey, 


A 
i 


4.0 


in in 




fif^ Qn 
oo .ou 


.DO 


45.00 


No. 2, Grade Jersey , • 





0. ( 




15 . 32 


04.00 


on 
.oU 


A9 K(\ 


No. 3, Grade Devon, . 


Q 


O.U 


in nr> 


1 f; nn 

10. UU 


Hf^ nn 

00. UU 


.0* 


A'i nn 

4o .UU 


j>U. rt, VTl <tU.t; -cl.^ 1 blill C, • 


g 


4.0 


10.06 


14.06 


85.94 


.74 


44.20 


No. 5, Grade Holstein, 


7 


3.4 


8.94 


12.34 


87.66 


.64 


42.00 


No. 6, Jersey and Durham, 




4.4 


9.04 


13.44 


86.56 


.70 


42.00 


No. 7, Grade Holstein, 


6 


3.3 


8.80 


12.10 


87.90 


.60 


41.50 


No. 8, Grade Jersey, . 


6 


4.6 


9.74 


14.34 


85.66 


.78 


42.00 


No. 9, Grade Holstein, 


6 


3.7 


8.50 


12.20 


87.80 


.64 


41.00 


No. 10, Jersey and Devon, . 


5 


4.7 


10.26 


14.96 


85.04 


.66 


42.30 


No. 11, Grade Holstein, 


9 


3.3 


9.38 


12.68 


87.32 


.70 


42.00 


'Average, 




4.24+ 


9.49+ 


13.74 


85.35+ 


.70+ 


42.59+ 





The folio winor are the fiofures concernino^ carred milk, as 
reported by the various railroads to the Railroad Commis- 
sioners. 



Milk brought into Boston by the Different Railroads, December, 1906, 
to December, 1907, as reported to the Railroad Commissioners. 









New York, 




Date. 


Boston & Albany 
(Quarts). 


Boston & Maine 
(Quarts). 


New Haven & 
Hartford 


Total Quarts. 








(Quarts). 




1906. 










December, 


1,382,567 


6,054,571 


1,638,630 


9,075,768 


1907. 










January, . 


1,386,749 


6*211,815 


1,586,577 


9,185,141 


February, 


1,239,827 


5,523,853 


1,516,558 


8,280,238 


March, 


1,445,484 


6,248,497 


1,705,893 


9,399,874 


April, 


1,472,430 


6,185,519 


1,828,261 


9,486,210 


May, 


1,638,766 


6,425,503 


2,008,164 


10,072,433 


June, 


1,691,241 


6,487,446 


2,080,381 


10,259,068 


July, 


1,648,596 


6,669,955 


1,933,398 


10,251,949 


August, . 


1,452,650 


5,970,386 


1,807,663 


9,230,699 


September, 


1,170,560 


5,574,826 


1,708,373 


8,453,759 


October, . 


1,333,905 


5,037,707 


1,821,845 


8,193,457 


November, 


1,117,282 


5,087,587 


1,788,725 


7,993,594^ 


Totals, 


16,980,057 


71,477,665i 


21,424,468 


109,882,190^ ' 



The total for the corresponding twelve months, 1906-07, was 114,233,976 quarts. 



20 



DAIRY BUREAU. 



[Jan. 



Creameries and Milk Depots. 

A})pended we give a revised list of the principal cream- 
eries and milk dei)ots owned and operated by Massachusetts 
individuals and corporations. There are in this State, in 
addition to these, a number of distributing plants for cream- 
eries owned and operated in other States. For instance, the 
Maine Creamery Company of Bangor, Me., has offices at 12 
Foster Wharf, Boston. The Turner Centre Creamery of 
Auburn, Me., has distributing houses in Boston, Worcester, 
Taunton and Lowell, and ships to these points butter, cream, 
and to one at least skimmed milk.^ The New England 
Creamery of Liverniore Falls, Me., distributes tlu'ough a 
Massachusetts comi)any of the same name in Everett, which 
also distributes the ' ' Hampden Creamery " goods. The Lyn- 
donville Creamery of Lyndonville, Vt., has a plant at Water- 
town, from which it distributes milk, cream and butter. 'J. 
L. Humphre}^ Jr., has four plants, one each in New Bed- 
ford, Fall River, Taunton and Brockton, for the distribution 
of butter and renovated butter from his Iowa creameries. 
The Armours, Swifts, Hammonds, Morrises and other large 
packing houses, all representing western-made goods, dis- 
tribute quantities of butter and renovated butter from their 
numerous establishments scattered over the State. Some of 
these also put out oleomargarine. Besides these, there is a 
considerable number of creamery companies and so-called 
creameries which buy their stock of producers in this and 
other States. These in the ao^orreoate do a laroe business. 
Other private dairies or creameries also have town offices, 
restaurants, etc. The above is difficult of strict classifica- 
tion. 

A number of dairies are producing milk and cream under 
conditions and of a quality which command a price higher 
than that ruling the general market, and at least two are 
selling certified milk. 



1 Pasteurized skimmed millv and cream are put together in the proper proportions 
required for standard milk, in the Boston plant, and the milk thus made is placed 
upon the market. 



1908.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 60. 



21 



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22 



DAIRY BUREAU. 



[Jan. 



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o 

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H (>2 



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1908.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 60. 



23 



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24 



DAIRY BUREAU. 



[Jan. 



pq 



II 

OPui 







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cj 

n J 


Propri 


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1908.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 60. 



25 



Expenses. 

The following is a classified statement of the expenses for 
the year ending Nov. 30, 1907 : — 



Bureau: compensation and travelling expenses, . . $339 31 

Agents: compensation, ....... 1,936 50 

Agents : travelling expenses and samples purchased, . 2,527 84 

General agent: travelling and necessary expenses, . 493 46 

Chemists: analyses, tests, court attendance, . . . 1,120 50 

Printing and supplies, ....... 105 92 

Educational, . . 476 47 



Total, . . . . . . . " . . $7,000 00 



P. M. HARWOOD, 

Oeiieral Agent. 

Accepted and adopted as the report of the Dairy Bureau. 

CARLTON D. RICHARDSON. 
JOHN M. DANFORTH. 
HENRY E. PAIGE. 



Public Document " No. 60 



EIGHTEENTH ANNUAL REPORT 



DAIRY BUREAU 



Massachusetts Board of Agricultuee, 



REQUIRED UNDER 



Chapter 89, Section 12, Revised Laws. 



January 15, 1909. 




BOSTON: 

WRIGHT & POTTER PRINTING CO., STATE PRINTERS, 
18 Post Office Square. 
1909. 



Public Document 



No. 60 



EIGHTEENTH ANNUAL REPORT 

OF THE 

"dairy bureau 

OF THE 

Massachusetts Board or Agmcultuee, 

REQUIRED UNJ>EK 

Chapter 89, Section 12, Revised Laws. 



January 15, 1909. 




BOSTON: 

WRIGHT & POTTER PRINTING CO,, STATE PRINTERS. 
18 Post Office- Square. 
1909. 



Approved by 
The State Board of Publication. 



3 



Daiky Bureau — 1908. 



CARLTON D. RICHARDSON, West Brookfield, Chairman. 
HENRY E. PAIGE, Amherst. 
WARREN C. JEWETT, Worcester. 



Secretary. 

J. LEWIS ELLSWORTH, Executive Officer and Secretary of the 
State Board of Agriculture. 



General Agent. 
P. M. HARWOOD. 
Address, Room 136, State House, Boston. 



<^\}t ^ommontDcalti) of ilIa5sact)U0Ctt0. 



REPORT. 



The year 1908 has not been unusual in point of violations 
of dairy laws; in fact, the number of such violations has 
been rather less than in some previous years; 104 prosecu- 
tions for violations of oleomargarine laws, 51 for violations 
of the renovated butter law and 14 for violation of the milk 
laws is the record. The amount of oleomargarine handled 
in the State is about the same as formerly; it is, however, 
handled in more legitimate ways. Renovated butter seems 
to be falling off in total sales. The greatest popular inter- 
est has been in the cases for violation of the milk laws. 

During the early part of the year there was much agita- 
tion in relation to the milk standard. I^^umerous bills were 
presented to the Legislature, with the result that a new stand- 
ard was adopted. The standard now calls for 12.15 per 
cent total milk solids and 3.35 per cent milk fats through- 
out the entire year. 

There is a strong and growing feeling, in the State — a 
feeling that is shared by nearly all classes — that the milk 
standard law, . unwisely enforced, incurs unwarranted hard- 
ship upon the producer. In the opinion of this Bureau 
such a law is mainly for the purpose of holding the milk 
product at a given point, in the interests of the public at 
large. Our policy and practice is, wherever we find milk 
which contains added water, to put the person nearest re- 
sponsible for the condition of such milk into court under the 
milk adulteration act (R. L., c. 56, § 55). Whenever we 
find milk below the standard and still apparently unadulter- 



6 



DAIRY BUREAU. 



[Jan. 



ated, we first notify the producer, and frequently offer him 
suggestions as to how to improve its quality. We find pro- 
ducers as a rule desirous of obeying the laws of our Com- 
monwealth, and have thus far found no difficulty in procur- 
ing the desired result without resorting to the extreme of 
prosecution. 

Some persons think that a small amount of water can be 
.added to milk without detection. This we believe to be a 
mistake. The moment a man begins to add even a small 
amount of water to milk, be becomes an object of suspicion 
to the chemist who makes the analysis. It is an unwise 
and dangerous thing to do, and the quicker such notion is 
driven out of the heads of those who produce and handle 
milk, the better. A man can hardly make a greater mis- 
take than to add water to the milk with any assurance of 
not being detected sooner or later. This is a fact well 
recognized by those who enforce the laws. The man who 
starts on a down grade goes lower and lower with each ad- 
vancing step. If it is a matter of adding water to milk, 
some day he will get caught. 

In looking over the lists of defendants as prosecuted by 
the Dairy Bureau for various offences during the last six 
years, it is gratifying to note that out of the 570 different 
defendants only 17 have repeated, or had to be brought into 
court a second time. 

In the educational work 22 meetings have been addressed 
by the members of the Bureau and its general agent. In- 
vestigations have been made concerning milk as produced 
on Massachusetts farms. Farmers have been urged to co- 
operate; to raise more grain; to use more reasonable care 
in the production and handling of milk, etc. Consumers 
have been urged to their part in properly caring for milk 
after it has been delivered ; to use more milk ; and not to 
object to a reasonable price for the good, clean article, rec- 
ognizing that such milk cannot be produced at a low price. 

A new " Manual of Dairy Laws of Massachusetts," with 
annotations and a digest of Supreme Court decisions, has 
been prepared by the general agent. 

Two years ago we suggested the desirability of a Massa- 



1909.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 60. 



7 



chusetts Dairymen's Association, combining all the dairy 
interests of the State, for the purposes of co-operation, hold- 
ing of dairy exhibits, etc., uplifting by competition and 
friendly rivalry to see who can produce the best goods, 
whether it be milk, cream, butter or other milk product. 
Such an association properly organized and officered should 
offset the pessimistic and depressing views too often taken 
of the milk situation. Upbuilding forces from within and 
of the producers themselves are now most needed. We there- 
fore again urge the dairy-producing industry of this State 
to thus organize. 

The personnel of the Bureau and its staff has changed 
only in one respect, W. C. Jewett having been appointed by 
Governor Guild in place of John M. Danforth, whose term 
had expired. C. D. Richardson has continued as chair- 
man, H. E. Paige as a member, J. Lewis Ellsworth secre- 
tary, P. M. Harwood general agent, A. W. Lombard agent, 
B. F. Davenj)ort and H. C. Emerson chemists, and four 
persons have been temporarily employed as agents during 
some part of the year. 

The summary of the year's work is as follows : — 



Total number of inspections, . . . . . . ^ 7,091 

Number of inspections where no sample was taken, . . 5,516 

Number of samples of butter and oleomargarine, all purchased, 1,497 
Number of samples of milk and cream, many of which were 

purchased, ......... 321 

Cases entered in court, ....... ^ 171 

Cases tried in court, ........ 169 

Meetings addressed by chairman of the Bureau, ... 10 

Meetings addressed by Mr. Jewett, ..... 2 

Meetings addressed by the general agent, .... 10 



Cases prosecuted during the twelve months ending Nov. 
30, 1908, by months and courts, with law violated, and re- 
sults, are as follows : — 



^ There were 243 extra samples taken during the inspections, therefore this number is 
243 less than the sum of the next three items. 

2 Defendant in two cases ran away after having been summoned. 



8 



Dx\IRY BUREAU. 



[Jan. 





Month.. 


Num- 
ber. 


Lh.w viol3.tGd. 


Con- 
v-icted. 


Dis- 
charged. 


Maiden, 
Woburn, 


December, 
January, 


2 
1 


1 oleomargarine, 1 
reiiova;L6Q uULier. 
Milk, . 


2 
1 


- 


Worcester, 


January, 


1 


Milk, . 


1 




Ware, . 


January, 


3 


Milk, . 


3 


- 


North Adams, 
Greenfield, 


February, . 
February, . 


22 
1 


18 oleomargarine, 4 
renovated butter. 
Milk, . 


22 
1 


— 


Wobum, 


February, . 


2 


Renovated butter, . 




2 


Lawrence, 
Peabody, 


February, . 
February, . 


12 
2 


4 renovated butter, 

8 oleomargarine. 
Renovated butter, . 


12 
2 




Salem, 

rs v r* Ir "fr^ n 

Dedham, 


iviarcn, 

lVr{irr>lT 

March, 


1 o 
7 

5 


16 oleomargarine, 3 
renovated butter. 

renovated butter, 
1 milk. 
Renovated butter, . 


1 o 

7 
< 

5 


- 


Lynn, . 


March, 


8 


Oleomargarine, 


8 




Lynn, . 
Holyoke, 
Ipswich, 


April, 
April, 
April, 


8 
8 
12 


4 oleomargarine, 4 
renovated butter. 

2 oleomargarine, 6 
leiiuvaLeu. uiiLLei. 

Oleomargarine, 


8 
8 
12 


- 
- 
— 


Greenfield, 


April, 


1 


Milk, . 


1 




Worcester, 


April, 


12 


Oleomargarine, 


12 


- 


Tamiton, 
Lowell, . 


April, 
May, 


8 
4 


6 oleomargarine, 2 

leiiovaLeci uuitei. 
Oleomargarine, 


8 
4 


- 
- 


Newburyport, 


May, 


3 


Renovated butter, . 


2 


1 


Spencer, 


May, 


2 


Oleomargarine, 


2 


— 


Woburn, 


June, . 


2 


Milk, . 


2 




Cambridge, 


June, . 


4 


Renovated butter, . 


4 




Cambridge, 


July, . 


8 


4 renovated butter, 
4 oleomargarine. 


8 





1909.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 60. 



9 



Court. 


Month. 


Num- 
ber. 


Law violated. 


Con- 
victed. 


Dis- 
charged. 


Worcester, 
Cambridge, 


July, . 
August, 


3 
2 


2 renovated butter, 

1 olpoTTi/irfaT'inp 

Oleomargarine, 


3 
2 


- 
- 


Orange, 


September, 


1 


Milk, . 


1 


- 


Ayer, 


October, 


1 


Milk, . 


- 


1 


Greenfield, 


October, 


1 


Milk, . 


1 


- 


Medford, 


November, 


1 


Renovated butter, . 


1 


- 


Springfield, 


November, 


1 


Milk, 


1 




Spencer, 


November, 


2 


Oleomargarine, 


2 




Totals, . 




169 




165 


4 



Note. — The Bureau is especially indebted to the milk inspectors 
of Greenfield, Northampton, Springfield, Taunton, Winchester and 
Worcester, whose work with us has resulted in cases in court during 
the year. We also record our indebtedness to all others who have 
aided us in any way. 



The charges in the several cases entered in court for the 
year ending Nov. 30, 1908, have been as follows: — 



Selling renovated butter in unmarked packages, . . .51 
Selling oleomargarine without sign on exposed contents, . . 1 
Selling oleomargarine when butter was asked for, . . . 18 
Selling oleomargarine without being registered, . . .11 
Selling oleomargarine without sign in store, .... 10 
Selling oleomargarine in unmarked packages, .... 6 
Selling oleomargarine from restaurants without notice to guests, ^ 60 
Selling milk containing added water, ..... 12 
Selling skimmed milk from unmarked cans, .... 1 
Selling cream below standard, ...... 1 



171 



Two cases were entered but not tried, as defendant ran away after being summoned. 



10 



DAIRY BUREAU. 



[Jan. 



The following is a list of inspections 
the number of samples taken in the 
elusive : — 


without samples and 
years 1903-08, in- 


YEAR. 


Inspections 
without 
Samples. 


Samples 
taken. 


1903, 


4,135 


1,395 


1904, 


4,456 


1 157 

J., ±kJ I 


1905, 


4,887 


971 


1906, 


4,985 


576 


1907, 


4,538 


1,374 


1908, 


5,516 


1,575 


Totals, 


28,517 


7,048 


Averages, ...... 


4,752 


1,174 



Oleomargarine. 

Tor the second time we are able to announce that no li- 
censes for the sale of colored oleomargarine have been issued 
in this State, and no sale of such goods has been reported to 
the Bureau during the year. 

The following figures show the oleomargarine output for 
the United States since 1900: — 



1900, 
1901, 
1902, 

1903, 
1904, 
1905, 
1906, 
1907, 
1908, 



Under Old Law. 



Under New Law. 



Pounds. 

107,045,028 
104,943,856 
126,316,472 



71,804,102 
48,071,480 
49,880,982 
53,146,657 
68,988,850 
79,107,273 



It will be noticed that the increase of the 1908 output over 
that of 1907 was 14 per cent, or only about one-half the in- 
crease of 1907 over 190G. 



1909.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 60. 



11 



The oleomargarine licenses issued in this State have 
slightly increased over last year, now being as follows : — 

Retail, uncolored, ........ 256 

Wholesale, uncolored, ....... 21 

Total, 277 

Renovated Butter. 
The use of renovated butter in this State is apparently 
on the decline, according to our inspectors' reports. Most 
of the goods now sold are in the print form. The cases in 
court during the year for violation of the renovated butter 
law, 51, was the smallest number since 1902. There is now 
but one licensed concern in this State manufacturing reno- 
vated butter. 

Butter. 

The consumption of butter is on the increase year by 
year, keeping reasonable pace with the increase in popula- 
tion, as shown by the Chamber of Commerce figures for the 



years from 1900 to 1908 : — 

Pounds. 

1900, 49,288,306 

1901, . * 50,565,193 

1902, 51,897,178 

1903, 52,185,924 

1904, 56,016,157 

1905, 59,596,542 

1906, 63,343,776 

1907, 63,568,240 

1908, 66,772,183 



Average annual increase for nine years, . . . 1,942,653 



These figures are encouraging, and show that imitations 
have not as yet made serious inroads into the butter business. 

The creameries at Montague and North Orange have been 
sold and have gone out of business. 

The average price paid the local creamery patrons has not 
varied materially from last year. The average wholesale 
price of butter in Boston, however, has been about 1 cent 
per pound lower than in 1907. 



12 



DAIRY BUREAU. 



[Jan. 



The following table shows the average quotation for the 
best fresh creamery butter in a strictly wholesale way in 
the Boston market for the last nine years : — 





1908. 


1907. 


1906. 


1905. 


1904. 


1903. 


1902. 


1901. 


1900. 




Cents. 


Cents. 


Cents. 


Cents. 


Cents. 


Cents. 


Cents. 


Cents. 


Cents. 


January, 


29 


7 


30 


4 


25 


2 


28 





22 


7 


28 





25 





25.0 


29.5 


February, 


32 


1 


31 


7 


25 


2 


31 


6 


24 


6 


27 





28 


5 


25.0 


26.0 


March, . 


30 


2 


30 


2 


25 


5 


28 





24 


1 


27 





29 





23.0 


27.0 


April, . 


28 


4 


32 


2 


22 


2 


29 


1 


21 


6 


27 


5 


32 





22.0 


21.0 


May, 


24 


1 


31 


4 


19 


9 


23 


9 


19 


9 


22 


5 


25 





19.5 


20.5 


June, 


24 


5 


24 


3 


20 


2 


20 


7 


18 


4 


22 


75 


23 


5 


20.0 


20.5 


July, . 


23 


6 


25 


9 


21 





20 


6 


18 


3 


20 


5 


22 


5 


20.0 


20.5 


August, 


24 


5 


26 





23 


8 


21 


6 


19 


1 


20 





21 


5 


21.0 


22.0 


September, 


25 


3 


29 


2 


25 


6 


21 


2 


20 


8 


22 





23 


5 


22.0 


22.5 


October, 


27 


5 


29 


9 


26 


9 


22 


1 


21 


5 


22 


5 


24 


5 


21.5 


22.0 


November, 


29 


5 


27 


1 


27 


6 


23 





24 


1 


23 


5 


27 





24.0 


25.0 


December, 


31 





27 


5 


30 


7 


23 


9 


25 


7 


24 


5 


28 


5 


24.5 


25.5 


Averages, 


27 


5 


28 


48 


24 


48 


24 


47 


21 


73 


26 


23 


25 





22.3 


23.5 





The Chamber of Commerce figures regarding the butter 
business in Boston for 1907 and 1908 are as follows: — 





1908. 


1907. 




Founds. 


Pounds. 


Carried over, ...... 


6,854,760 


6,851,825 


Receipts for January, .... 


2,875,253 


2,652,155 


Receipts for February, .... 


2,529,472 


2,669,598 


Receipts for March, .... 


3,182,045 


2,731,791 


Receipts for April, ..... 


3,570,013 


3,504,867 


Receipts for May, ..... 


6,123,261 


5,339,155 


Receipts for June, ..... 


11,675,687 


8,559,668 


Receipts for July, ..... 


11,534,423 


10,711,647 


Receipts for August, .... 


8,800,812 


8,703,341 


Receipts for September, .... 


8,990,275 


6,778,041 



1909.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT— No. 60. 13 





1908. 

Pounds. 


1907. 

Pounds. 


Receipts for October, .... 
Receipts for November, .... 
Receipts for December, .... 

Total supply, ..... 
Exports for twelve months, deduct, . 

Net supply, ..... 
Storage stock December 26, deduct, . 

Consumption for twelve months. 
Increase in consumption for 1908, 


4,707,422 
2,268,606 
3,585,918 


5,982,162 
3,302,617 
2,654,185 


76,688,947 
868,164 


70,441,052 
18,052 


75,820,783 
o CiAQ Ann 


70,423,000 

D,oO'±, / OU 


66,772,183 
3,203,943 


63,568,240 



Cream. 

There has been a very great increase in the amount of 
cream shipped into and consumed in this State during the 
last ten years. It is estimated that a total of at least 
2,000,000 gallons of cream is now handled in Boston alone. 
This of course is not all consumed in Boston. Another in- 
teresting fact is that there is now a much larger proportion- 
ate quantity of heavy cream used than was formerly the 
case. According to the last report of the Boston milk in- 
spector, there are 84 creameries shipping cream to Boston 
dealers, as follows : — 



Vermont, 36 

Maine, 23 

New Hampshire, . . . . . . . . .12 

New York, 9 

Massachusetts, ......... 4 



Total, 84 



This cream is mostly pasteurized." What is known as 
light cream runs from 15 to 20 per cent, and heavy cream 
from 35 to 45 per cent milk fat. A standard for cream, 
calling for at least 15 per cent milk fat, was established by 
the Legislature of 1907. 



14 



DAIRY BUREAU. 



[Jan. 



Milk. 

There are two facts in connection with the dairy business 
in Massachusetts worthy of note, the first being that the 
assessors' returns for the last three years show a decline in 
the number of milch cows, May 1, 1908, showing 7,617 less 
than were assessed May 1, 1907. Among the reasons ap- 
parently responsible for this may be mentioned competition 
from other States, decreased consumption of raw whole 
milk, increased requirements by health authorities and the 
demands of the times, high cost of grain and scarcity of 
competent farm help. The second fact is disclosed by the 
report of the milk shipped into Boston by rail, as per returns 
to the Railroad Commissioners, which for the twelve months 
covered in this report was 103,831,278i/> quarts, as against 
109,882,1901/2 quarts in 1907 and 114,233,976 quarts in 
1900, — a reduction of 6,050,912 quarts from last year, 
when there was a reduction of 4, 3 5 1,78 5 14 quarts from the 
year before, making a total drop in two years of nearly ten 
and a half million quarts, and this in the face of a con- 
stantly increasing population. This reduction was constant, 
month by month, with two exceptions, from December, 1906, 
to September, 1908, when a gain commenced to show itself. 
Of course this is not an exact measure of the decline in the 
use of raw whole milk in greater Boston, but it is a strong 
indication that there has been a serious decline in that re- 
spect. Some of the causes which have conspired to bring 
about this condition appear to be: first, that there has been 
too much " scare " about the use of raw milk ; second, there 
has been too much prejudice raised against paying the price 
necessary to procure the good, clean article of milk now upon 
the market ; third, the increased use of powdered, con- 
centrated and condensed milks; fourth, the increased use 
of cream; and fifth, the working people have been more or 
less unemployed during portions of this period. Perhaps 
this was all necessary under the circumstances, but is it not 
a condition to be regretted? Science supports and theory 
and practice endorse the fact that there is no milk so easily 



1909.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT— No. 60. 



15 



digested and nutritious as good, clean, whole milk, just as 
the cow gives it. 

Let us hope, then, that the time is at hand when confi- 
dence will be restored and the public once more brought to 
consume its normal amount of raw whole milk. 

The price of carred milk has remained the same as one 
year ago, that paid to the producer at the car for the en- 
tire territory supplying it averaging 3.33 cents per quart 
in summer and 4.17 cents per quart in winter, wherever 
cans are washed by the contractors, — a price still too low, 
considering the demands of present-day conditions. 

The question of the constitutionality of the milk standard 
law has been again raised, and is now pending in the Su- 
preme Court. 

Appended Tables. 

Table 1. shows analysis of milk just as it was delivered 
at the railroad stations by 44 farmers, in June, 1908, and 
gives a fair idea of the condition of early summer milk as 
regards solid content in the milk-producing districts at that 
time of the year. 

Tables II. and III. show a method of dealing with those 
producers who are complained of for selling milk which, 
while it is unadulterated, is below the legal standard. 

Table IV. shows analyses where two out of eleven cans 
of milk contained added water. This case was appealed 
from district to Superior Court, fought out before a jury, 
and the sentence of lower court confirmed. 

Table Y. shows a case where all the cans of milk con- 
tained added water, also analyses of samples of milk of 
known purity from individual animals in the herd produc- 
ing the milk. 

Table VI. shows analyses of milk and cream where prose- 
cutions followed. 

Table VII. shows number of cows assessed in Massachu- 
setts at different periods. 

Table VIII. shows amount of milk brought into Boston 
by different railroads for the twelve months covered by this 
report, and totals for the two preceding years. 



16 



DAIRY BUREAU. 



[Jan. 



Table I. — Samples of Milk for Boston Market, as delivered at Car by 
Farmers, taken from C. Brigharn Company, at Barre Plains, Mass. 



Sample No. 


Number 
Cans. 


Number 
Cows. 


Solids 
not Fat. 

1 


Fat. 


Total 
Solids. 


Ash. 


Refrac- 
tion. 


1,1 .. . 
2, . . . 


7 


8 


8.92 


2.80 


11.72 


.66 


43.3 


12 


12 


8.80 


3.20 


12.00 


.62 


43.8 


3, . . . 


33 


30 


8.. 56 


3.00 


11.56 


.68 


42.5 


4, . . . 


21 


15 


8.78 


3.30 


12.08 


.66 


43.5 


5, . . . 


16 


- 


8.38 


3.10 


11.48 


.58 


42,1 


6, . . . 


29 


20 


8.70 


3.30 


12.00 


.54 


42.9 


7, . . . 


13 


14 


8.48 


3.70 


12.18 


.54 


42.8 


8, . . . 


14 


11 


8.70 


3.10 


11.80 


.56 


42.0 


9, . . . 


19 


19 


8.66 


3.80 


12.46 


.56 


43.2 


10, . . . 


11 


10 


8.10 


3.20 


11.30 


.56 


43.3 


11, . . . 


7 


5 


9.14 


3.40 


12.54 


.54 


44.2 


12, . . . 


17 


16 


8.56 


3.30 


11.86 


.60 


42.3 


13, . . . 


6i 


10 


9.42 


3.90 


13.32 


.66 


44.9 


14, . . . 


10 




8.78 


4.30 


13.08 


.70 


43.0 


15, . . . 


12 


1(1 


8.94 


4.00 


12.94 


.62 


43.6 


16, . . . 


16 


- 


8.56 


3.30 


11.86 


.70 


42.3 


17, . . . 


6 


- 


8.76 


3.40 


12.16 


.56 


43.2 


18, . . . 


24 


20 


8.76 


4.00 


12.76 


.60 


43.7 


19,1 


16 


11 


9.28 


2.80 


12.08 


.60 


44.0 


20, . . . 


18 


16 


8.48 


3.40 


11.88 


.62 


42.2 


21, . . . 


18 


14 


8.66 


3.50 


12.16 


.60 


43.2 


22, . . . 


14 


14 


8.76 


3.30 


12.06 


.56 


43.9 


23, . . . 


6 


_ 


8.60 


4.00 


12.60 


.60 


43.2 


24, . . . 


21 


_ 


8.90 


3.40 


12.30 


.56 


43.4 


25, 


4 


_ 


8.26 


3.90 


12.16 


.50 


42.1 


26, . . . 


4 


4 


8.90 


3.00 


11.90 


.64 


42.4 


27, . . . 


5 




8.80 


4.20 


13.00 


.60 


43.5 


28, . . . 


6 




8.74 


3.90 


12.64 


.64 


43.3 


29, . . . 


7 


- 


9.00 


3.90 


12.90 


.56 


42.7 


30, . . . 


9 




8.80 


4 .00 


12.80 


.70 


43 .8 


31, . . . 


8 


9 


9.16 


3.70 


12.86 


.62 


43.6 


32, . . . 


7 


4 


8.10 


4.30 


12.40 


.58 


42.2 


33, 


9 


13 


8.44 


3.60 


12.04 


.58 


42.2 


34, . . . 


20 


20 


8.88 


3.40 


12.28 


.56 


43.2 


35, 


18 


16 


8.00 


3.90 


11.90 


.56 


43.0 


36, . . . 


10 


8 


8.40 


3.10 


11.50 


.54 


42.2 


37,2 . 


15 


15 












38, . . 


11 


10 


9.54 


3.70 


13.24 


.62 


44.9 


39, . . . 


9 


8 


9.18 


3.20 


12.38 


.62 


43.7 


40, . . . 


7 




8.98 


3.70 


12.68 


.54 


43.4 


41. . . . 


7 




8.86 


4.10 


12.96 


.64 


43.2 


42, . . . 


11 


10 


8.84 


4.10 


12.94 


.68 


43.6 


43, . . . 


10 




9.00 


3.80 


12.80 


.60 


42.5 


44, . . . 


14 


15 


8.50 


3.70 


12.20 


.58 


43.2 


Average analysis 






8.73 


3.61 


12.34 


.60 


43.1 


of 41 samples, 

















1 Manifestly not normal milk, therefore not figured in the averages. * Sample lost. 



Note. — This milk was afterward mixed and recanned before ship- 
ping to Boston, making a milk of good standard quality. It will be 
observed, however, that in point of solids not fat the normal milk 
varied from 8 to 9.54 per cent; in fat the variation was from 3 to 
4.3 per cent; and in total sohds from 11.48 to 13.32 per cent. It 
will be noticed also that 13 of the 41 samples of normal milk were 
below the legal standard in fat, and 15 were below the legal standard 
in total solids. 



1909.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT— No. 60. 



17 



Table II. — Analysis of Samples of Milk taken from Cans of a Farmer, 
as delivered to the Springfield Co-operative Milk Association. 



Samplk No. 


oouus noi rdC. 


Fats. 


Total Solids. 


Refraction. 


4, . 




8.97 


4 


8 


13 


77 


- 


5, . 




9.19 


4 





13 


19 


- 


6, . 




8.82 


3 


4 


12 


22 


- 


7, . 




9.12 


4 


5 


13 


62 


- 


8, . 




8.68 


3 


8 


12 


48 • 


- 


9, . 




8.45 


3 


6 


12 


05 


- 


10, . 




8.51 


3 


2 


11 


71 


42.5 


11, . 




8.40 


3 


4 


11 


80 


41.7 


12, . 




8.21 


3 


4 


11 


61 


41.4 






O . oD 


3 


8 


12 


66 




14, . 




8.42 


3 


2 


11 


62 


42.0 


15, . 




8.59 


3 


9 


12 


49 




16, . 




8.29 


3 


2 


11 


49 


41.4 


17, . 




8.06 


3 


5 


11 


56 


41.0 



Note. — There being nothing about the chemical analysis of this 
milk or the refraction of light in the milk serum to indicate added 
water, further investigation was made and samples of known purity 
were taken, as shown in Table III. 



18 



DAIRY BUREAU. 



[Jan. 



Table III. — Analysis of Milk of Known Purity taken from Individual 
Animals, and the Mixed Milk of the Herd producing the Milk re- 
ferred to in Table II. 



Cow 
No. 


Breed a-nd Aniount, 


Solids 
not Fat. 


Fats. 


Total 
Solids. 


Ash 


Refrac- 
tion. 


1 


, 4 quarts, 


8.47 


3 


3 


11 .77 


.71 


41 .9 


2 


Registered Holstein, 4^ quarts, 


8.33 


3 


6 


11 .93 


.68 


41.2 


3 


High-grade Holstein, 8 quarts, 


8.16 


3 


6 


11 .76 


.65 


42.6 


4 


High-grade Holstein, 7 quarts. 


8.22 


3 


1 


11 .32 


.64 


42.2 


5 


Ayreshire, 6 quarts. 


8.78 


3 


4 


12. 18 


.71 


42.5 


6 


Shorthorn, 5 quarts, 


8.72 


3 


7 


12.42 


.68 


42.5 


7 


Ayreshire and Holstein, 4 
quarts. 


8.38 


3 


8 


12.18 


.65 


42.5 


8 


High-grade Holstein, 4 quarts, 


8.61 


3 


2 


11.81 


.67 


42.0 


9 


Holstein and Hereford, 4 


8.45 


3 


6 


12.05 


.66 


42.3 




quarts. 














10 


, 4 quarts, 


9.29 


4 


2 


13.49 


.71 


43.7 


11 


Pure-bred Holstein, 1 pint. 


11.74 


6 


6 


18.34 


1.02 


49.9 


12 


, 3 quarts. 


9.22 


4 


1 


13.32 


.69 


43.5 


13 


Sample lost, .... 
















Mixed milk of thirteen cows, 


8.57 


3 


5 


12.07 


.69 


42.6 



Note. — The owner of this herd was advised to buy a mixing can 
(which he did), and then, if the milk did not come up to standard, 
to either dispose of one or more cows giving milk of low quality and 
replace with cows giving milk richer in solids, or to use the fore milk 
of the poorer cows for some other purpose. The milk from this herd 
has since been satisfactory. 



1909.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT— No. 60. 19 



Table IV. — Analysis of Milk taken from a Massachusetts Producer, 
September, 1908. 



Agent's No. 


Pro- 
durcr's 
Mark. 


Chemist's 
No. 


Solids 
not Fat. 


Fat. 


Total 
Solids. 


Refrac- 
tion. 


Condition. 


34, . . . 


9 


9,938 




A n 
4 .U 


1 74 


A\ 


U.lv. 


35, . . • 


9 




C 71 


A n 


19 71 


A\ C 


U.lv. 


36, . . ■ 


y 




C 7Q 

o . <y 


A n 


19 7Q 

IZ . < y 


41 C 
41 .0 


U.K. 


37, . . . 


9 


9,941 


8.76 


4.0 


12.76 


42.3 


O.K. 


38, . . . 


9 


9,942 


8.76 


4.0 


12.76 


42.1 


O.K. 


39, . . . 


9 + 


9,943 


6.16 


3.0 


9.16 


33.7 


Watered. 


45, . . . 


9 + 


9,944 


8.65 


5.2 


13.85 


43.1 


O.K. 


46, . . . 


9+ 


9,945 


8.96 


5.1 


14.06 


43.2 


O.K. 


47, . . . 


9+ 


9,946 


5.48 


3.4 


8.88 


31.7 


Watered. 


48, . . . 


9+ 


9,947 


8.78 


5.5 


14.28 


43.1 


O.K. 


49, . . . 


9+ 


9,948 


8.83 


5.0 


13.83 


43.2 


O.K. 





Note. — The samples were taken in the evening, those marked 9 
being the freshly drawn and mixed night's milk. The fat in these 
samples showed absolutely no variation and . 08 of 1 per cent was the 
widest variation shown in solids not fat, and ^ of 1 degree was the 
widest variation in the refraction of light, all of which shows how care- 
fully the samples were taken and analyzed. The cans marked 9 + 
were said by the defendant to contain mixed morning's milk which 
had stood all day, and of course it was more difficult to so thoroughly 
mix in taking samples ; nevertheless, the widest variation in total solids 
was . 45 of 1 per cent. The refraction of light in the milk serum rarely 
if ever goes below 40 in samples of mixed milk. The analysis of the 
two samples of watered milk indicates, notwithstanding the mark 
of 9 + on the stopper, that milk sample 39 was, in a large measure at 
least, night's milk. The story told by this table is that cans 39 and 
47 originally contained only about five quarts of milk each, and sub- 
sequently had been filled with water. 



20 



DAIRY BUREAU. 



[Jan. 



Table V. — Analysis of Samples of Milk taken from Cans as delivered 
by a Farmer to a Milk Peddler, in a Western Massachusetts City. 



Sample No. 


Mark on 
Can. 


Solids 
not Fat. 


Fat 


Trvfol Qr»lirlc 

1 otai ooxias. 


Refraction. 


1, • 




X 


8.11 


3.6 


11.71 


38.65 


2, . 




X 


8.13 


3.6 


11.73 


38.60 


3, . 




X 


8.09 


3.6 


11.69 


38.30 


4, . 




I 


8.06 


3.8 


11.86 


38.50 


5, . 




I 


7.88 


3.8 


11.68 


38.05 


6, . 




I 


8.26 


3.9 


12.16 


39.05 



Analysis of Samples of Known Purity from the Above Owner's Herd. 



Sample No. 


Cows. 


Amount 
(Quarts). 


Solids 
not Fat. 


Fat. 


Total Solids. 


Refraction. 


1, 


4 and 5 


5 


8.58 


3.8 


12.38 


42.0 


2, 


8 


4 


8.72 


4.7 


13.42 


41.3 


3, 


3 


6 


9.10 


4.0 


13.10 


41.9 


4, 


9 


4 


9.04 


4.1 


13.14 


42.3 


5, 


6 and 7 


7 


8.89 


6.7 


15.59 


42.5 


6, 


2 


4 


8.68 


5.2 


13.88 


41.8 



Note. — The above-mentioned farmer was summoned into court 
and pleaded guilty to having in his possession, with intent to sell, milk 
to which water had been added, and was fined $50, which he paid. 



1909.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT— No. 60. 21 



Table VI. — Milk Analyses upon which were based the Prosecutions of 

1908. 



Case No. 


Solids 
not Fat. 


Fat. 


Total 
Solids. 


Refrac- 
tion. 


Remarks. 


1 


8.24 


3 2 


11 .44 


39.0 


Sliow6(i sodded Wtitcr. 


2 


7.36 


3.6 


10.96 


37 2 


SliowBd. &cld.Gcl ws-tGr. 


3 


7.41 


3.6 


11 .01 


37.9 


SliowGcl sddGd. WcitGr. 


4 


8.64 


2.8 


11 .44 


42 .4 


Showed skimming. 


5 


6.99 


3 6 


10.59 


37 .4 


Showed fl-dded w3/ter. 


6 


9.64 


.03 


9 67 




Skimmed milk sold from uii" 












marked can. 


7. 


5.79 


2.5 


8.29 


33.2 


Showed added water. 


8,1 




7.2 






Showed cream below standard. 


9, 


6.66 


3.8 


10.46 


34.0 


Showed added water. 


10, 


7.60 


3.10 


10.70 


33.0 


Showed added water. 


11, 


6.92 


3.8 


10.72 


35.6 


Showed added water. 


12, 


6.56 


3.1 


9.66 


35.8 


Showed added water. 


13, 


5.48 


3.4 


8.88 


31.7 


Showed added water. 


14, 


7.88 


3.8 


11.68 


38.05 


Showed added water. 





Cream. 



Table VII. — Number of Cows assessed in Massachusetts, by Five- 
year Periods, 1865-1905 ; — Annually, 1905-08. 



May 1, 


1865, 


. 145,801 


May 1, 


1870, 


. 161,185 


May 1, 


1875, 


. 149,765 


May 1, 


1880, 


. 174,859 


May 1, 


1885, . . . , . 


. 167,817 


May 1, 


1890, 


. 200,658 


May 1, 


1895, 


. • . . 175,016 


May 1, 


1900, 


. 180,245 


May 1, 


1905, 


. 181,920 


May 1, 


1906, 


. 181,816 


May 1, 


1907, 


. 179,075 


May 1, 


1908, 


. 171,458 



22 



DAIRY BUREAU. 



[Jan. 



Table VIII. — Milk brought into Boston by Different Railroads, De- 
cember, 1907, to December, 1908, as reported by the Railroad Com- 
missioners. 



Date. 


Boston & 
Albany 
(.Quarts). 


Boston & 

Maine 
(Quarts). 


New York, 
New Haven & 
Hartford 
(Quarts). 


Total (Quarts). 


1907. 

December, .... 


1,174,929 


5,171,399 


1,817.197 


8,163,525 


1908. 

January, .... 


1,241,221 


5,293,584 


1,934,791 


8,469,596 


February, .... 


1,178,499 


4,925,676 


1,822,678 


7,926,853 


March, .... 


1,147,551 


5,695,014 


2,013,002 


8,855,567 


April, .... 


1,328,558 


5,254,103 


1,987,127 


8,569,788 


May, ..... 


1,524,713 


5,536,85U 


2,029,476 


9,091,0401 


June, .... 


1,541,900 


5,857,026 


1,985,393 


9,384,319 


July, ..... 


1,349,026 


5,964,741 


1,858,796 


9,172,563 


August, .... 


1,299,259 


5,785,903 


1,817,954 


8,903,116 


September, 


1,317,270 


5,493,163 


1,806,924 


8,617,357 


October, .... 


1,318,707 


5,347,172 


1,984,437 


8,650,316 


November, 


1,169,345 


5,017,521 


1,840,372 


8,027,238 


Total, .... 


15,590,978 


65,342,153i 


22,898,147 


103,831,278i 



Total for corresponding twelve months, 1905-06, 114,233,976 quarts. 
Total for corresponding twelve months, 1906-07, 109,882,190^ 
quarts. 

Creameries, Milk Depots, etc. 
Appended we give a revised list of the principal cream- 
eries, milk depots, etc., owned and operated by Massachu- 
setts individuals and corporations. There are in this State, 
in addition to these, a number of distributing plants for 
creameries owned and operated in other States. For in- 
stance, the Maine Creamery Company of Bangor, Me., has 
offices at 12 Foster Wharf, Boston. The Turner Centre 
Creamery of Auburn, Me., has distributing houses in Bos- 
ton, Worcester, Taunton and Lowell, and ships to these 
points butter, cream, and to one at least skimmed niilk.^ 
The New England Creamery of Livermore Falls, Me., dis- 
tributes through a Massachusetts company of the same name 



1 Pasteurized skimmed milk and cream are put together in the proper proportions 
required for standard milk, in the Boston plant, and the milk thus made is placed 
upon the market. 



1909.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 60. 



23 



in Everett, which also distributes the Hampden Cream- 
ery goods. The Lyndonville Creamery of Lyndonville, 
Yt., has a plant at Watertown, from which it distributes 
milk, cream and butter. J. L. Humphrey, Jr., has four 
plants, one each in New Bedford, Fall River, Taunton and 
Brockton, for the distribution of butter and renovated but- 
ter from his Iowa creameries. The Armours, Swifts, Ham- 
monds, Morrises and other large packing houses, all repre- 
senting western-made goods, distribute quantities of butter 
and renovated butter from their numerous establishments 
scattered over the State. Some of these also put out oleo- 
margarine. Besides these, there is a considerable number 
of creamery companies and so-called creameries which buy 
their stock of producers in this and other States. These in 
the aggregate do a large business. Other private dairies or 
creameries also have town offices, restaurants, etc. The above 
is difficult of strict classification. 

A number of dairies, including that of the Massachusetts 
Agricultural College, are producing milk and cream under 
conditions and of a quality which command a price higher 
than that ruling the general market, and several are selling 
certified milk. 

Co-operative Creameries. 



Location. 


Name. 


Superintendent or Manager. 


1. Ashfield, . 




Ashfield Creamery, 


William Hunter, manager. 


2. Belchertown, 




Belchertown Creamery, 


M. G. Ward, president. 


3. Cheshire (P. 

Adams) . 

4. Cummington, . 


0. 


Greylock Creamery, . 


C. J. Fales, president. 




Cummington Creamery, 


M. S. Howes, president. 


5. Easthampton, . 




Hampton Creamery, . 


W. H. Wright, treasurer 


6. Egremont (P. O. 

Great Barrington). 

7. Lee, 


Egremont Creamery, 
Lenox Creamery, 


C. A. Tyrrell, manager. 
P. A. Agnew, manager. 


8. Monterey, 




Berkshire Hills Creamery, . 


Henry Clapp, treasurer. 


9. New Boston, 




Berkshire Creamery, . 


F. M. Rugg, president. 


10. New Salem (P. 

Millington). 
n. Northfield, 


0. 


New Salem Creamery, 
Northfield Creamery, 


W. A. Moore, president. 

L. R. Smith, superintendent. 


12. Shelburne, 




Shelburne Creamery, 


Ira Barnard, manager. 


13. Westfield (P. 

Wyben). 

14. West Newbury, 


0. 


Wyben Springs Creamery, 
West Newbury Creamery, . 


C. H. Wolcott, manager. 
R. S. Brown, treasurer. 


15. Williamsburg, . 




Williamsburg Creamery, 


E. T. Barrus, president. 


16. Worthington (P. 
Ringville). 


0. 


Worthington Creamery, 


M. R. Bates, superintendent. 



24 


DAIRY BUREAU. [Jan. 

Proprietary Creameries. 


Location. 


Name. 


Owner or Manager. 




Amherst Creamery, . 


F. J. Humphrey, agent. 


2* ^mhcrst<f ■ > * 


Fort River Creamery, 


E. A. King. 


O. J_>W J/ lO l/Lf 11, . . . 


Adelpha Creamery, 


E. M. Laws. 


4. Bridgewater, 


Plymouth County Cream- 
ery, i 

Crystal Brook Creamery, 


S. Neilson Houlburg. 


5. Brimfield, 


F. N. Lawrence. 


6. Everett, . 

7. Framingham (P. O. 

South Framing" 
ham). 

8 TTitoViKiiT-o- Oft PiicVi- 

ing Street. 
9. Gardner, , 


Hampden Creamery Com- 
pany. 

Echo Farm Company, i 

Fitchburg Creamery, 
Boston Dairy Company, 


Hampden Creamery Com- 
pany. 
J. A. Turner. 

G. S. Learned. 

Boston Dairy Company. 


1\J. VjrIUl/UIl, 


Lawrence Creamery, . 


Myron P. Swallow. 




Cold ^prin^ Crc3/incry, 




19 TTincsrlQlQ 

x^. JTLinsQaie, 


Hinsdale Creamery, . 


Ashley B. Clark, treasurer. 


13. Leominster, 


Leominster Creamery, 


G. H. Wass, manager. 


14, Marlborough, 


Este's Creamery, 


F. F. Este. 


15. North Brookfield, 


North Brookfield Creamery, 


H. A. Richardson. 


16. Shelburne Falls, 


Shelburne Falls Creamery, . 


T. M. Totman. 


17. Uxbridge, 


Farnum Creamery, 


Geo. A. Farnum. 




1 Cream only. 






Educational. 




Amherst, 


Dairy Industry Course, 
Massachusetts Agricul- 
tural College. 


W. P. B. Lockwood, professor 
in charge. 



Milk-distributin g Depots. 



Name. 


Location. 


Manager. 


Alden Bros., . 

Boston Dairy Company, . 


Boston, office 1171 Tremont Street, 

depot 28 Duncan Street. 
Boston, 484 Rutherford Avenue, . 


Charles L. Alden. 
W. A. Grostein. 


Elm Farm Milk Company, 


Boston, Wales Place, 


James H. Knapp- 


H. P. Hood & Sons, 


Boston, 494 Rutherford Avenue, 24 

Anson Street, Forest Hills. 
Lynn, 193 Alley Street. 

Maiden, 425 Main Street. 

Salem, 252 Bridge Street. 

AVatertown, 289 Pleasant Street. 


Charles H. Hood. 


D. Whiting & Sons, 


Boston, 570 Rutherford Avenue, . 


George Whiting. 



1909.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 60. 25 



Milk-distributing Depots — Concluded. 



Name. 


Location. 


Manager. 


C. Brigham Company, 

Deerfoot Farm, 

Springfield Co-Operative 

Milk Association. 
Tait Bros., 

Wachusett Creamery, 


Cambridge, 158 Massachusetts 
Avenue. 

Southborough, .... 
Springfield, ..... 
Springfield, ..... 
Worcester, ..... 


John K. Whiting. 

S. H. Howes. 

F. B. Allen. 

Tait Bros. 

E. H. Thayer & Co. 


Milk Laboratories. 


Walker-Gordon Labora- 
tory. 

H. P. Hood & Sons, Dairy 
Laboratory. 


Boston, 1111 Boylston Street, 
Boston, 70 Huntington Avenue. 


George Franklin. 
W. M. Brown. 


Milk-receiving Depots. 


F. D. Shove Milk Factory, 

Willow Brook Dairy Com- 
pany. 


West Stockbridge (milk shipped to 

New York). 
Sheffield (milk shipped to New York), 


C. E. Hardy. 
George Patterson. 



Expenses. 

The following is a classified, statement of the expenses 
for the year ending Nov. 30, 1908 : — 

Bureau : compensation and travelHng expenses, . . $377 63 

Agents: compensation, ..... 2,192 50 

Agents: travelling expenses and samples purchased, . 2,625 94 

General agent: travelling and necessary expenses, . . 523 35 

Chemists: analyses, tests, court attendance, . . . 1,796 20 

Printing and supplies, ....... 248 38 

Educational, 236 00 

Total, $8,000 00 

P. M. HAEWOOD, 

General Agent. 

Accepted and adopted as the report of the Dairy Bureau. 

CARLTON D. RICHARDSON. 
HENRY E. PAIGE. 
W. C. JEWETT. 



31 \hn^ 



Public Document 



No. 60 



NINETEENTH ANNUAL REPORT 

OF THE 

DAIRY BUREAU 

OF THE 

Massachusetts Boaed of Ageictjlture, 

REQUIKED UNDER 

Chapter 89, Section 12, Revised Laws. 



January 15, 1910. 




BOSTON: 

WEIGHT & POTTER PRINTING CO., STATE PRINTERS, 
18 Post Office Square. 
1910. 



Public Document 



No. 60 



NINETEENTH ANNUAL REPORT 

or THE 

" DAIRY BUREAU 

OF THE 

Massachusetts Boaed of Ageicultuee, 

REQUIRED UNDER 

Chapter 89, Section 12, Revised Laws. 



January 15, 1910. 




BOSTON: 

WEIGHT & POTTER PRINTING CO., STATE PRINTERS, 
18 Post Office Square. 
1910. 



Approved by 
The State Board of Publication. 



3 



Dairy Bureau— 1909. 



CARLTON D. RICHARDSON, West Brookfield, Chairman. 
HENRY E. PAIGE, Amherst. 
WARREN C. JEWETT, Worcester. 



Secretary. 

J. LEWIS ELLSWORTH, Ejcecutive Officer and Secretary of the 
State Board of Agriculture. 



General Agent. 
P. M. HARWOOD. 
Address, Room 136, State House, Boston. 



REPORT. 



In making this nineteenth annual report it may not be out 
of place to summarize somewhat the work of the Bureau since 
its establishment in 1891. Since 1892, when the first real 
work was done, 57,939 inspections have been made, an aver- 
age of 3,218 annually, the average for the last two years be- 
ing 6,981; 2,488 prosecutions have been made, averaging 132 
per year; 2,320 convictions have been secured, an average of 
128 per year. During the past seven years but 17 cases have 
been lost, or 2.4 per cent of the entire number prosecuted 
during that period, and only 20 defendants have been found 
violating any of the dairy laws a second time. A large ma- 
jority of these prosecutions have been for violation of the 
oleomargarine laws. Meanwhile, the wholesale butter trade 
in Boston, according to Chamber of Commerce reports, has 
increased since 1900 at the rate of 1,850,154 pounds per 
year. There have been 545 meetings addressed upon dairy 
subjects, 280 of which have been since 1903. During these 
years there have been many demonstrations of the use of 
the Babcock milk tester, and on the points of the dairy 
cow ; dairy tests have been conducted at fairs ; inspections of 
creameries have been made; considerable dairy literature 
has been published, including during the past year an article 
on milk, its value as a food and its care in the home, pre- 
pared for translation into the Jewish and Italian languages, to 
be used among these people in Boston ; also rules for the care 
of milk in the home, for posting. In all this work the wel- 
fare of the farmer and honest tradesman, as well as that of 
the consumer, has been constantly borne in mind. 



6 



DAIRY BUREAU. 



[Jan. 



During the year just closed there have been more total 
violations of the oleomargarine laws than for some years pre- 
vious, but they have manifested themselves in different ways. 
The total number of all violations of laws prosecuted by the 
Dairy Bureau in 1909 was 206, all of which resulted in con- 
victions. Of these, 5 were for watering milk, 33 for selling 
renovated butter in unmarked wrappers and 168 for viola- 
tions of the oleomargarine laws, 121 of the latter being for 
violation of the oleomargarine restaurant law. This shows 
an attempt to increase consumption of the goods by taking 
chances in serving to guests in restaurants, boarding houses 
and hotels, without proper notice. The law distinctly states 
that notice shall be given to the guest that the substance so 
furnished is not butter. In some cases no attempt is made 
to give notice, and in others an attempt is made not to give 
notice by putting up a sign where no guest can see it, or by 
putting up a sign printed in such a way or upon such back- 
ground that nobody sitting a short distance away can read it. 
Legally and morally such persons are just as guilty as those 
who make no attempt to give notice. E"either ignorance of 
the law nor such attempts at evasion are any defense. 

It is true now, as it always has been, that oleomargarine 
should sail under its own colors, and be sold as and for what 
it is, entirely upon its own merits. The difference between 
the value and cost of oleomargarine and butter, and the close 
resemblance the former bears to the latter, make a tempta- 
tion to sell and serve oleomargarine for butter so great that 
many yield to it. Last year we warned against the practice 
of watering milk. It seems that a warning against the 
practice of serving oleomargarine for butter in hotels, board- 
ing houses and restaurants, without bona fide notice to 
guests, is now necessary. 

In the educational work of the year we have especially 
urged that farmers weigh the milk of each cow, keep accu- 
rate accounts, raise more grain, buy less, study feeding 
rations, adopt practical, inexpensive methods of keeping 
cows clean, use covered milk pails with small openings in the 
top, and strain milk through sterilized cotton ; that they 
thoroughly mix the milk of the herd before canning or 



1910.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 60. 



7 



bottling, both for their own protection and for that of the 
consumer. We have also used our influence towards restora- 
tion of confidence in whole raw natural milk ; have repeatedly 
pointed out its superiority as a food over prepared milks, 
and over many other foods ; and have made suggestions as 
to its care and handling in the hands of the consumer. 

We believe that the true condition of the Massachusetts 
dairyman is not fully appreciated, and that his greatest 
trouble is that he does not receive enough for his product. 
When we consider that on May 1, 1890, there were 200,658 
cows assessed in Massachusetts, w^hile on May 1, 1909, 
there were but 168,221, a decline of 32,437 in total, or 
1,707 cows per year, and that there were more than 6,000,- 
000 quarts less milk shipped into Boston in 1909 than was 
the case in 1906, we must conclude that there is something 
wrong with conditions, and we are of the opinion that a 
commission should be appointed to investigate and report 
upon the commercial milk situation. No one looking for 
truth can reasonably object to such investigation, honestly 
and impartially made by a competent and reliable Board. 
We believe this would do much to clear the atmosphere and 
restore confidence. 

We recommend that a law be passed requiring that all 
milk not the straight, unmanipulated product of the cow 
be marked and sold for what it is. 

We also recommend that a law be enacted making it 
unlawful to mix, for purposes of sale, any two or more of 
the following substances : raw whole milk, heated or pas- 
teurized whole milk, skimmed milk, condensed milk, con- 
centrated or evaporated milk, and water, — and making 
it unlawful for any person or corporation engaged in the sale 
of milk or cream, other than condensed, concentrated or 
other evaporated milk, to keep in his place of business 
condensed, concentrated or evaporated milk, except in an 
unopened can or receptacle ; excepting, however, the prepara- 
tion and sale of modified milk," when sold as such, to be 
used for food for infants or invalids. 

We also recommend that a law be enacted requiring that 
a label, bearing a formula for extending with water, for 



8 



DAIRY BUREAU. 



[Jan. 



home use, be securely attached to each container of evapo- 
rated, concentrated or condensed milk sold or offered for sale 
in this Commonwealth, and that the formula thus attached 
be such that the milk product resulting be not below the 
Massachusetts standard for whole milk. Such a law should 
carry with it a suitable penalty in case the milk thus extended 
fails in any instance to conform to present legal require- 
ments for whole milk. 

So long as a milk standard is maintained in this State it 
is manifestly unfair that these prepared milks from other 
States should come into our markets without either stand- 
ard or guarantee as regards their solid food content. 

Much has been done for the consumer in the last few 
years in the way of insuring to him a cleaner product. Is 
it not high time that he now join in doing something for 
the Massachusetts milk producer, in order that milk produc- 
tion be made reasonably remunerative, and that a fair share 
of the milk consumed continue to be produced in this State, 
under control of our own laws and regulations ? Then let 
consumers and producers join hands, for their interests are 
mutual. 

The personnel of the Bureau and its staff has remained 
practically unchanged ; C. D. Richardson, chairman, H. E. 
Paige and W. C. Jewett, members, J. Lewis Ellsworth, secre- 
tary, P. M. Harwood, general agent, A. W. Lombard, agent, 
B. F. Davenport, M.D., and H. C. Emerson, M.D., chemists, 
with five other persons employed from time to time during the 
year. 

The summary of the year's work is as f oIIoavs : — 



Total number of inspections ^ 6,872 

Number of inspections where no sample was taken, . . 5,081 
Number of samples of butter and oleomargarine, all pur- 
chased, 1,779 

Number of samples of milk and cream 90 

Cases entered in court, 206 

Meetings addressed by chairman of the Bureau, ... 2 

Meetings addressed by Mr. Jewett, 3 

Meetings addressed by the general agent, .... 18 



1 There were 78 extra samples taken during the year, therefore this numl)er is 78 less 
than the sum of the next tliree items. 



1910.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 60. 



9 



Cases prosecuted during the twelve months ending Nov. 
30, 1909, by months and courts, with law violated, and 
results, are as follows : — 



Court. 


Month. 


Num- 
ber. 


Law violated. 


Con- 
victed. 


Dis- 
charged. 


Shelburne Falls, 


December, 


1 


Milk, 


1 




Worcester, 


December, 


1 


Milk, . 


1 


- 


Newton, . 
Waltham , 


December, 
December, 


2 


7 oleomargarine, 2 

renovated butter. 
Oleomargarine, 


9 
2 


- 


New Bedford, . 


December, 


19 


Oleomargarine, 


19 




Franklin, 


January, 




Renovated butter, . 






Fall River, 
Uxbridge, 


January, 
January, 


3 
3 


2 oleomargarine, 1 

renovated butter. 
Renovated butter, . 


3 

3 


- 


Lowell, . 
North Adams, . 


February, . 
February, . 


2 
2 


1 oleomargarine, 1 
renovated butter. 
Oleomargarine, 


2 
2 




Pittslield, 


February, . 


1 


Oleomargarine, 






North bridge, . 


March, 


1 


Oleomargarme , 






Lawrence, 
Worcester, 
Marlborough, . 


March, 
March, 
March, 


7 
21 
1 


5 oleomargarine, 2 
renovated butter. 

9 oleomargarine, 12 
renovated butter. 

Oleomargarine, 


21 




Maiden, , 


March, 


1 


Renovated butter, . 






Salem, 


April, 


3 


Oleomargarine, 


3 




Gloucester, 


April, 


3 


Renovated butter, . 


3 




Lynn, 


April, 


7 


Oleomargarine, 


7 




Lynn, 


May, 


6 


Oleomargarine, 


6 




Springfield, 


May. 


3 


Oleomargarine, 


3 




Woburn, 


May, 


2 


Oleomargarine, 


2 




Fall River, 


May, 


12 


Oleomargarine, 


12 





10 



DAIRY BUREAU. 



[Jan. 



Court. 


Month. 


Num- 
ber. 


Law violated. 


Con- 
victed. 


Dis- 
charged. 


Newbury port, . 


May, 


1 


Oleomargarine, 


1 


- 


Maiden, . 


May, 


2 


Oleomargarine, 


2 


- 


Leominster, 


May, 


12 


Oleomargarine, 


12 


- 


Fitchburg, 


May, 


4 


Oleomargarine, 


4 


- 


Taunton, 


June, 


2 


Oleomargarine, 


2 


- 


Woburn, 


July, 


1 


Milk, . 


1 


- 


Newburyport, . 


July, 


8 


Oleomargarine, 


8 


- 


Worcester, 


July, 


14 


Oleomargarine, 


14 


- 


Quincy, . 


August, 


2 


Oleomargarine, 


2 


- 


Woburn, 


August, 


1 


Milk, . 


1 


- 


Nahant, . 


August, 


6 


Oleomargarine, 


6 


- 


Hull, 


August, 


2 


Oleomargarine, 


2 


- 


New Bedford, . 


September, 


8 


Oleomargarine, 


8 


- 


Springfield, 


September, 


1 


Milk, . 


1 


- 


Clinton, . 


October, 


2 


Renovated butter, . 


2 


- 


Woburn, 


November, 


2 


Oleomargarine, 


2 


- 


Chelsea, 


November, 


2 


Oleomargarine, 


2 




Fall River, 


November, 


11 


Oleomargarine, 


11 


- 


Lowell, . 
Ames bury. 


November, 
November, 


11 

2 


9 oleomargarine, 2 

renovated butter. 
Renovated butter, . 


1 1 

2 




Totals, . 




206 




206 





Note, — The Bureau is especially indebted to the milk inspectors 
of Boston, Lowell, Revere, Springfield, Taunton, Winchester and 
Worcester for assistance which has resulted in cases in court. We 
also record our indebtedness to all others who have aided us in any 
way. 



1910.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 60. 



11 



The charges in the several cases entered in court for the 



year ending Nov. 30, 1909, have been as follows : — 

Selling renovated butter in unmarked packages, 
Selling oleomargarine without sign on exposed contents, 
Seling oleomargarine when butter was asked for, 
Selling oleomargarine without being registered, . 
Selling oleomargarine without sign in store, 
Selling oleomargarine in unmarked packages, . 
Furnishing oleomargarine in restaurants, etc., Avithoat notice 
to guests, ........ 

Selling oleomargarine containing foreign coloration, . 
Selling milk containing added water, . . . 



33 
3 

29 
7 
2 
4 

121 



206 



The following is a list of inspections without samples and 
the number of samples taken in the years 1903-09, inclu- 
sive : — 



YEAR. 



Inspections 
without 
Samples. 



Samples 
taken. 



1903, 
1904, 
1905, 
1906, 
1907, 
1908, 
1909, 



Totals, 
Averages 



4,135 
4,456 
4,887 
4,985 
4,538 
5,516 
5,003 



33,520 
4,788 



1,395 
1,157 
971 
576 
1,374 
1,575 
1,869 



8,917 
1,273 



Oleomargarine. 
No licenses for the sale of colored oleomargarine were 
issued in this State, but two sales of such goods have been 
discovered by the Bureau during the year, and the parties 
promptly prosecuted. 



12 



DAIRY BUREAU. 



[Jan. 



The following figures show the oleomargarine output for 
the United States since 1902 : — 



Under Old Law. 

Pounds. 

1902, 126,316,472 

Under New Law. 

1904, 48,071,480 

1905, 49,880,982 

1906, 53,146,657 

1907, 68,988,850 

1908, 79,107,273 

1909, 90,621,844 



It will be seen by the foregoing figures that the first 
effect of the present national oleomargarine law, which 
really forces the sale of oleomargarine upon its own merits, 
was to greatly reduce the output. In 1904 it reached its 
lowest point; since then there has been a gradual increase 
in the output, averaging about 8,000,000 pounds per year. 

The number of United States oleomargarine retail 
licenses issued in this State is more than double that of one 
year ago, and this increase has occurred since Sept. 1, 1909. 

The number of wholesale licenses remain the same as last 



year. The figures are as follows : — 

Wholesale licenses in Boston, ....... 13 

Wholesale licenses in other cities 8 

Total, 21 

Retail licenses in Boston 46 

Retail licenses in other phices, 465 

Total, 511 



With over 500 different concerns selling oleomargarine 
m Massachusetts, a condition exists unlike anything in the 
past. 



1910.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 60. 



13 



Renovated Butter. 
The violations of tlie renovated butter law in this State 
have continued to decline, there having been but 33 such viola- 
tions during the year. The high price of butter has caused 
more of the goods to be used than was the case in 1908, but 
it has been sold more carefully. There is one licensed con- 
cern in this State manufacturing renovated butter. A ma- 
jority of the goods sold is in print form. 

Butter. 

The Chamber of Commerce figures show a decrease in 
consumption of butter for the first time since 1900, — the 
inevitable result of the high cost of living, including the 
high price of butter. Consumers are obliged to economize; 
therefore less butter is used, and to some extent at least this 
is being made up by the use of oleomargarine, exact figures 
for the local sale of which are unobtainable. The wholesale 
price of butter has ruled 2 cents per pound higher than in 
1908, and nearly 9 cents higher than in 1904. The creamery 
at Shelburne Falls has passed into the hands of H. P. Hood 
& Sons, and the Williamsburg and a few other creameries 
have gone out of business. 

The amount of consumption of butter for 1908 was 
66,869,455 pounds; that of 1909, 65,939,692 pounds,— 
a decrease of 929,763 pounds. In 1900 the consumption was 
but 49,288,306 pounds. Therefore the average increase of 
consumption has been 1,850,154 pounds per year for the 
last nine years, — a grand record. 

The following table shows the average quotation for the best 
fresh creamery butter, in a strictly wholesale way, in the 
Boston market for the last nine years, as compiled by the 
Boston Chamber of Commerce : — 



14 



DAIRY BUREAU. 



[Jan. 





1909. 


1908. 


1907. 


1906. 


1905. 


1904. 


1903. 


1902. 


1901. 


Month. 


Cents. 


Cents. 


Cents. 


Cents. 


Cents. 


Cents. 


Cents. 


Cents. 


Cents. 


Janu.3ry, . • 


QA Q 


9Q 7 


; QA A 


9f\ 9 


9« A 


99 7 


9>J A 


9p; A 


25.0 


February, . 


oU.U 


Oil' 1 


ol. / 


OK 9 


oi.o 


Z4.D 


9" A 


90 K 


25.0 


Maich, 


29.1 


30.2 


30.2 


25.5 


28.0 


24.1 


27 .0 


29.0 


23.0 


April, .... 


27.9 


28.4 


32.2 


22.2 


29.1 


91 K 


27.5 


5{9 A 


99 A 




'^6.6 


24.1 


31.4 


19.9 


23.9 


19.9 


22.5 


25.0 


1Q K 

ly.o 


June, .... 


26.4 


24.5 


94 Q 


OA 9 


20.7 


IS. 4 


99 7f; 




9A A 


^^■t\\7 

juiy, .... 


97 9 


9^1 f? 


''5 9 


21.0 


20.6 


ICQ 


9A 


99 


9A A 


A n en df 


28.2 


24.5 


26.0 


23.8 


21.6 


19.1 


20.0 


21.5 


21.0 


September, . 


31.3 


25.3 


29.2 


25.6 


21.2 


20.8 


22.0 


23.5 


22.0 


October, 


31.7 


27.5 


29.9 


26.9 


22.1 


21.5 


22.5 


24.5 


21.5 


November, . 


31.4 


29.5 


27.1 


27.6 


23.0 


24.1 


23.5 


27.0 


24.0 


December, . 


32.9 


31.0 


27.5 


30.7 


23.9 


25.7 


24.5 


28.5 


24.5 


Averages, 


29.5 


27.5 


28.48 


24.48 


24.47 


21.73 


26.23 


25.0 


22.3 



The Chamber of Commerce figures regarding the butter 



business in Boston for 1908 and 1909 are 


as follows 






1909. 


1908. 




Pounds. 


Pounds. 


Carried over, 


8,960,328 


6,854,760 


Receipts for January, 


3,918,459 


2,875,253 


Receipts for Februarj^ 


2,258,740 


2,529,472 


Receipts for March, 


2,762,898 


3,182,045 


Receipts for April, 


3,089,744 


3,570,013 


Receipts for May 


4,810,649 


6,123,261 


Receipts for June, 


11,309,791 


11,675,687 


Receipts for July, 


11,357,950 


11,534,423 


Receipts for August, 


8,648,239 


8,800,812 


Receipts for September, 


7,406,408 


8,990,275 


Receipts for October, 


5.140,375 


4,707,422 


Receipts for November, 


2,813,504 


2,268,606 


Receipts for December, 


2,257,397 


3,585,918 


Total supply, 


74,014,482 


76,697,947 


Exports for year, deduct, 


44,050 


868,164 


Net supply, 


73,970,432 


75,829,783 


Storage stock December 31. deduct 


8,030,740 


8,960,328 


Consumption for year 


65,939,692 


66,869,455 



1910.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT— No. 60. 



15 



Milk. 

We are glad to note some apparent increase in the con- 
sumption of raw whole milk in Boston. During the years 
1907 and 1908 there was a decided falling off. In carred 
milk alone this amounted to 10,402,6971/2 quarts ; but a 
turn has been made, and 4,351,657% quarts more were 
shipped in during 1909 than was the case in 1908, but it is 
still 6,151,040 quarts behind where it was three years ago, 
and this in the face of a constantly increasing population. 

We are also glad to note a slight increase in the price paid 
the farmers by the Boston contractors, brought about by ex- 
tending the winter price over eight months instead of six, 
as formerly. The average price now paid in the 9-cent zone 
IS still below 4 cents a quart. Milk production cannot be 
placed on a satisfactory footing in Massachusetts until at 
least 5 cents per quart is the average price paid the farmer 
throughout the year. A creditable move has been made by 
some of the contractors in offering an increased price for 
milk made under specially sanitary conditions. This is 
manifestly a help to those consumers who can afford to pay 
for such milk, as well as to the farmers, who care to take 
the necessary pains to produce it. 

The amount of certified milk sold in the State is very 
limited indeed, owing to its high cost to the consumer and to 
the extreme requirements in its production. 

It is reported that the sales of cream are falling off as 
the result of the high cost of living; this is natural, as 
cream is something of a luxury compared with whole milk. 
We regret that there are no figures available giving the 
exact amount of this decrease. 

Appended Tables. 
Tables I. and II. show instances where prosecutions might 
have been made under the milk standard law had not the 
samples of milk of known purity indicated that the origi- 
nal samples were of pure milk. Notified of this fact the 
owners of the herds withdrew their milk from market. 



16 



DAIRY BUREAU. 



[Jan. 



Table III. shows a case where the producer was liable to 
criminal prosecution under the milk standard law, but the 
health authorities forbade further sale of this milk on ac- 
count of the poor condition of the cows. 

Tables IV., V. and YI. show analyses where parties were 
prosecuted under the milk adulteration law, without resort 
to the milk-of -known-purity method for comparison. 

Tables YII. and YIII. show cases where the samples 
of milk of known purity for comparison helped in prosecu- 
tions and convictions under the milk adulteration law. 

Table IX. shows analyses upon which prosecutions of 
1909 were based. 

Table X. shows the number of cows assessed in Massa- 
chusetts in 1890, 1906 and 1909, with decrease and aver- 
ages. 

Table XL shows the amount of milk brought into Boston 
by railroad in the fiscal years of 1906, 1907, 1908 and 1909. 



Table I. — Analysis of Milk taken from Possession of a Farmer in 
Worcester County, ready for Delivery to a Worcester Peddler. 



Sample No. 


Mark on 
Can. 


Fat. 


Solids 
not Fat. 


Total Solids. 


Refraction. 


1, 




K' 


3.20 


8.50 


11.70 




2, 




Ki 


3.30 


8.52 


11.82 


40.7 


3, 




Ki 


2.90 


7.78 


10.68 


38.8 


4, 




K 


2,80 


7.70 


10.50 


39.2 


5, 




K 


3.50 


S.78 


12.28 




6, 




K 


2.90 


8.24 


11.14 


40.6 


7, 




K 


8.30 


8.38 


11.68 




8, 




Ki 


3.00 


8.70 


11.70 


41.4 





1 Night's milk. 



Note. — This milk being manifestly pure milk, samples of known 
purity were subsequently taken from the herd. 



1910.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 60. 



17 



Analysis of Samples of Night's Milk of Known Purity taken from 
the Herd producing the Milk, Analysis of which is given in 
Above Table. 



Breed. 



Fat. 



Other Milk 
Solids. 



Total Solids. 



Holsteiu, 
Holstein, 
Holstein, 
Holstein, 
Holstein, 
Holstein, 
Holstein, 
Holstein, 



3.00 
3.40 
2.70 
3.20 
3.10 
3.50 
2.60 
3.40 



7.24 
7.70 
7.58 
8.40 
8.20 
8.20 
8.06 
8.42 



10.24 
11.10 
10.28 
11.60 
11.30 
11.70 
10.66 
11.82 



This producer withdrew his milk from the market. 



Table II. — Analyses of Samples of Milk taken in Revere, April 
26, from Five Cans of Milk ready for Delivery to Lynn Peddler. 



Sample No. 


Fat. 


Solids not 
Fat. 


Total Milk 
Solids. 


Refraction. 


1, • 




4.0 


7.96 


11.96 


40.5 


2 




3.0 


7.44 


10.44 


39.1 


3, . 




3.6 


8.56 


12.16 


42.2 


4, . 




3.2 


8.58 


11.78 


42.6 


5, . 




3.3 


8.64 


11.94 


42.6 



Analyses of Samples of Nighfs Milk of Known Purity taken from 
Herd producing Above-mentioned Milk. 



Cow 
No. 


Breed. 


Estimated 
Amount Milk 
(Quarts). 


Fat. 


Solids 
not Fat. 


Total Milk 
Solids. 


Refrac- 
tion. 


1 


Grade, Holstein, black 


3 


3.4 


8.48 


11.88 


42.2 




and white. 












2 


Grade, Holstein, black 


5 


3.0 


8.10 


11.10 


41.4 




and white. 












3 


Grade, Holstein, black 


4 


3.5 


7.94 


11.44 


40.5 




and white. 












4 


Grade, Holstein, black. 


5 


3.3 


8.20 


11.50 


41.6 


5 


Grade, Holstein, black 


5 


2.9 


7.74 


10.64 


40.4 




and white. 













Note. — Advice was given as to how to bring the milk of this 
herd up to standard, but the owner withdrew the milk from the 
market and sold the herd. 



18 



DAIRY BUREAU. 



[Jan. 



Table III. — Analysis of Milk taken from Possession of Producer 
in Marhlehead, ready for Delivery to a Salem Peddler, April, 
1909. 



Sample No. 


Fat. 


Solids not 
Fat. 


Total Milk 
Solids. 


Refraction. 


1, 

2 


4.55 
2.75 


8.41 
8.25 


12.96 
11.00 


39.5 
40.0 



Note. — Sample No. 1 was taken from a full 8-qnart can and 
Sample No. 2 from an 8-qnart can containing about 4 quarts of 
milk. It is evident that in the attempt to mix the milk the top 
of can No. 2 was turned into can No. 1, thus making- the contents 
of No. 1 above and of No. 2 below the average quality of the herd's 
milk. 



Analysis of Milk of Known Purity taken from Herd of Above- 
mentioned Producer, April, 1909 {Night's Milk). 



Cow 
No. 


Breed. 


Estimated 
Amount Milk 
(Quarts). 


Fat. 


Solids 
not Fat. 


Total Milk 
Solids. 


Refrac- 
tion. 


10 


Grade, Ayrshire, 


2 


3.20 


7.70 


10.90 


39.0 


11 


Grade, Ayrshire, 


1 


3.30 


8.84 


12.14 


42.3 


12 


Grade, Holstein, 


2 


3.30 


8.78 


11.08 


41.0 


13 


Grade, Ayrshire-Holstein, 


1 


3.40 


8.06 


11.46 


40.5 



Note. — The above-mentioned animals were in extremely poor con- 
dition, and the milk was thereafter excluded from the Salem market. 



Table IV. — Analyses of Two Samples of Milk taken in Colrain, 
November, 1908, as it was about to be sent to a Creamery. 





Sample No. 


Fat. 


Other 
Milk Solids. 


Total 
Milk Solids. 


Refraction. 


2, 


3.60 


6.80 
8.46 


9.60 
12.06 


34.5 
41.0 



Note. — There being no question but that Sample No. 1 con- 
tained added water, the defendant was summoned into court, pleaded 
guilty, and was fined $50, which he paid. 



1910.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 60. 



19 



Table V. — Analyses of Samples of Milk taken at a Dairy in East 
Longmeadow just before Delivery to a Springfield Peddler^ 
August, 1909. 



Sample No. 


Fat. 


Solids 
not Fat. 


Total 
Milk Solids. 


Refraction. 






2.70 


4.97 


7.67 


30.30 


2, 




1.30 


2.98 


4.28 


24.45 


3, . 




2.55 


4.87 


7.42 


29.80 



Note. — This milk was manifestly watered, and the party was 
summoned into court without further ado. The circumstances were 
out of the ordinary. The milk was being furnished to a hospital 
in Springfield, where the discovery was made that something was 
wrong. Investigation showed that the milk had been adulterated 
before it left the farm, by a boy who, having been scolded for allow- 
ing the cows to shrink in their milk flow, had watered the milk for 
the sole purpose of making good with his parents. He evidently 
little thought of the far-reaching consequences of his act. He knows 
better now. 



Table VI. — Analyses of Seven Samples of Milk taken in Wilming- 
ton just before being delivered to a Woburn Peddler. 





Sample No. 


Fat. 


Solids 
not Fat. 


Total Milk 
Solids. 


Refraction. 


3 


3.2 
3.6 
3.6 
2.5 
2.9 
3.4 


7.66 
7.50 
7.50 
7.22 
6.70 
7.12 
7.22 


10.86 
11.10 
11.10 
9.72 
9.60 
10.52 
10.92 


38.9 
37.9 
38.7 
38.4 
36.4 
37.4 
37.4 



Note. — The above shows that water was put into all the cans. 
The milk was not mixed before canning. The party when sum- 
moned into court pleaded nolo, was found guilty, and fined $50, 
which he paid. 



20 



DAIRY BUREAU. 



[Jan. 



Table VII. — Analyses of Two Samples of Night's Milk taken from 
the Possession of a Woburn Producer, on Aug. 3, 1909, as it 
was ready for Delivery to a Winchester Peddler. 



Sample No. 


Fat. 


Solids 
not Fat. 


Total Milk 
Solids. 


Refraction. 


1 

2, 


3.00 
3.10 


7.30 
7.60 


10.30 
10.70 


38.50 
38.00 



Analyses of Samples of Night's Milk of Known Purity taken from 
the Herd producing the Above-mentioned Milk. 



Cow 
No. 


Breed. 


Estimated 
Amount Milk 
(Quarts). 


Fat. 


Solids 
not Fat. 


Total 
Solids. 


Refrac- 
tion. 


1 


Brindle 




4.1 


9.7 


13.8 


41.2 


2 


Roan, .... 




3.4 


8.7 


12.1 


40.7 



Note. — The result of this investigation was to assure the prose- 
cuting officer of his ground, and a complaint was made against this 
farmer for having in his possession, with intent to sell, milk to 
which water had been added. He was tried, found guilty, and fined 
$50, which he paid. 



Table VIII. — Analysis of Milk obtained from a Worcester County 
Producer, ready for Delivery to a Worcester Peddler, Novem- 
ber, 1908. 



Sample No. 


Mark 
on can. 


Fat. 


Solids 
not Fat. 


Total 
Solids. 


Refraction. 


1, • 




7 1 


3.8 


7.72 


11.52 


38.3 


2, . 




7 1 


4.0 


7.80 


11.80 


38.9 


3, • 




7 1 


4.0 


8.26 


12.26 


39.6 


4, . 




No mark 


4.2 


7.96 


12.16 


38.6 


5, . 




No mark 


4.2 


7.98 


12.18 


38.9 



1 Night's milk. 



Note. — After taking the above samples, milk from this herd 
dropped from 5 cans per day to 4 cans. This milk was said by 
the owner to have been mixed, therefore the analysis indicates that 
varying" amounts of water were added to the milk in the different 
cans. He afterwards pleaded guilty to having in his possession 
milk to which water had been added, and paid a fine of $50. 



1910.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT— No. 60. 



21 



Analyses of Samples of Night's Milk of Known Purity from the 
Herd of the Same Producer. 



Cow No. 


Breed. 


Estimated 
Amount Milk 
(Quarts). 


Fat. 


bOllUS 

not Fat. 


iotal 
Solids, 


Refrac- 
tion. 


1 , 


Holstein and Jersey, 


2 


3 .80 


9.16 


12.96 




2, 


Holstein and Jersey, 


2 


4.50 


9.20 


13.70 




3, 


Grade Ayrshire, 


5 


3.40 


8.20 


11.60 


41.1 


4, 


Holstein, .... 


3 


4.20 


8.50 


12.70 


40.9 


5, 


Holstein and Jei'sey, 


2 


4.70 


8.40 


13.10 


40.7 


7, 


Holstein and Jersey, 


2 


4.40 


9.34 


13.74 




8, 


Holstein and Jersey, 


2 


6.20 


9.70 


15.90 




11, 


Holstein and Galway, 


2 


3.60 


8.54 


12.14 




Mixed milk, 






4.20 


8.80 


13.00 


41.2 





Table IX. — Milk Analyses upon which ivere based the Prosecu- 
tions of 1909. 



Case No. 


Fat. 


Other 
Milk Solids. 


Total 
Solids. 


Refrac- 
tion. 


Remarks. 


1, . . . 


2.80 


6.80 


9.60 


34.50 


Contained added water. 


2, . . . 


4.20 


7.96 


12.16 


38.60 


Contained added water. 


3, . . . 


2.90 


6.70 


9.60 


36.40 


Contained added water. 


4, . . . 


3.00 


7.30 


10.30 


38.50 


Contained added water. 


5, . . . 


1.30 


2.98 


4.28 


24.45 


Contained added water. 





Table X. — Number of Cows assessed in Massachusetts^ 1890, 
1906 and 1909. 



Number of cows assessed May 1, 1890, .... 200,658 
Number of cows assessed May 1, 1909, .... 168,221 



Decrease (nineteen years), 32,437 

Average annual decrease, 1,707 

Number of cows assessed May 1, 1906, .... 181,816 

Number of cows assessed May 1, 1909, .... 168,221 



Decrease (three years), 13,595 

Average annual decrease, 4,531 



22 



DAIRY BUREAU. 



[Jan. 



Table XL — Showing Milk brought into Boston by Railroad, 

1905-09. 

Quarts. Quarts. 

December, 1905, to December, 1906, 114,233,976 

December, 1906, to December, 1907, 109,882,190y2 4,351,7851/2 ' 

December, 1907, to December, 1908, 103,381,2781/2 6,050,912 ' 



Total decrease, two years, 10,402,69714 ' 

December, 1908, to December, 1909, 108,082,936 4,251,6571/2 ' 



Net decrease since 1906, 6,151,040' 



Creameries^ Milk Depots^ etc. 
Appended we give a revised list of the principal cream- 
eries, milk depots, etc., owned and operated by Massachu- 
setts individuals and corporations. 



Co-operative Creameries. 



Location. 


Name. 


Superintendent or Manager. 


1. 


Ashfield, , 




Ashfield Creamery, 


William Hunter, manager. 


2. 


Bclchertown, 




Belchertown Creamery, 


M. G. Ward, president. 


3. 
4. 


Cheshire (P. 

Adams). 
Cumin ington, 


0. 


Greylock Creamery, . 
Cummington Creamery, 


C. J. Fales, president. 

W, E. Patridge, superintend- 
ent. 

W. H. Wright, treasurer. 


5. 


Easthampton, . 




Hampton Creamery, . 


6. 
7. 


Egremont (P. O. 

Great Barrington). 
Monterey, . 


Egremont Creamery, . 
Berkshire Hills Creamery, . 


E. A.. Tyrrell, manager. 

F. A.Campbell, manager. 


S. 


New Boston, 




Berkshire Creamery, . 


F. M. Rugg, president. 


9. 
10. 
11. 


New Salem (P. 

Millington). 
Northfleld, . 

Shelburn, . 


(). 


New Salem Creamery, 
Northfleld Creamery, . 
Shelburne Creamery, . 


W. A. Moore, treasurer. 

Chas. C. Stearns, superin- 
tendent. 
Ira Barnard, manager. 


12. 


Westfield (P. 

Wyben). 
West Newbury, 


O. 


Wyben Springs Creamery, 


C. H. Kelso, manager. 


13. 




West Newbury Creamery, . 


R. S. Brown, treasurer. 



1 Decrease. 



2 Increase. 



1910.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 60. 23 



Proprietary Creameries. 



Location. 


Name. 


Owner or Manager. 


I . 


AinliGrstj ... 


Amherst Creamery, 


W. A. Pease. 


2. 


Amherst, . 


Fort River Creamery, 


E.A.King. 


3. 


Brimfield, . 


Crystal Brook Creamery, . 


F. N. Lawrence. 


4. 
5. 
6. 


Everett, 

Fitchburg, 26 Gushing 

Street. 
Gardner, . 


Hampden Creamery Com- 
pany. 

Fitchburg Creamery, . 


Hampden Creamery Com- 
pany. 
G. S. Learned. 

Boston Dsiry Comptiiiy. 


7. 


Groton, 


Lawrence Creamery, . 


Myron P. Swallow. 


8. 


Heath, 


Cold Spring Creamery, 


I. W. Stetson & Son. 


9. 


Hinsdale, . 


Hinsdale Creamery, . 


Ashley B. Clark, treasurer. 


10. Marlborough, 


Este's Creamery, 


F. F. Este. 


11. 


North Brookfleld, 


North Brookfleld Creamery, 


H. A. Richardson. 


12. 


Shelburne Falls, 


Shelburne Falls Creamery, 


H. P. Hood & Sons. 



Educational. 



Amherst, 



Dairy Industry Course, 
Massachusetts A g r i c u 1- 
tural College. 



W. P. B. Lockwood, profes- 
sor in charge. 



M ilk-distr ihuting Depots. 



Name. 


Location. 


Manager. 


Alden Bros., 

Boston Dairy Company, 


Boston, office 1171 Tremont Street, 

depot 28 Duncan Street. 
Boston, 484 Rutherford Avenue, 


Charles L. Alden. 
W. A. Grostein. 


Elm Farm Milk Company, 


Boston, Wales Place, 


James H. Knapp. 


H. P. Hood & Sons, . 


Boston, 494 Rutherford Avenue, 
Branch, 24 Anson Street, Foi est 
Hills. 

Lynn, 193 Alley Street. 
Maiden, 42.5 Main Street. 
Salem, 2.52 Bridge Street. 
Watertown, 289 Pleasant Street. 
Lawrence, 629 Common Street. 


Charles H. Hood. 


D. Whiting & Sons, . 


Boston, 570 Rutherford Avenue, 


George Whiting. 


C. r>righam Company, 
Deerfoot Farms, 


Cambridge, 158 Massachusetts 
Avenue. 

Southborough, 


John K. Whiting. 
S. H. Howes. 


Springfield Co-operative 

IVIilk Association. 
Tait Bros., 


Springfield, 


F. B. Allen. 
Tait Bros. 


Wacliusett Creamery, 


Worcester 


E. H Thayer & Co. 


C. Brigham Company, . 


Worcester, 9 Howard Street, . 


C. Brigham Com- 
pany. 



24 



DAIRY BUREAU. [Jan. 1910. 



Milk-distributing Depots — Concluded. 



Milk Laboratory. 



Walker-Gordon Labora- 
tory. 


Boston, 793 Boylston Street. 


George W. Franklin. 


Receiving Depots for Milk for Shipments to New York City. 


F. D. Shove Milk Factory, 

Willow Brook Dairy Com- 
pany. 


Sheffield, 


George Patterson. 



Expenses. 

The following is a classified statement of the expenses for 
the year ending 'Nov. 30, 1909 : — 



Bureau : compensation and traveling expenses, . . $322 43 

Agents: compensation, 2,506 90 

Agents: traveling expenses and samples purchased, . 2,748 97 

General agent: traveling and necessary expenses, . . 436 80 

Chemists: analyses, tests, court attendance, . . . 1,659 00 

Printing and supplies, 192 31 

Educational, 133 59 



Total, $8,000 00 



P. M. HARWOOD, 

General Agent. 



Accepted and adopted as the report of the Dairy Bureau. 

CARLTON D. RICHARDSON. 
HENRY E. PAIGE. 
W. C. JEWETT. 



Public Document > No. 60 



TWENTIETH ANNUAL REPORT 

OF THE 

DAIRY BUREAU 

OF THE 

Massachusetts Board op Ageicultuee, 

REQUIRED UNDER 

Chapter 89, Section 12, Revised Laws. 



January 14, 1911. 




BOSTON: 

WEIGHT & POTTER PRINTING CO., STATE PRINTERS, 
18 Post Office Square. 
1911. 



Public Document 



No. 60 



TWENTIETH ANNUAL REPORT 

OP THE 

^DAIRY BUREAU 



OF THE 

Massachusetts Boaed of Agkiculture, 

REQUIRED UNDER 

Chapter 89, Section 12, Revised Laavs. 



January 14, 1911. 




BOSTON: 

WRIGHT & POTTER PRINTING CO., STATE PRINTERS, 
18 Post Office Square. 
1911. 



Approved by 
The State Board op Publication. 



2) 



Dairy Bureau — 1910. 



CHARLES M. GARDNER, Westfield, Chairman. 

HOWARD A. PARSONS, North Amherst. 

GEORGE W. TRULL, Tewksbury, P. 0. Lowell, R. F. D. 



Secretary. 

J. LEWIS ELLSWORTH, Executive Officer and Secretary of the 
State Board of Agriculture. 



General Agent. 
P. M. HARWOOD. 

Address, Room 136, State House, Boston. 



REPORT OF THE DAIRY BUREAU. 



During the year just closed 7,922 inspections have been 
made, 220 cases entered in court, of which 218 were won, 
and 35 meetings have been addressed by the general agent. 
Of the court cases, 139 were for violation of the oleomarga- 
rine laws, 77 for violation of the renovated butter law, and 
4 for violation of the milk adulteration law. The Bureau 
Las inspected most of the creameries and large milk-distrib- 
uting depots in the State, and has found them, as a rule, in 
a satisfactory condition. There are now 12 co-operative and 
11 proprietary creameries in the State. Two creameries, 
that in Shelburne Falls and the Grey lock in Cheshire, have 
gone out of business within the year. 

While the Bureau has done much in the way of protecting 
the public from fraud and the makers and dealers in butter 
from unfair competition, and while more than the usual 
amount of educational work has been done, but little milk 
work has been attempted, and this for two reasons. First, 
our appropriation is insufficient, and second, the field is well 
covered by another State department and by local milk in- 
spectors, now generally active all over the Commonwealth. 
The few cases we have undertaken have been upon lequest. 

The Dairy Situation^. 
In view of the present transportation situation and the 
fact that approximately three-fourths of all the milk 
brought into Boston by rail and nearly all of that brought 
in from without the State is now pasteurized before being 
offered for sale, the hope of the Massachusetts farmer seems 
to lie in whatever demand there is for a good clean article of 



6 



DAIRY BUREAU. 



[Jan. 



near-by raw milk, produced uiider conditions which inspire 
confidence and therefore demand a better price than that 
received for milk which cannot be safely sold without resort- 
ing to pasteurization. 

As an illustration of what can be done where there is a 
good understanding between reasonable local authorities and 
willing-to-co-operate milk producers, the city of Brockton 
stands out prominently, milk being generally sold in that 
city this winter at 9 cents per quart. In the report of the 
milk inspector of Brockton for 1909 he cites 25 dairies with 
bacteria count averaging below 50,000 per cubic centimeter, 
of which 18 averaged below 25,000 and 7 below 10,000 each. 
In commenting on the 3 dairies having the lowest bacteria 
count, the inspector says : " I^either of these has found it 
necessary to generally remodel the barn or install costly new 
apparatus, but careful personal supervision of the work by 
the owner has placed these dairies in the lead." Other good 
illustrations might be given in other cities, but this one suf- 
fices to show that where there is a will to produce a clean 
article of milk there is a way ; and also illustrates a willling- 
ness on the part of the public, confidence established, to pay 
the price. 

The number of cows assessed in Massachusetts April 1, 
1910, was 166,048, which is 2,173 less than were assessed 
in 1909 and 15,763 less than were assessed in 1906, the 
average annual decline for the last four years being 3,942. 
The amount of milk brought into Boston by rail has also 
continued to fall off, according to the Railroad Commis- 
sioners' figures. For twelve months, Dec. 1, 1908, to 'Nov. 
30, 1909, the figures were 108,082,936 quarts; for corre- 
sponding months in 1909-10, 100,606,3621/2, — a decrease 
of 7,376,573% quarts. The corresponding months in 1905- 
06 showed 114,233,976 quarts. On this basis of 114,000,- 
000 quarts in 1906, a normal increase with the growth of 
population ought to have shown 123,000,000 quarts of fluid 
milk brought into Boston by rail in 1910. 



1911.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 60. 



7 



Coi^DEWSED Milk. 
There is little doubt but that condensed milk, in what- 
soever form it appears, has recently made serious inroads 
upon the milk trade in this Commonwealth. 'Not only is 
this true of Boston and other cities, but there is hardly a ham- 
let so small or so remotely situated that the little cans of this 
article have not found their way to the shelves of the grocery 
store or the meat market. Yet with a possible exception not 
a can of this milk is produced or condensed in Massachusetts. 
The local storekeeper thus sends his money out of the State 
for condensed milk, while at the same time he complains if 
the local farmer buys dry goods or groceries outside his own 
town. When the consumer buys condensed milk instead of 
clean, fresh milk produced by local dairymen, because he is 
loath to pay the latter a living price, does he know whether 
or not he is paying a greater relative price for condensed milk 
and at the same time getting a relatively inferior article ? 
If not, he should post himself as to the facts. Condensed 
milk has its use, a niche to fill, namely, wherever fresh 
fluid milk cannot for any reason be obtained or kept in 
proper condition; but until this milk can be offered for 
sale at less price than it now is, or can be proven to be 
more nutritious as a food than an equal value of clean, 
raw, whole milk, there is little excuse for either its pur- 
chase or use wherever the latter is obtainable at present 
prices. We have found, from the purchase and analysis 
of a number of samples of condensed milks, facts similar to 
those discovered by Professor Jordan, and reported by him 
last year, that the average cost was around 11 cents per fluid 
quart equivalent for condensed milk on the basis of the 
Massachusetts standard of 3.35 per cent milk fat. In this 
connection it should be remembered that ordinary fluid milk 
averages a higher percentage of fat than that required by 
law, thus rendering the comparison more than fair to con- 
densed milk. Professor Jordan also reported that condensed 
milk varied greatly in its bacteria count, all the way from 
^' very low " to 10,000,000 per cubic centimeter. Our own 
investigation of sixteen brands purchased at random showed, 



8 



DAIRY BUREAU. 



[Jan. 



through Professor Prescott's examination, variation of from 
less than 100 to 1,350,000 per cubic centimeter. It there- 
fore appears that condensed milk is not always sterile.^ Ex- 
aminations made by our chemist, B. F. Davenport, M.D., by 
Herman C. Lythgoe, analyst of the State Board of Health, 
and by Prof. James O. Jordan of the Boston Bureau of Milk 
Inspection, indicate that condensed milk is seldom prepared 
from milk rich in fat, but oftentimes from apparently below- 
standard milk. Therefore it would seem that the least we 
can ask is the passage by the Legislature of a bill requiring 
that a label, bearing a formula for extending with water, 
for home use, be securely attached to each container of evap- 
orated, concentrated or condensed milk sold or offered for 
sale in this Commonwealth, and that the formula thus at- 
tached be such that the milk product resulting be not below 
the Massachusetts standard for whole milk. Such a law 
should carry with it a suitable penalty in case the milk thus 
extended fails in any instance to conform to the present legal 
requirements for whole milk. 

So long as a milk standard is maintained in this State it is 
manifestly unfair that these prepared milks from other States 
should come into our markets without either standard or 
guarantee as regards their solid food content. We suggest j| 
the following, which is the same bill that the Bureau used 
its best efforts to have passed last year : — 

An Act relative to the Labeling of Evaporated, Concentrated 

OR Condensed Milk. . 

Section L Every container of evaporated, concentrated or con- j 
densed milk sold or offered for sale, or had in possession or custody i 
with intent to sell, by any person, firm or corporation within this 
commonwealth, shall have plainly printed thereupon in the English 
language, or attached thereto on some firmly affixed tag or label, jl 
a formula for extending the said evaporated, concentrated or con- i 
densed milk with water, and the said formula must be such that 
the milk product resulting shall not be below the Massachusetts - 
standard for milk soHds and fat for whole milk. 

Section 2. Whoever, himself or by his servant or agent or as 



1 It should be said, in justice to evaporated unsweetened milk, that it is usuallj' found to 
be practically sterile, and is also sold at a relatively less price than the sweetened con- 
densed milk. 



1911.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 60. 



9 



the servant or agent of any person, firm or corporation, sells, exchanges 
or dehvers, or has in his custody or possession with intent to sell, 
exchange or deliver, any container of evaporated, concentrated or 
condensed milk, within this commonwealth, not marked or labeled 
in comphance with the provisions of section one of this act, shall 
for the first offence be punished by a fine of not more than one hun- 
dred dollars, for a second offence by a fine of not less than one hundred 
nor more than two hundred dollars, and for a subsequent offence by 
a fine of five hundred dollars or by imprisonment for not less than 
three months nor more than six months. 

Section 3. This act shall take effect on the first day of Septem- 
ber in the year nineteen hundred and eleven. 

Oleomaegarine feom I^ational Standpoint. 

The total amount of nncolored oleomargarine withdrawn 
United States tax paid in year ending June 30, 1910, that 
is, what was sold in this country, was 135,149,429 pounds, 
or 97 per cent of the whole, and the tax at % cent per pound 
amounted to $337,898.57. If, as is now proposed, 2 cents 
per pound had been paid as tax on this same amount the 
revenue would have increased sevenfold, and would have 
amounted to $2,703,188.58. In view of this fact we are 
constrained to ask three questions. First, does the consumer 
want to pay this increased tax? Second, does the consumer 
want his oleomargarine colored to more closely imitate 
creamery butter, thus increasing the chance of his being more 
readily imposed upon by being required to pay an approxi- 
mate creamery price for it? Third, why does the oleomar- 
garine manufacturer wish to re-establish a system which was 
really responsible for the necessity for laws to protect the 
consumer from fraud from the outset ? This question of tax- 
ing oleomargarine and thus restricting the use of coloring 
matter in its manufacture is of vital importance to pro- 
ducers, dealers and consumers ; therefore all should be alive 
to the situation, and see to it that no ill-advised legislation 
takes place in our national Congress. 

Co-OPEKATION. 

This Bureau has on several occasions in the past advocated 
a State dairymen's association, and we believe that such 
an organization, properly officered and managed, would work 



10 



DAIRY BUREAU. 



[Jan. 



out for the benefit of the Massachusetts milk-producing 
farmers, and, indirectly, for the consuming public as well. 

Personnel of the Bureau. 
In January, 1910, Messrs. Richardson, Paige and Jewett, 
by reason of expiration of their terms, ceased to be members 
of the Board of Agriculture, and therefore were ineligible for 
reappointment on the Bureau. His Excellency Governor 
Draper was, therefore, called upon, for the first time since 
its original organization, to select an entirely new Bureau, 
which he did, appointing Charles M. Gardner of Westfield, 
Howard A. Parsons of Amherst and George W. Trull of 
Tewksbury. The executive force, agents, chemists, etc., are 
as follows : executive officer and secretary, J. Lewis Ells- 
worth; general agent, P. M. Harwood; B. F. Davenport, 
M.D., of Boston, and F. W. Farrell of the Emerson Labora- 
tory, Springfield, have done the chemical work. A small 
amount of bacteriological work has been done by Prof. Sam- 
uel C. Prescott of Boston. A. W. Lombard has continued to 
act as agent, and five others have been temporarily employed 
from time to time. 

Summary of Police Work. 

Total number of inspections, 

Number of inspections where no sample was taken, . 
Number of samples of butter and oleomargarine, all purchased, 

Number of samples of milk and cream, 

Cases entered in court, • . 

Meetings addressed by the general agent, 

Cases prosecuted during the twelve months ending Nov. 
30, 1910, by months and courts, with law violated, and re- 
sults, are as follows : — 



1 There were 53 extra samples taken during the year, therefore this number is 53 less than 
the sum of the next three items. 



1911.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 60. 



11 



CODRT. 


Month. 


ner. 


Law violated. 


Con- 
victed. 


JJlS- 

charged. 


Holyoke, Police, . 


December, . 


16 


Oleomargarine, 


16 




Somerville, Police, 


December, . 


2 


Oleomargarine, 


2 


- 


Brockton, Police, 


December, . 


5 


4 oleomargarine, 1 


5 










milk. 






Worcester, Central District, 


December, . 


1 


Milk, , 




1 


Springfield, Police, 


December, . 


1 


Milk, 


1 


- 


Cambridge, Third Eastern 


December, . 


8 


6 renovated butter, 


8 


- 


Middlesex District. 






2 oleomargarine. 






Lowell, Police,'- . 


December, . 


3 


Oleomargarine, 


3 




Lynn, Police, 


December, . 


4 


Oleomargarine, 


4 


- 


Cambridge, Third Eastern 


January, 


2 


Oleomargarine, 


2 




Middlesex District. 












Haverhill, Northern Essex 


January, 


2 


Renovated butter, 


2 


- 


District. 












Holyoke, Police. . 


.January , 


4 


Renovated butter, 


4 


- 


New Bedford, Third Bristol 


January, 


12 


Oleomargarine, 


12 


- 


District. 












East Boston, District, 2 


January, 


4 


Renovated butter. 


4 


- 


Ayer, Northern Middlesex 


January, 


2 


Renovated butter. 


2 




District. 












Northampton, Hampshire 


February, . 


1 


Oleomargarine, 


1 


- 


District. 












North Adams, Northern 


February, . 


2 


Renovated butter. 


2 


- 


Berkshire District. 










Worcester, Central Worces- 


February, . 


35 


9 renovated butter. 


35 


- 


ter District. 




26 oleomargarine. 






Fitchburg, Police, 


March, 


4 


Oleomargarine, 


4 


— 


Fall River, Second Bri;^tol 


March, 


26 


16 renovated butter, 


26 


- 


District. 




10 oleomargarine. 






Quincy, East Norfolk Dis- 


March, 


1 


Renovated butter, 


1 


— 


trict. 












Orange, Eastern Franklin 


March, 


4 


Oleomargarine, 


4 




District. 










A t h 1 , First Northern 


March, 


2 


Oleomargarine, 


2 




Worcester District. 








Gardner, First Northern 


March, • . 


2 


Renovated butter. 


2 


- 


Worcester District. 










Holyoke, Police, . 


April, . 


10 


2 renovated butter, 


10 








8 oleomargarine. 






Lawrence, Police, 


April, , 


6 


Renovated butter. 


6 




Salem, First Essex District, 


April, . 


1 


Renovated butter, 


1 




Gloucester, Eastern Essex 


April, . 


4 


Oleomargarine, 


4 


— 


District. 










Worcester Central District, 


April, . 


2 


Oleomargarine, 


2 




Lynn Police, 


May, . 


18 


Renovated butter, 


18 


- 


Chicopee, Police 


May, 


1 


Oleomargarine, 


1 




Southbridge, First Southern 


May, 


2 


Oleomargarine, 


2 




Worcester District. 








Chelsea, Police, . 


May, . 


2 


Oleomargarine, 


2 


- 


Taunton, First Bristol Dis- 


May, . 


1 


Oleomargarine, 


- 


1 


trict. 








Springfield, Police, 


June, . 


2 


Oleomargarine, 


2 




Marlborough, Police, . 


June, . 


2 


Oleomargarine, 


2 




Fall River, Second Bristol 


June, . 


2 


Oleomargarine, 


2 




District. 










Boston, Municipal, 2 . 


June, . 


2 


Renovated butter. 


2 





1 Filed on payment of costs. 

2 In connection with the Boston Bureau of Milk Inspection. 



12 



DAIRY BUREAU. 



[Jan. 



Court. 


Month. 


Num- 
ber. 


Law violated. 


Con- 
victed. 


Dis- 
charged. 


Concord, Central Middlesex 

District. 
Northampton, Hampshiire 

District. 
Woburn, Fourth Eastern 

Middlesex District. 
FrH R-ivGFj Second Bristol 

District. 
^Va^eham , Fourth Plymouth 

District. 
Nahant, Police, . 


June, . 

July, . 
July, 
Juiy, 
August, 


2 
2 
2 
2 
2 
2 


Renovated butter. 

Oleomargarine, 
Oleomargarine, 
Oleomargarine, 
Oleomargarine, 


2 
2 

2 
2 

9 

2 


- 
- 


Oak Bluffs, Dukes County 

District- 
Salem, First Essex District, 


September, . 
September, . 


2 
1 


Oleomargarine, 
Milk, . 


2 
1 


- 


Salem, First Essex District, 


November, 


3 


Oleomargarine, 


3 




Concord, Central Middlesex 

District. 
Woburn, Fourth Eastern 

Middlesex District. 


November, . 
November, . 


2 
2 


Oleomargarine, 
Oleomargarine, 


2 
2 




Totals, 




220 




218 


2 



Note. — The Bureau is especially indebted to the milk inspectors of Boston, Chicopee, 
Ix>well, Northampton, Revere, Salem, Springfield, Taunton and Worcester for assistance 
which has resulted in cases in court. We also record our indebtedness to all others who have 
aided us in any way. 

The charges in the several cases entered in court for the 
year ending ISTov. 30, 1910, have been as follows: — 



SeUing renovated butter in unmarked packages, .... 77 

SelUng oleomargarine when butter was asked for, . . . . 35 

Selling oleomargarine without being registered, .... 4 

Selling oleomargarine without sign in store, 2 

Selling oleomargarine in unmarked packages, 3 

Selling oleomargarine from unmarked wagons, .... 8 
Furnishing oleomargarine in restaurants, etc., without notice to 

guests, 87 

SeUing milk containing added water, 4 

220 



1911.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 60. 13 



The following is a list of inspections without samples and 
the number of samples taken in the years 1903-10, inclu- 
sive : — 



Year. 


Inspections 
without 
Samples. 


Samples 
taken. 


1903 


4,135 


1,395 


1904 


4,456 


1,157 


1905 


4,887 


971 




4,985 


576 


1907 


4,538 


1,374 


1908 


5,516 


1,575 


1909 


5,003 


1,869 


1910 


6,121 


1,960 


Totals 


39,641 


10,877 


Averages, 


4,955+ 


1,359+ 



OLEOMARGARmE. 

1^0 licenses for the sale of colored oleomargarine were 
issued in this State, and no sales of such goods have been 
discovered by the agents of the Bureau during the year. 

The high price of butter has boomed the oleomargarine 
trade. Some idea of the extent may be obtained from a 
perusal of the following list of United States licenses for the 
sale of uncolored oleomargarine, in force in Massachusetts in 
E'ovember, 1909, and ^November, 1910, showing the increase 



of the latter over the former : — 

1909. 1910. 

Wholesale licenses in Boston, 13 21 

Wholesale Hcenses in other cities, 8 9 

Total, 21 30 

Retail Hcenses in Boston, 46 91 

Retail licenses in other cities and towns, .... 465 607 

Total, 511 698 



14 



DAIRY BUREAU. 



[Jan. 



The following figures, taken from the annual report of the 
United States Commissioner of Internal Revenue for 1910, 
show the production, withdrawn tax paid, and withdrawn 
for export of the two classes of oleomargarine, as defined bj 
act of May 9, 1902, covering a period of eight years, since 
it went into effect on July 1, 1902 : — 



Oleomargarine (Pounds). 





Product taxed at Rate op 
10 Cents per Pound. 


Product taxed at Rate of 
i Cent per Pound. 


Year. 


Produced. 


With- 
drawn Tax 
paid. 


With- 
drawn for 
Export. 


Produced. 


With- 
drawn Tax 
paid. 


With- 
drawn for 
Export. 


1903, . 


5,710,407 


2,312,493 


3,334,969 


67,573,689 


66,785,796 


151,693 


1904, . 


3,785,670 


1,297,068 


2,504,940 


46,413,972 


46,397,984 


123,425 


1905, . 


5,560,304 


3,121,640 


2,405,763 


46,427,032 


46,223,691 


137,670 


1906, . 


4,888,986 


2,503,095 


2,422,320 


50,545,914 


50,536,466 


78,750 


1907, . 


7,758,529 


5,009,094 


2,695,276 


63,608,246 


63,303,016 


129,350 


1908, . 


7,452,800 


4,982,029 


2,522,188 


74,072,800 


73,916,869 


109,480 


1909, . 


5,710,301 


3,275,968 


2,403,742 


86,572,514 


86,221,310 


112,958 


1910, . 


6,176,991 


3,416,286 


2,767,195 


135,685,289 


135,159,429 


97.575 


Total, 


47,043,988 


25,917,673 


21,056,393 


570,899,456 


568,544,561 


940.901 



Renovated Butter. 

The violations of the renovated butter law in this State 
during the year have been more than double what they were 
in 1909. The high price of butter has caused more of the 
goods to be used than was the case then, but, considering the 
amount sold, the number is not excessive, except from an ideal 
standpoint. There is one licensed concern in this State man-, 
ufacturing renovated butter. Most of the goods are offered 
for sale in print form. 

The following figures, from the same source a« the pre- 
ceding table, show the production and withdrawn tax paid of 
renovated butter, 1902-10 : — 



1911.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 60. 15 



Renovated Butter (Pounds). 



Year. 


Production. 


Withdrawn Tax 
paid. 


1905 

1906, 

1907 

1908 

1909 

1910 


54,658,790 
54,171,183 
60,029,421 
53,549,900 
62,965,613 
50,479,489 
47,345,361 
47,433,575 


54,223,234 
54,204,478 
60,171,504 
53,361,088 
63,078,504 
50,411,446 
47,402,382 
47,378,446 


Total 


430,633,332 


430,231,082 



Butter. 

The annual statement of the Chamber of Commerce, as 
will be seen by appended tables, shows further decrease in 
the consumption of butter during 1910. This is undoubt- 
edly due, in a large measure, to the high price, wholesale 
average, of 30.2 cents per pound, the highest figure reached 
in many years. 

The following table shows the average quotation for the 
best fresh creamery butter, in a strictly wholesale way, in 
the Boston market for the last nine years, as compiled by the 
Boston Chamber of Commerce : — 







1910. 


1909. 


1908. 


1907. 


1908. 


1905. 


1904. 


1903. 


1902. 


1901. 


Month. 
























Cents. 


Cents. 


Cents. 


Cents. 


Cents. 


Cents. 


Cents. 


Cents. 


Cents. 


Cents. 


January, . 


33.5 


30.9 


29.7 


30.4 


25.2 


28.0 


22.7 


28.0 


25.0 


25.0 


February, . 


30.5 


30.0 


32.1 


31.7 


25.2 


31.6 


24.6 


27.0 


28.5 


25.0 


March, 


32.0 


29.1 


30.2 


30.2 


25.5 


28.0 


24.1 


27.0 


29.0 


23.0 


April, 


31.5 


27.9 


28.4 


32.2 


22.2 


29.1 


21.6 


27.5 


32.0 


22.0 


May, . 


29.0 


26.6 


24.1 


31.4 


19.9 


23.9 


19.9 


22.5 


25.0 


19.5 


June, . 


28.2 


26.4 


24.5 


21.3 


20.2 


20.7 


18.4 


22.75 


23.5 


20.0 


July, . 


28.6 


27.2 


23.6 


25.9 


21.0 


20.6 


18.3 


20.5 


22.5 


20.0 


August, 


29.6 


28.2 


24.5 


26.0 


23.8 


21.6 


19.1 


20.0 


21.5 


21.0 


September, 


29.6 


31.3 


25.3 


29.2 


25.6 


21.2 


20.8 


22.0 


23.5 


22.0 


October, . 


29.4 


31.7 


27.5 


29.9 


26.9 


22.1 


21.5 


22.5 


24.5 


21.5 


November, 


30.2 


31.4 


29.5 


27.1 


27.6 


23.0 


24.1 


23.5 


27.0 


24.0 


December, 


30.0 


32.9 


31.0 


27.5 


30.7 


23.9 


25.7 


24.5 


28.5 


24.5 


Average, 


30.2 


29.5 


27.5 


28.48 


24.48 


24.47 


21.73 


26.23 


25.0 


22.3 



16 



DAIRY BUREAU. 



[Jan. 



The Chamber of Commerce figures 
business in Boston for 1909 and 1910 


regarding the butter 
are as follows : — 




1910. 

Pounds. 


1909. 

Pounds. 


Carried over, ......... 


8,030,740 


8,960,328 


Receipts for January, ........ 


2,763,388 


3,198,459 


Receipts for February, ...... 


2,735,471 


2,258,740 


Receipts for March, ....... 


3,202,183 


2,762,898 


Receipts for April, ....... 


2,617,479 


3,089,744 


Receipts for May, ........ 


7,953,512 


4,810,649 


Receipts for June, ........ 


13,294,088 


11,309,791 


Receipts for July, ....... 


10,529,244 


11,357,950 




8,371,256 


8,648,239 




7,455,963 


7,406,408 


Receipts for October, 


5,499,123 


5,140,375 


Receipts for November, 


2,904,893 


2,813,504 




2,094,240 


2,257,397 


Total supply, 

Exports for year, deduct 

Net supply, 

Storage stock December 31, deduct 


77,451,580 
13,650 


74,014,482 
44,050 


77,437,930 
12,272,624 


73,970,432 
8,030,740 


65,165,306 


65,939,692 



Condensed and Evaporated Milks. 

Table showing Results of Bacteriological Examination of Different 
Brands of Condensed and Evaporated Milk. 
Sweetened Condensed Milk. 



Brand. 


Bacteria per 

Cubic 
Centimeter, 

20° C. 
(96 Hours). 


Bacteria per 

Cubic 
Centimeter, 

37° C. 
(24 Hours). 


Vermont, 


240,000 


210,000 




30,000 


34,000 


Ruby 


1,150,000 


1,350,000 




260,000 


320,000 


Tip Top 


15,000 


35,000 




355,000 


330,000 




100 


150 




570,000 


410,000 




650 


750 




700,000 


550,000 




332.075 


323.990 



1911.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 60. 



17 



Table showing Results of Bacteriological Examination, etc. — Concluded. 

Unsweetened Evaporated Milk. 



Brand. 


Bacteria per 

Cubic 
Centimeter, 

20° C. 
(96 Hours). 


Bacteria per 

Cubic 
Centimeter, 

37° C. 
(24 Hours). 


Peerless, 




Less than 100 


Less than 100 


Wilson's, 




Less than 100 


150 


Highland, 




Less than 100 


Less than 100 


Gold, . 




Less than 100 


Less than 100 


Van Camp's, 




500 


2,100 


Gold Cross, . 




Less than 100 


Less than 100 



Table showing Cost of Equivalent of Milk Fat contained in a Quart of 
Milk, up to the Massachusetts Standard of 3.3-5 Per Cent, in the 
Following Brands of Sweetened Condensed Milk and Unsweetened 
Evaporated Milk. Calculations made upon Basis of Weight, Fat 
Content and Price of Each Brand. 



Sweetened Condensed Milk. 



Brand. 


Cost 
per Quart 
(Cents). 


Brand. 


Cost 
per Quart 
(Cents). 


Tip Top 


9.24 


Red Cross, .... 


9.64 


Eclipse, . . • . 


13.60 


Eagle 


13.52 


Vermont, .... 


9.03 


Cupid, 


12.41 


Summit, 


11.61 


Challenge, .... 


10.30 


Standard, .... 


11.73 


Ruby 


12.73 


Rose, 


10.73 


Heather 

Average, .... 


11.81 
11.36 


Unsweetened Evaporated Milk. 


Highland, .... 


11.09 


Gold Cross, .... 


7.86 


Wilson's, 


9.11 




9.58 


Van Camp's, .... 


10.15 


Average, .... 


9.39 


Peerless, 


8.55 







18 



DAIRY BUREAU. 



[Jan. 



Table showing Price per Can, Weight of Contents, Per Cent of Fat and 
Times Massachusetts Fat Standard for Milk, in Twelve Samples 
Sweetened Condensed and Six Samples Unsweetened Evaporated 
Milk. 



Sweetened Condensed Milk. 



Brand. 


Price 
per Can. 
(Cents). 


Net 
Weight of 
Contents. 
(Ounces). 


Fat (Per 
Cent). 


Times the 
Standard 
for Fat. 




10 


12% 


8.90 


2.66 




12 


1413A6 


8.70 


2.59 


Tip Top, 


11 


141%6 


9.28 


2.77 




15 


1411/16 


9.00 


2.68 




11 


14% 


9.50 


2.83 




12 


1413/16 


7.50 


2.24 


Ruby 


11 


12% 


9.90 


2.95 




12 


14^8 


8.40 


2.50 


Red Cross, 


12 


1413/i6 


8.20 


2.44 


Cupid 


9 


14% 6 


6.50 


1.94 


Summit, 


10 


13% 


7.20 


2.15 


Heather, 


10 


11^4 


8.70 


2.60 



Unsweetened Evaporated Milk. 



Peerless, 


11 


16 


9.30 


2.77 


Gold 


10 


16V8 


7.50 


2.23 




10 


12 


8.70 


2.59 




10 


lei^io 


7.80 


2.33 


Van Camp's 


10 


151%6 


7.20 


2.15 


Gold Cross 


10 


16% 


9.00 


2.68 



Milk. 

The following analyses of milk, taken in I^ovember, 1910, 
from the patrons of a milk shipping station in western 
Massachusetts, show milk of excellent quality, with no at- 
tempt at adulteration. The herds were composed of natives, 
and Holstein and Jersey grades. 



1911.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 60. 



19 



Sample Numbek. 


Pounds 
Milk. 


Number 


Fat (Per 
Cent). 


Total 
Solids (Per 
Cent). 


Refrac- 
tion. 


1 


157 


12 


4.9 


14.24 


43.8 




173 


13 


4.2 


13.23 


43.3 


3 


97 


6 


3.4 


12.06 


42.7 


4, 


76 


9 


4.6 


13.91 


43.8 


5 


123 


21 


5.2 


14.40 


43.5 


6 


128 


7 


4.0 


12.60 


42.8 


7 


173 


10 


4.7 


13.79 


43.5 


8 


104 


12 


3.8 


12.75 


43.0 


9, 


64 


9 


4.6 


13.62 


43.4 


10, 


74 


5 


3.6 


12.24 


42.6 


11 


62 


12 


5.0 


13.96 


43.1 


12, 


94 


11 


4.9 


13.44 


42.0 


13 


60 


5 


4.9 


14.15 


44.1 


14, 


144 


11 


4.1 


13.01 


43.5 


15 


193 


24 


5.1 


13.77 


42.9 


16, 


56 


15 


5.2 


14.18 


43.0 


17, 


52 


10 


5.1 


14.18 


42.6 


18 


98 


11 


5.0 


14.52 


43.7 


19 


84 


13 


4.2 


13.17 


43.2 


20 


248 


26 


3.8 


12.37 


42.2 


21 


170 


15 


4.6 


13.75 


43.3 


22 


148 


16 


3.9 


12.64 


43.2 


23 


236 


9 


3.9 


12.59 


42.6 


24 


145 


17 


4.2 


12.98 


42.5 


25, 


182 


23 


4.6 


13.85 


43.2 


26 


31 


12 


4.4 


13.75 


44.3 


27 


84 


11 


4.4 


13.85 


43.5 


28 


114 


8 


4.6 


13.74 


43.2 


29, 


114 


21 


4.5 


13.20 


41.8 


30, 


262 


33 


4.1 


13.62 


43.4 


31 


96 


11 


4.1 


13.02 


42.0 


32 


67 


13 


4.1 


13.11 


43.1 


Average, .... 


122.4 


13.46 


4.49 


13.42 


43.02 



20 



DAIRY BUREAU. 



[Jan. 



Milk brought into Boston hij Different Railroads, Dec. 1, 1909, to Nov. 
30, 1910, as reported by the Railroad Commissioners {Quarts). 



Date. 


Boston & 
Albany. 


Boston & 
Maine. 


New York, 
& Hartford. 


Total. 


December, 


1909. 


1,239,835 


5,448,159 


2,376,820 


9,064,814 


j3-nu.3.ry , 


1910. 


1, 201,490 


C 071 £iCf\ 

5,271,odU 


O C 1 1 OAK 

2,511,295 


{\ CiA 4 A AO 

9,044,448 


X' CLIX KXcix y 1 




l,lz9,y5o 


4,Md9,lUo 


O OOO TTi 


O OAT OOO 


March, . 




1 *yr\o IOC 


5,475, UD4f 


O coo CAA 

2,528,599 


noil '700 1 

9,311,788f 


April, . 




1 O 1 A ACO 


0,343,029 


O 4 1 f\ OOy4 

2,410,224 


10,073,235 


May, 




z/o,791 


O,21o,oo4 


2,i}00,9d2 


7 OOA KOT 


June, 




965,608 


5,638,992 


2,266,220 


8,870,820 


July, . 




1,165,639 


5,599,752 


2,411,087 


9,176,478 


August, 




891,673 


4,679,669 


2,037,164 


7,608,506 


September, 




904,062 


4,444,055 


1,881,451 


7,229,568 


October, 




943,466 


4,482,585 


2,004,881 


7,430,932 


November, 




799,828 


3,938,947 


1,962,578 


6,701,353 


Total, 




12,208,458 


61,379,882^ 


27,018,022 


100,606,362§ 



Milk brought into Boston by Railroad for Twelve Months ending Novem- 



ber 30 of Each Year (Quarts). 

1906, 114,233,976 

1907, 109,882,1901 

1908, 103,381,2781 

1909, 108,082,936 

1910, 100,606,362^ 

Total decrease in four years, 13,627,613| 

Average annual decrease, 3,406,9031 

N umber of Cows assessed in Massachusetts. 

May 1, 1906, 181,816 

April 1, 1910,. 166,048 



Total decrease in four years, 15,768 

Average annual decrease, 3,942 



1911.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. GO. 



21 



Local Milk Inspectors. 

Milk Inspectors for Massachusetts Cities, 1910. 



Beverly, Henry E. Dodge, 2d. 

Boston, Prof. James 0. Jordan. 

Brockton, George E. Boiling. 

Cambridge, Dr. Ernest H. Sparrow. 

Chelsea, Arthur H. Upton. 

Chicopee, C. J. O'Brien. 

Everett, E. Clarence Colby. 

Fall River, Henry Boisseau. 

Fitchburg, John F. Bresnahan. 

Gloucester, George E. Watson. 

Haverhill, Homer L. Conner, M.D. 

Holyoke, James K. Morrill. 

Lawrence, Eugene A. McCarthy. 

Lowell, Melvin F. Master. 

Lynn, Alexander S. Wright. 

Maiden, J, A. Sanford. 

Marlborough, John J. Cassidy. 

Medford, Winslow Joyce. 

Melrose, Caleb W. Clark, M.D. 

New Bedford, Herbert B. Hamilton. D.V.S. 

Newburyport, T. D. Donahoe. 

Newton, Arthur Hudson. 

North Adams, Henry A. Tower. 

Northampton, George R. Turner. 

Pittsfield, Eugene L. Hannon. 

Quincy, Edward J. Murphy. 

Salem, John J. McGrath. 

Somerville, Herbert E. Bowman. 

Springfield, Stephen C. Downs. 

Taunton, Lewis I. Tucker. 

Waltham, Arthur E. Stone, M.D. 

Woburn, P. T. McDonough. 

Worcester, Gustaf L. Berg. 



Milk Inspectors Massachusetts Towns, 1910. 



Adams, Dr. A. G. Potter. 

Amesbury, E. S. Worthen. 

Andover, Franklin H. Stacy. 

Arhngton, Dr. L. L. Pierce. 

Attleborough, Caleb Parmenter. 

Barnstable, George T. Mecarta. 

Belmont, Prof. Samuel C, Prescott. 



22 DAIRY BUREAU. [Jan. 

Brookline^ Frederick H. Osgood. 

Clinton, Gilman L. Chase. 

Greenfield, M. L. Miner, D.V.S. 

South Hadley Falls, .... George F. Boudreau. 

Hyde Park, James G. Bolles. 

Leominster, William H. Dodge, D.V.S. 

Ludlow, A. L. Bennett, D.V.S. 

Monson, Dr. Charles W. Jackson. 

North Attleborough, .... Hugh Gaw, V.S. 

Palmer, Edward F. Brown. 

Revere, Joseph E. Lamb. 

South Framingham, .... Charles N. Hargraves. 

Stoneham, George H. Allen. 

Wakefield, Harry A. Simonds. 

Ware, Fred E. Marsh. 

Watertown, Luther W. Simonds. 

Westfield, William H. Porter. 

Williamstown, C. L. Whitney. 

Winchendon, Frederick W. Russell, ^LU. 

Winchester, Morris Dineen. 



Creameries, Milk Depots, etc. 

Co-operative Creameries. 



Number and Location. 


Name. 


Superintendent or Manager. 


1. Ashfield, 


Ashfield Creamery, . 


William Hunter, manager. 


2. Belchertown, 


Belchertown Creamery, 


M. G. Ward, president. 


3. Cummington, 


Cummington Creamery, . 


D. C. Morey, superintend- 
ent. 

W. H. Wright, treasurer. 


4. Easthampton, 


Hampton Creamery, 


5. Egremont (P. 0. Great 

Barrington). 
C. Monterey, 


Egremont Creamery, 
Berkshire Hills Creamery, 


E. A. Tyrrell, manager. 

F. A. Campbell, manager. 


7. New Boston, 


Berkshire Creamery, 


F. M. Rugg, president. 


8. New Salem (P. 0. Mill- 

ington). 

9. Northfield, . 

10. Shelburne, . 


New Salem Creamer j-, 

Northfield Co-operati\'e Cream- 
ery Association. 
Shelburne Creamery, 


W. A. Moore, treasurer. 

Chas. C. Stearns, superin- 
tendent. 
Ira Barnard, manager. 


n. Westfield (P. 0. Wyben), 


Wyben Springs Creamery, 


C. H. Kelso, manager. 


12. West Newbury, 


West Newbury Creamery, 


R. S. Brown, treiisurer. 



1911.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 60. 23 



Proprietary Creameries. 



Number and Location. 


Name. 


Owner or Manager. 


1. Amherst, 


Amherst Creamery, . 


W. A. Pease. 


2. Amherst, 


Fort River Creamery, 


E. A. Kino-. 


3. Brimfield, . 


Crystal Brook Creamery, 


F. N. Lawrence. 


4. Everett, 


Hampden Creamery Company, 


Hampden Creamery Com- 
pany. 
G. S. liearned. 

Boston Dairy Company. 


5. Fitchburg, 26 Gushing 

Street. 

6. Gardner, 


Fitchburg Creamery, 
Boston Dairy Company, . 


7. Groton, 


Lawrence Creamery, 


Myron P. Swallow. 


8. Heath, .... 


Cold Spring Creamery, 


I. W. Stetson & Son. 


9. Hinsdale, 


Hinsdale Creamery, . 


Ashley B. Clark, treasurer. 


10. Marlborough, 


Este's Creamery, 


F. F. Este. 


11. North Brook field, 


North Brookfield Creamery, 


H. A. Richardson. 



EdiLcational. 



Amherst, .... 


Dairy Industry Course, Massa- 


W. P. B. Lockwood, pro- 




chusetts Agricultural College. 


fessor in charge. 



Milk-distributing Depots. 



Name. 



Location. 



Manager. 



Alden Bros., 

Boston Dairy Company, 
C. Brigham Company, 
C. Brigham Company, 
Deerfoot Farms, 
Elm Farm Milk Company 
H. P. Hood & Sons, . 



Springfield Co-operative 

Milk Association. 
Tait Bros., . . . . 

Wachusett Creamery, 

D, Whiting & Sons, . 



Boston office, 1171 Tremont Street, 

Depot, 24-28 Duncan Street. 
Boston, 484 Rutherford Avenue, 

Cambridge , 158 Massachusetts Ave- 
nue. 

Worcester, 9 Howard Street, 



Southborough, . . . . . 

Boston, Wales Place, 

Boston, 494 Rutherford Avenue, 
branch, 24 Anson Street, Forest 
Hills. 

Lynn, 193 Alley Street. 
Maiden, 425 Main Street. 
Salem, 252 Bridge Street. 
Watertown, 289 Pleasant Street. 
Lawrence, 629 Common Street. 

Springfield, 

Springfield 

Worcester, ...... 

Boston, 570 Rutherford Avenue, 



Charles L. Alden. 
W. A. Grostein. 
John K. Whiting. 
C. Brigham Company. 
S. H. Howes. 



James H. Knapp, 

treasurer. 
Charles H. Hood. 



F.B.Allen. 
Tait Bros. 
E. H. Thayer & Co. 
George Whiting. 



24 



DAIRY BUREAU. 



[Jan. 1911. 



Milk Laboratory. 


Name. 


Location. 




Manager. 


Walker-Gordon Laboratory, 


Boston, 793 Boylston Street, . 


George W. Franklin. 


Receiving Depots for Milk for Shipments 


to New York City. 


F. D. Shove Milk Factory, 


West Stockbridge, 




C. M. Riggs. 


Willow Brook Dairy Com- 
pany. 


Sheffield 




Frank Percy. 



Expenses. 

The following is a classified statement of the expenses for 
the year ending Nov. 30, 1910: — 



Bureau: compensation and traveling expenses, . . $453 27 

Agents: compensation, . . 2,425 84 

Agents: traveling expenses and samples purchased, . 2,922 71 

General agent: traveling and necessary expenses, . . 435 83 

Chemists: analyses, tests, court attendance, . . . 1,449 40 

Printing and supphes, 312 95 



Total, $8,000 00 



P. M. HARWOOD, 

General Agent. 



Accepted and adopted as the report of the Dairy Bureau. 

CHARLES M. GARDNER. 
H. A. PARSONS. 
GEORGE W. TRULL. 



Public Document 



No. 60 



TWENTY-FIRST ANNUAL REPORT 

OF THE 

DAIRY BUREAU 

OF THE 

Massachusetts Boaed of Agriculture, 

REQUIRED UNDER 

Chapter 89, Section 12, Revised Laws. 



January 15, 1912. 




BOSTON: 

WRIGHT & POTTER PRINTING CO., STATE PRINTERS, 
18 Post Office Square. 
1912. 



Public Document 



No. 60 



TWENTY-FIRST ANNUAL REPORT 

OF THE 

DAIRY BUREAU 



Massachusetts Board of Agricultuee, 



REQUIRED UNDER 



Chapter 89, Section 12, Revised Laws. 



January 15, 1912. 




BOSTON: 

WRIGHT & POTTER PRINTING CO., STATE PRINTERS, 
18 Post Office Square. 
1912. 



Approved by 
The State Board of Publication. 



2> 



Dairy Bureau— 1911. 



CHARLES M. GARDNER, Westfield, Chairman. 

HOWARD A. PARSONS, North Amherst. 

GEORGE W. TRULL, Tewksbury, P. 0. Lowell, R. F. D. 



Secretary. 

J. LEWIS ELLSWORTH, Executive Officer and Secretary of the 
State Board of Agriculture. 



General Agent. 
P. M. HARWOOD. 
Address, Room 136, State House, Boston. 



<Sl\)t €ommonroealtl) of itla00acl)usett5. 



REPORT OF THE DAIRY BUREAU. 



There have been entered in court, during the year 1911, 
219 cases, 157 of which were for violation of the oleomarga- 
rine laws, 60 for violation of the renovated butter law and 2 
for violation of the milk adulteration law, resulting in 215 
convictions, and 1 case nol-prossed. Seven thousand two 
hundred and eighty-one inspections of stores, wagons, etc., 
have been made by the agents ; most of the creameries, milk 
depots,^ etc., have been inspected by members of the Bureau, 
and suggestions made as to bettering conditions where 
needed. 

By way of educational work special dairy meetings have 
been held at Barre, Littleton, iTewbury, 'New Bedford, Shel- 
burne, Worcester and Wayland. These meetings have been 
addressed by leading dairy experts from various parts of the 
country. Other meetings have been addressed by the general 
agent, making a total of 26 lectures. 

Milk Supply. 
It is worthy of comment that United States goA^ernment 
officials and others agree that the milk supply of this State 
is among the best in the country. To those who have closely 
watched the improvement which has been going on for years 
this seems but the logical result of constant and persistent 
effort. May the improvement continue, and Massachusetts 
never be elsewhere than in the front of the procession in the 
matter of her milk supply. 

^ We especially commend the methods and care exercised by the Willow Brook Dairy Com- 
pany at Sheffield, Mass. This plant is new and with its modern appliances and system of 
buying comes the nearest to an ideal of any shipping station we have seen. The milk is 
shipped to New York City. The creamery at New Boston has gone out of business. 



6 



DAIRY BUREAU. ' [Jan. 



In our annual reports since 1906 we have from time to 
time called attention to the decline in volume of dairying in 
this State, as shown by the decreasing number of cows year 
by year. We are glad to note that, according to the last 
assessors' returns, the decline has ceased, and the business 
seems at present to be holding its own. 

Pasteurized Milk. 
Most of the market milk sold in Boston is pasteurized. 
Many physicians and sanitarians advocate this as a precau- 
tion against disease. The great objection to pasteurization 
is that it provides an opportunity to sell old milk that other- 
wise might be unsalable. Clean milk pasteurized is a safe 
and desirable product, and there should be regulations by 
local authorities requiring in some way a guarantee in rela- 
tion to its age, and also its bacteria count at the time of pas- 
teurizing. 

Condensed Milk. 

The act recommended last year by the Bureau, requiring 
a formula for the dilution of reduced milks with water, to 
make standard fluid milk equivalent, became a law Jan. 1, 
1912. It is reported that twenty carloads of condensed and 
evaporated milk are brought into this State each month, and 
more than 17,000 retail dealers are selling these goods. It 
is also reported that the evaporated milk output alone in 
the United States has increased 154 per cent during the last 
five years. If evaporated and condensed milks are used to 
such a large degree it seems desirable that the age be known, 
and we recommend the following amendment to section 59, 
chapter 56, of the Revised Laws, with a view to accomplishing 
this result : — 

An Act relative to the Sale of Condensed, Concentrated or 
Evaporated Milk or Skimmed Milk. 

Be it enacted, etc., as follows: 

Section 1. Section fifty-nine of chapter fifty-six of the Revised 
Laws is hereby amended by inserting before the word "milk'', 
where it first occurs in line two, the words : — condensed or evapo- 
rated, — by striking out the word " condensed in line two, — by 



1912.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 60. 



7 



striking out the word " and in line four, — by inserting after 
the word " can in line five, the words : — and date of manufacture, 
— by inserting after the word " condensed in line five, — the 
words : — concentrated or evaporated, — by inserting after the word 
milk in line five, the words : — or skimmed milk, — by inserting 
after the word " manufacture in line seven, the words, — and date 
of manufacture, — so as to read as follows : — Section 59. Who- 
ever sells, or offers for sale or exchange, condensed, concentrated 
or evaporated milk or skimmed milk in hermetically sealed cans 
without having such cans distinctly labeled with the name of the 
manufacturer of such milk, the brand under which it is made, the 
contents of the can and the date of manufacture; and whoever sells 
condensed, concentrated or evaporated milk or skimmed milk from 
cans or packages not hermetically sealed, without having such cans 
or packages branded or labeled with the name of the manufacturer, 
and date of manufacture, shall be punished as provided in section 
fifty-five. 

Section 2. This act shall take effect upon the first day of 
September, nineteen hundred and twelve. 

Milk Consumptioi^-. 

Consumption of unreduced fluid milk, in Boston at least, 
shows a marked decline in the last five years. In 1906, 114,- 
233,976 quarts were shipped in bj rail, while in 1910, 100,- 
606,362% quarts were shipped by rail, showing a decline in 
four years of 13,627,6131/0 quarts. During the twelve 
months, Dec. 1, 1910, to IsTov. 30, 1911, there was a further 
decline of 10,503,590% quarts, making a total decrease of 
24,141,204% quarts in five years. 

This Bureau is, and always has been, in favor of clean 
milk, and we believe that two essentials are necessary in 
procuring it. One is the inspection of the milk daily, as it 
leaves the farmer's hands, for bacteria count, requiring that 
it be below a fixed standard, and the other is that the farmer 
be paid for so producing and delivering it. This milk should 
again be inspected by the local authorities in the various 
cities and towns at the point of delivery. Such inspection 
would accomplish results, hut would increase the cost, and 
therefore might raise the present price of market milk. It 
is for the public to decide, by its willingness to pay, whether 
or not such milk is wanted. 



8 



DAIRY BUREAU. 



[Jan. 



Oleomargarine. 
The number of retail oleomargarine licenses in force in 
this State ^^'ovember, 1910, was 698, while in 1911 it was 
459, showing a decrease of 239. Oleomargarine receipts in 
Boston, as reported by the Chamber of Commerce in 1910, 
was 138,981 packages, while in 1911 it was 104,685, show- j 
ing a decrease of 34,296 packages. Oleomargarine produced 
in the United States in 1910 was 141,862,280 pounds, while 
in 1911 it was 121,279,001 pounds, showing a decrease of 
20,593,279 pounds. 

Renovated Butter. 
In 1910 there were 47,433,574 pounds of renovated butter 
produced in the United States, while in 1911 there were j 
39,292,591 pounds, showing a decrease of 8,140,984 pounds 
in twelve months. 

Butter. 

The average wholesale price of butter, per Chamber of 
Commerce reports, for 1910 was 30.2 cents, while in 1911 it 
was 27.3 cents. The increased consumption of butter in 
1911 over 1910, Boston output, was 4,294,156 pounds, 
which, when compared with the figures given under the two 
preceding heads, shows how intimately connected are these 
three products, and how dependent all are upon the price 
of butter. 

MassxVChusetts Dairymen^s Association. 
For some years this Bureau has advocated the organiza- 
tion of a State Dairymen's Association. We are glad to 
report that such an association is now an accomplished fact, 
the Massachusetts Dairymen's Association having been char- 
tered during the summer of 1911. We believe there are 
great possibilities for this organization. 

Personnel of the Bureau. 
The personnel of the Bureau has remained unchanged 
and is as follows: Charles M. Gardner of Westfield, chair- 
man, Howard A. Parsons of Amherst and George W. Trull 



1912.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 60. 



9 



of Tewksburj. The executive force, agents, chemists, etc., 
are as follows : executive officer and secretary, J. Lewis Ells- 
worth; general agent, P. M. Harwood; B. F. Davenport, 
M.D., of Boston, and F. W. Farrell of the Emerson Labora- 
tory, Springfield, have done the chemical work. A. W. Lom- 
bard has continued to act as agent, and five others have been 
temporarily employed from time to time. 



SUMMAEY OF POLICE WoEK. 




Total number of inspections, 


' 7,281 


Number of inspections where no sample was taken, . 


5,995 


Number of samples of butter and oleomargarine, all pur- 






1,282 


Number of samples of milk and cream, .... 


35 




219 


Addresses by general agent and others, .... 


26 



Cases prosecuted during the twelve months ending ^^ov. 
30, 1911, by months and courts, with law violated, and re- 
sults, are as follows : — 



Court. 


Month. 


Num- 
ber. 


Law violated. 


Con- 
victed. 


Dis- 
charged. 


Newburyport, Police, 
Worcester, Central District, 
Springfield, Police, 


December, . 
December, . 
December, . 


6 
2 
13 


3 oleomargarine, 3 
renovated butter. 

1 oleomargarine, 1 
renovated butter. 

Oleomargarine, 


6 
2 
13 




Salem, First Essex District, 


December, . 


2 


Oleomargarine, 


2 




Holyoke, Police, . 

Springfield, Police, 

Attleborough, Fourth Bris- 
tol District. 
Waltham, Police, 


January, 
January, 
January, 
January, 


12 
28 
4 
8 


6 oleomargarine, 6 
renovated butter. 

18 oleomargarine, 10 
renovated butter. 

Renovated butter. 

Oleomargarine, 


12 
28 
4 
8 




Chicopee, Police, 


January, 


2 


Oleomargarine, 




1 


New Bedford, Third Bristol 

District. 
Newton, Police, . 


January, 
Januarj', 


23 
2 


Oleomargarine, 
Oleomargarine, 


23 
2 




Maiden, First Eastern Mid- 
dlesex. 

Attleborough, Fourth Bris- 
tol District. 
Lowell, Police, 

Fitchburg, Police, 


February, . 
February, . 
February, . 
March, 


1 

11 
10 
4 


Oleomargarine, 

4 oleomargarine, 7 
renovated butter. 

8 oleomargarine, 2 
renovated butter. 

Oleomargarine, 


1 
11 
10 

4 





1 There were 31 extra samples taken during the year, therefore this number is less than 
the sum of the next three items. 

'Convicted in lower court but nol-prossed by district attorney in Superior Court. 



10 



DAIRY BUREAU. 



[Jan. 



Court. 


Month. 


Num- 
ber. 


Law violated. 


Con- 
victed. 


Dis- 
charged. 


Webster, First Southern 

Worcester. 
Leominster, Police, 


March, 
March, 


17 
1 


2 oleomargarine, 15 
renovated butter. 
Oleomargarine, 


17 
1 


- 
- 


Greenfield, Franklin Dis- 
trict. 
Springfield, Police, 


March, 
March, 


2 
3 


Oleomargarine, 
Oleomargarine, 


2 
3 


- 


Spencer, Western Worcester, 
Lynn, Police, 


March, 
March, 


8 
5 


2 oleomargarine, 6 
renovated butter. 
Oleomargarine, 


8 
4 


1 


Dedham, Northern Norfolk, 


April, . 


2 


Renovated butter. 


2 


- 


Worcester, Central District, 


April, . 


9 


Oleomargarine, 


9 


- 


Ayer, First Northern Mid- 
dlesex 

Uxbridge, Second Southern 
Worcester. 

Boston, Municipal, 


March, 
May, . 
June, . 


1 
1 
1 


Milk, . 

Oleomargarine, 

Oleomargarine, 


- 
1 

^ 


1 

- 
- 


Fall River, Second Bristol, 


May, . 


2 


Oleomargarine, 


2 




Springfield, Police, 


July, . 


1 


Milk, . 


1 




Worcester, Central District, 


July, . 


1 


Oleomargarine, 


1 




Boston, Roxbury District, . 


August, 


2 


Renovated butter, 


2 


- 


Plymouth, Third Plymouth, 


October, 


2 


Oleomargarine, 


2 




Abington, Second Plymouth, 


October, 


4 


Oleomargarine, 


4 




Chelsea, Police, . 


November, . 


3 


Oleomargarine, 


3 




Quincy, Eastern Norfolk, . 


November, . 


26 


24 Oleomargarine, 2 
renovated butter. 


26 





Note. — The Bureau is especially indebted to the milk inspectors of Boston, Chelsea, 
Revere, Salem, Springfield and Worcester for assistance which has resulted in cases in court. 
We also record our indebtedness to all others who have aided us in any way. 



The charges in the several cases entered in court for the 
year ending JSTov. 30, 1911, have been as follows: — 



Selling renovated butter in unmarked packages, . . . .60 
Selling oleomargarine when butter was asked for, ... 9 
Selling oleomargarine without being registered, ... 4 
Selling oleomargarine without sign on exposed contents, . . 2 
Selling oleomargarine in unmarked^ packages, . . . .32 
Selling oleomargarine from unmarked wagons, .... 4 
Furnishing oleomargarine in restaurants, etc., without notice, 

to guests, 106 

Selling milk containing added w^ater, 2 



219 



1 In these cases oleomargarine was sold when butter was asked for, but the charge was 
made in this way for convenience. 



1912.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 60. 



11 



The following is a list of inspections without samples and 
the number of samples taken in the years 1903-11, inclu- 
sive : — 



Year. 


Inspections 
without 
Samples. 


5 

Samples 


1903, 


4,135 


1,395 


1904 


4,456 


1,157 






971 




4,985 


576 




4,538 


1,374 




5,516 


1,575 


1909 


5,003 


1,869 


1910, 


6,121 


1,960 




5,995 


1,282 




45,636 
5,070+ 


12,159 
1,351 



Oleomargarine. 

'No sales of colored oleomargarine have been discovered 
by the agents of the Bureau during the year. 

On account of the lower price of butter the oleomargarine 
trade has declined somewhat. Some idea of the extent of 
this may be obtained from a comparison of uncolored oleo- 
margarine licenses in force in Massachusetts in !N"ovember, 
1910 and 1911, with the prices of butter for those years. 

1910. 1911. 

Wholesale licenses in Boston, 21 20 

Wholesale licenses in other cities, .... 9 8 

Total, 30 28 

Retail licenses in Boston, 91 61 

Retail licenses in other cities and towns, . . . 607 398 

Total, 698 459 

For prices of butter see page 13. 

The following figures, taken from the annual report of 
the United States Commissioner of Internal Kevenue for 



12 



DAIRY BUREAU. 



[Jan. 



1911, show the production, withdrawn tax paid, and with- 
drawn for export of the two classes of oleomargarine, as 
defined by act of May 9, 1902, covering the period of nine 
years, since it went into effect on July 1, 1902 : — 



Oleomargarine (Pounds). 





Product taxed at Rate of 
10 Cents per Pound. ^ 


Product taxed at Rate op 
}4 Cent per Pound. 2 


Year. 


Produced. 


With- 
drawn Tax 
paid. 


With- 
drawn for 
Export. 


Produced. 


With- 
drawn Tax 
paid. 


With- 
drawn for 
Export. 


1903, . 


5,710,407 


2,312,493 


3,334.969 


67,573,689 


66,785,796 


151,693 


1904, . 


3,785,670 


1,297,068 


2,504,940 


46,413,972 


46,397,984 


123,425 


1905, . 


5,560.304 


3,121,640 


2.405.763 


46,427,032 


46,223,691 


137,670 


1906, . 


4,888,986 


2,503,095 


2,422,320 


50,545.914 


50,536,466 


78,750 


1907, . 


7,758,529 


5,009,094 


2,695,276 


63.608.246 


63,303,016 


129,350 


1908, . 


7,452,800 


4,982,029 


2,522,188 


74,072,800 


73,916,869 


109,480 


1909, . 


5,710.301 


3,275,968 


2,403,742 


86,572,514 


86,221,310 


112,958 


1910, . 


6,176.991 


3,416,286 


2,767,195 


135,685,289 


135,159,429 


97,575 


1911, . 


5.830,995 


2,764,971 


3,054,344 


115,331,800 


115,448,006 


91,770 


Total, 


52,874,983 


28.682,644 


24,110,737 


686,231,256 


683,992,567 


1,032,651 



1 Colored oleomargarine. 2 Uncolored oleomargarine. 



In Boston the Chamber of Commerce reports receipts for 
1911, 104,685 packages, against 138,981 in 1910, — a de- 
crease of 34,296 packages. 

Renovated Butter. 

Violations of the renovated butter law in this State dur- 
ing the year have been less than in 1910. The lower price 
of butter has caused less of the goods to be used than was the 
case last year. There is one licensed concern in this State 
manufacturing renovated butter. 

The following figures, from the same source as the pre- 
ceding table, show the production and withdrawn tax paid 
of renovated butter, 1902-11 : — 



1912.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 60. 13 



Renovated Butter (Pounds). 



Year. 


Production. 


Withdrawn Tax 
paid. 


1904, 

1905, 

1907 

1908, 

1909, 

1910 

1911, 


54,658,790 
54^171,183 
60,029,421 
53,549,900 

50,479,489 
47,345,361 
47,433,575 
39,292,591 


54,223,234 
54,204,478 
60,171,504 
53,361,088 

D0,U/o,0U4 

50,411,446 
47,402,382 
47,378,446 
39,352,445 


Total 


469,925,923 


469,583.527 



Butter. 

The annual statement of the Chamber of Commerce, as 
will be seen by the appended tables, shows increase in the 
consumption of butter during 1911, due undoubtedly to the 
lower wholesale average price of 27.3 cents per pound, the 
lowest since 1906. 

The following table shows the average quotation for the 
best fresh creamery butter, in a strictly wholesale way, in 
the Boston market for the last ten years, as compiled by the 
Boston Chamber of Commerce : — 



Month. 


1911. 

Cents. 


1910. 

Cents. 


1909. 

Cents. 


1908. 

Cents. 


1907. 

Cents. 


1906. 

Cents. 


1905. 

Cents. 


1904. 

Cents. 


1903. 

Cents. 


1902. 

Cents. 


January, . 


28.8 


33.5 


30.9 


29.7 


30.4 


25.2 


28.0 


22.7 


28.0 


25.0 


February, . 


26.9 


30.5 


30.0 


32.1 


31.7 


25.2 


31.6 


24.6 


27.0 


28.5 


March, 


24.2 


32.0 


29.1 


30.2 


30.2 


25.5 


28.0 


24.1 


27.0 


29.0 


April, 


21.7 


31.5 


27.9 


28.4 


32.2 


22.2 


29.1 


21.6 


27.5 


32.0 


May, . 


22.8 


29.0 


26.6 


24.1 


31.4 


19.9 


23.9 


19.9 


22.5 


25.0 


June, . 


24.2 


28.2 


26.4 


24.5 


24.3 


20.2 


20.7 


18.4 


22.75 


23.5 


July, . 


26.0 


28.6 


27.2 


23.6 


25.9 


21.0 


20.6 


18.3 


20.5 


22.5 


August, 


27.2 


29.6 


28.2 


24.5 


26.0 


23.8 


21.6 


19.1 


20.0 


21.5 


September, 


27.7 


29.6 


31.3 


25.3 


29.2 


25.6 


21.2 


20.8 


22.0 


23.5 


October, . 


30.4 


29.4 


31.7 


27.5 


29.9 


26.9 


22.1 


21.5 


22.5 


24.5 


November, 


32.5 


30.2 


31.4 


29.5 


27.1 


27.6 


23.0 


24.1 


23.5 


27.0 


December, 


35.0 


30.0 


32.9 


31.0 


27.5 


30.7 


23.9 


25.7 


24.5 


28.5 


Average, 


27.3 


30.2 


29.5 


27.5 


28.48 


24.48 


24.47 


21.73 


26.23 


25.0 



14 



DAIRY BUREAU. 



[Jan. 



The Chamber of Commerce figures regarding the butter 
business in Boston for 1910 and 1911 are as follows: — 





1911. 

Pounds. 


1910. 

Thrill Tif^Q 


Carried over, . . . . 


12,272,624 


8,030,740 


Receipts for January, ........ 


2,058,615 


2,763,388 


Receipts for February, ....... 


2,834,187 


2,735,471 


Receipts for March, 


3,290,750 


3,202,183 


Receipts for April, 


3,741,069 


2.617,479 


Receipts for May, 


6,070,694 


7,953,512 


Receipts for June, 


12,254,528 


13,294,088 


Receipts for July, 


8,282,769 


10,529,244 


Receipts for August, 


7,702,794 


8,371 256 


Receipts for September, 


6,288,939 


7,455,963 


Receipts for October, . . 


5,000,839 


5,499,123 


Receipts for November 


3,329,460 


2,904,893 


Receipts for December, 


3,019,606 


2,094,240 


Total supply, 


76,146,874 


77,451,580 


Exports for year, deduct 


74,448 


13,650 


Net supply, 

Storage stock December 30, deduct, 

Consumption for year 

Gain, 4,294,156 pounds. 


76,072,428 
6,612,966 


77,437,930 
12,272,624 


69,459,462 


65,165,306 



Milk. 

Milk brought into Boston by Different Railroads, Dec. 1, 1910, to 
Nov. 30, 1911, as reported by the Railroad Commissioners 
(Quarts). 



Date. 


Boston & 
Albany. 


Boston & 
Maine. 


New York, 
New Haven 
& Hartford. 


Total. 


1910. 

December, 


837, 902 


3,893,803 


1,891,326 


6.623,031 


1911. 

January, 


954,991 


3.920,531 


1,943,600 


6.819.122 


February 


778,233 


3,810,408 


1,798,264 


6,386,905 


March, 


947,997 ■ 


3,874,625 


2,005,974 


6,828,596 


April 


970,421 


4,162,6473^ 


1,819,823 


6,952.891H 


May, 


1,000,904 


4,581,592 


2.007,567 


7.590.063 


June, 


1,059,773 


4.742,761}4 


2,023.276 


7,825,8103^ 


July, 


814,939 


6.206,046 


1,702,749 


8,723,734 


August, 


807,635 


5,135,598 


1,918,993 


7,862,226 


September 


794,337 


5,285,888 


1,910,729 


7,990,954 


October, 


904,345 


5,492,557 


1,795,274 


8.192,176 


November, 


1,042,719 


5,675,805 


1,578,739 


8,297,263 


Total, 


10,914,196 


56,782,262 


22,396,314 


90,092,772 



1912.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 60. 15 



Blilk brought into Boston by Railroad for Twelve Months ending 
November 30 of Each Year {Quarts). 



1906, 114,233,976 

1907, 109,882,1901/2 

1908, 103,381,2781/2 

1909, 108,082,936 

1910, 100,606,3621/2 

1911, 90,092,772 

Total decrease in five years, 24,141,204 

Average annual decrease, 4,828,241 



Number of Cows assessed in Massachusetts. 



May 1, 1906, 181,816 

April 1, 1910, 166,048 

April 1, 1911, 166,500 

Total decrease in five years, 15,316 

Average annual decrease, 3,063 



Local Milk Inspectoes. 
Milk Inspectors for Massachusetts Cities, 1911. 



Beverly, Henry E. Dodge, 2d. 

Boston, Prof. James 0. Jordan. 

Brockton, . , . . . . George E. Boiling. 

Cambridge, Dr. Ernest H. Sparrow. 

Chelsea, Arthur H. Upton. 

Chicopee, C. J. O'Brien. 

Everett, E. Clarence Colby. 

Fall River, ..... Henry Boisseau. 

Fitchburg, ..... John F. Bresnahan. 

Gloucester, ..... Dr. George E. Watson. 

Haverhill, ..... Homer L. Connor, M.D. 

Holyoke, Daniel P. Hartnett. 

Lawrence, ..... Eugene A. McCarthy. 

Lowell, Melvin F. Master. 

Lynn, Alexander S. Wright. 

Maiden, J. A. Sandford. 

Marlborough, John J. Cassidy. 

Medford, Winslow Joyce. 

Melrose, Caleb W. Clark, M.D. 

New Bedford, Herbert B. Hamilton, D.V.S. 

Newburyport, Dr. R. D. Hamilton. 



16 



DAIRY BUREAU. 



[Jan. 



Newton, . . . . 

North Adams, . 

Northampton, . 

Pittsfield, . . . . 

Quiney, . . . . 

Salem, . . . . 
Somerville, 
Springfield, 

Taunton, . . . . 
Waltham, 

Woburn, . . 
Worcester, 

Milk Inspectors 

Adams, . . . . 
Amesbury, 

Andover, . . . . 
Arlington, 

Attleborough, . 
Barnstable, 

Belmont, . . . . 
Brookline, 

Clinton, . . . . 

Concord, . . . . 

Easthampton, . 

Gardner, . . . . 
Greenfield, 

Hudson, . . . . 
Hyde Park, 
Leominster, 

Ludlow, . . . . 

Millbury, . . . . 

Monson, . . . . 
North Attleborough, 

Palmer, . . . . 

Peabody, . . . . 

Revere, . . . . 
Salisbury, 

South Framingham, . 

South Hadley Falls, 

Spencer, . . . . 
Stoneham, 
Wakefield, 



. Arthur Hudson. 

. Henry A. Tower. 

. George R. Turner. 

. Eugene L. Hannon. 

. Edward J. Murphy. 

. John J. McGrath. 

. Herbert E. Bowman. 

. Stephen C. Downs. 

. Lewis L Tucker. 

. Arthur E. Stone, M.D. 

. Edward P. Kelly, M.D. 

. Gustaf L. Berg. 

for Massachusetts Towns, 1911. 

. Dr. A. G. Potter. 

. E. S. Worthen. 

. Franklin H. Stacey. 

. Dr. L. L. Pierce. 

. Caleb E. Parmenter. 

. George T. Mecarta. 

. Prof. Samuel C. Prescott. 

. Frederick H. Osgood. 

. Gilman L. Chase. 

. Erastus H. Smith. 

. George L. McEvoy. 

. Clifford W. Shippee. 

. George P. Moore. 

. Dr. A. L. Crandall. 

. James G. Bolles. 

. William H. Hodge, D.V.S. 

. A. L. Bennett, D.V.S. 

. Arthur A. Brown. 

. E. W. Capen. 

. Hugh Gaw, V.S. 

. Edward P. Brown. 

. H. S. Pomery, M.D. 

. Joseph E. Lamb. 

. John H. Pike. 

. Dr. J. H. McCann. 

. George F. Boudreau. 

. James A. Spencer. 

. George H. Allen. 

. Harry A. Simonds. 



1912.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 60. 



17 



Ware, Fred E. Marsh. 

Watertown, Luther W. Simonds. 

Wellesley, Cecil K. Blanchard. 

Westfield, William H. Porter. 

West Spring-field, .... Norman T. Smith. 

Williamstown, G. S. Jordan, V.S. 

Winchendon, Frederick W. Russell, M.D. 

Winchester, ..... Morris Dineen. 

Creameries, Milk Depots, etc. 
Co-operative Creameries. 



Number and Location. 

1. Ashfield, 

2. Belchertown, 

3. Cummington, 

4. Easthampton, 

5. Egremont (P. O. Great 

Barrington). 

6. Monterey, 

7. New Salem (P. O. Mill- 

ington). 

8. Northfield, . 

9. Shelburne, . 

10. Westfield (P. O. Wyben) , 

11. West Newbury, 



Name. 

Ashfield Creamery, , 

Belchertown Creamery, . 

Cummington Creamery, . 

Hampton Creamery, 

Egremont Creamery, 

Berkshire Hills Creamery, 

New Salem Creamery, 

Northfield Co-operative Cream- 
ery Association. 
Shelburne Creamery, 

Wyben Springs Creamery, 

West Newbury Creamerj', 



Superintendent or Manager. 

William Hunter, manager. 
M. G. Ward, president. 

D. C. Morey, superintend- 
ent. 

W. H. Wright, treasurer. 

E. Q. Tyrrell, manager. 

F. A. Campbell, treasurer. 

W. A. Moore, treasurer. 

Charles C. Stearns, super- 
intendent. 
Ira Barnard, manager. 

C. H. Kelso, manager. 

R. S. Brown, treasurer. 



Proprietary Creameries. 



Number and Location. 


Name. 


Owner or Manager. 


1. Amherst, . • %• 


Amherst Creamery Company, . 


R. W. Pease, manager. 


2. Amherst, 


Fort River Creamery, 


E. A. King, proprietor. 


3. Brimfield, . 


Crystal Brook Creamery, . 


F. N. Lawrence, proprietor. 


4. Everett, 

5. Fitchburg, 26 Gushing 

Street. 

6. Gardner, 


Hampden Creamery Company, 
Fitchburg Creamery, 
Boston Dairy Company, . 


Hampden Creamery Com- 
pany. 

G. S. Learned, proprietor. 
Boston Dairy Company. 


7. Groton, 


Lawrence Creamery, 


Myron P. Swallow, man- 
ager. 

I. W. Stetson & Son. 


8. Heath 


Cold Spring Creamery, 


9. Hinsdale, 
10. Marlborough, 


Hinsdale Creamery, . 


Walter C. Solomon, pro- 
prietor. 


11. North Brookfield, 


North Brookfield Creamery, . 


H. A. Richardson, pro- 
prietor. 



18 


DAIRY BUREAU. 


[Jan. 




Educational. 




Number and Location. 


Name. 


Owner or Manager. 


Amherst, .... 


Dairy Industry Course, Massa- 
chusetts Agricultural College. 


W. P. B. Lockwood, pro- 
fessor in charge. 



Milk-distributing Depots. 



Name. 


Location. 


Manager. 


Alden Brothers Company, 
Oak Grove Farm. 

Boston Dairy Company, . 

C. Brigham Company, 
rirignam Company, 

Deerfoot Farms, 

Elm Farm Milk Company, 

H. P. Hood & Sons, . 

Springfield Creamery, 
Tait Brothers, 
Wachusett Creamery, 

D. Whiting & Sons, . 


Boston office, 1171 Tremont Street, 
Depot, 24-28 Duncan Street. 

Boston, 484 Rutherford Avenue, . 

Cambridge, 158 Massachusetts Ave- 
nue. 

Worcester, 9 Howard Street, . 

Southborough, .... 

Boston, Wales Place, 

Boston, 494 Rutherford Avenue; 
branch, 24 Anson Street, Forest 
Hills. 

Lynn, 193 Alley Street. 
Maiden, 425 Main Street. 
Salem, 252 Bridge Street. 
Watertown, 289 Pleasant Street. 
Lawrence, 629 Common Street. 

Boston, 570 Rutherford Avenue, . 


Charles L. Alden, presi- 
dent, John Alden, 
treasurer. 

W. A. Graustein. 

John K. Whiting. 

C. Brigham Company. 

S. H. Howes. 

James H. Knapp, treas- 
urer. 
Charles H. Hood. 

Tait Brothers, propri- 
etors. 

E. H. Thayer & Co., 

proprietors. 
George Whiting. 


Milk Laboratory. 


Walker-Gordon Laboratory, 


Boston, 793 Boylston Street, . 


George W. Franklin. 


Receiving Depots for Milk, for Shipments to New York City. 


The Borden Company of 
New York. 

Willow Brook Dairy Com- 
pany. 


Sheffield 


F. H. Glass. 
Frank Percy. 



1912.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 60. 19 

Expenses. 

The following is a classified statement of the expenses for 
the year ending JSTov. 30, 1911 : — 

Bureau: compensation and traveling expenses, . . $636 71 

Agents: compensation, 2,418 00 

Agents: traveling expenses and samples purchased, . 2,931 00 

General agent: traveling and necessary expenses, . 483 31 

Chemists: analyses, tests, court attendance, . . . 1,158 60 

Printing and supplies, 127 99 

Educational, 219 39 



Total, • . . $7,975 00 



P. M. HAKWOOD, 

General Agent. 

Accepted and adopted as the report of the Dairy Bureau, 

CHARLES M. GARDNER. 
H. A. PARSONS. 
GEO. W. TRULL. 



Public Document 



1 '-'1 i • 

No. 60 



TWENTY-SECOND ANNUAL EEPOET 

OF THE 

DAIRY BUREAU 

OF THE 

Massachusetts Boaed of Ageictjltuee, 

REQUIRED UNDER 

Chapter 89, Section 12, Revised Laws. 



January 15, 1913. 




BOSTON: 

WEIGHT & POTTEE FEINTING CO., STATE PEINTEES, 
18 Post OrncB Squabb. 
1913. 



Public Document 



No. 60 



TWENTY-SECOND ANNUAL REPOET 

OF THE 

DAIRY BUREAU 

OF THE 

Massachusetts Board of Agriculture, 

REQUIRED UNDER 

Chapter 89, Section 12, Revised Laws. 



January 15, 1913. 




BOSTON: 

WRIGHT & POTTER PRINTING CO., STATE PRINTERS, 
18 Post Office Squaeb. 
191^. 



T-^TE LIBRARY OF MASSAIlWii 
APR ' 1913 

STATE HOUStftOSTON, 



Approved by 
The State Board of Publication. 



A. 



3 



Dairy Bureau — 1912. 



CHARLES M. GARDNER, Westfield, Chairman. 
GEORGE W. TRULL, Tewksbury, P. 0. Lowell, R. F. D. 
OMER E. BRADWAY, Monson, Mass. 



Secretary. 

J. LEWIS ELLSWORTH, Executive Officer and Secretary of the 
State Board of Agriculture. 



General Agent. 
P. M. HARWOOD. 
Address, Room 136, State House, Boston. 



QL\)C CotnmontDealtl) of iViaBBatl)nBtM 



REPORT OF THE DAIRY BUREAU. 



The police work of this department for the year 1912 has 
consisted of 8,028 inspections, resulting in 216 court cases and 
216 convictions. One hundred and twenty-two of these prose- 
cutions were for violation of the oleomargarine law, 88 for selling 
renovated butter in unmarked packages, and 6 for having in 
possession with intent to sell milk containing added water. 

In the educational work the Bureau has provided several 
dairy institutes which were addressed by Dr. Charles E. North 
of New York City and others, with a view of informing the 
public of the modern rational method of securing clean milk 
by paying more for it. Twenty-eight addresses have been 
given by the general agent and others at dairy meetings during 
the year. Most of these lectures have been along the line of 
educating the consuming public to the true food value of milk, 
and the fairness of paying producers as much at least as the 
same nutrition costs in other foods of like origin, nutritive 
ratio and digestibility. The general agent upon invitation 
visited the plant of the New York Demonstration Company 
at Homer, and attended meetings of the national commission 
on milk standards both at Homer and New York City, also a 
conference of dairy interests at Albany, N. Y., to consider the 
national oleomargarine question. He has also prepared a 
bulletin on the food value of milk for the dissemination depart- 
ment of the State Board of Agriculture. 

The Bureau has made its annual inspection of creameries, 
milk depots, etc., and has found as in previous years conditions 
gradually changing. Some creameries have gone out of business, 
some are on the verge of giving up, while others are increasing 
their output, in some cases materially. As in other lines of 
milk handling, there is of necessity continual adjustment to 
modern conditions. 



6 



DAIRY BUREAU. 



[Jan. 



The Dairy Situation. 
The largest number of cows ever assessed in Massachusetts 
was 200,658, in 1890. The bovine tuberculosis campaign sub- 
sequently followed, with the result that in 1897 the number 
was reduced to 171,485. There was from this time on a gradual 
increase, with some fluctuations, until 1905 and 1906 when 
the number reached 181,920 and 181,816, respectively. Since 
then there has been a general decrease, with the result that on 
April 1, 1912, the number was 161,608. Massachusetts is but 
one of a score of States where the number of cows has recently 
decreased. This condition, while alarming on the face of it, 
is not without compensation. From the very outset milk has 
been mainly produced as a bj^-product of general farming. 
Milk production for the general market has rarely stood upon 
a strictly independent paying basis. It is generally acknowl- 
edged that a given amount of nutrition in the form of milk 
has for years sold for a lower figure than that in other animal 
food products of similar nutritive ratio and digestibility. The 
natural result of this condition, added to the fact that our 
railroad laws are such as allow discrimination in favor of out- 
of-State milk, is that in those sections which have been ship- 
ping milk to the Boston market many have found the un- 
profitableness of the business too great to stand, and have, 
therefore, sold their herds. The production and marketing 
of clean milk, rich in solids, and bringing a price above that of 
general market milk, is the hope of the Massachusetts farmer 
so far as the Boston supply is concerned, and is what the most 
progressive farmers are striving for in all localities. With 
the growth of our cities and towns this near-by fresh milk is, 
and will be, more and more needed and used. The number of 
cows will cease decreasing only when that time arrives (in the 
not far distant future) when a sound business basis for dairy- 
ing is established in this Commonwealth, — the condition most 
desired. Meanwhile, pasteurized milk and reduced milk in its 
various forms will continue to come from outside sources. But 
like counterfeit butter, which never reaches the quality of the 
best creamery product, this class of milk can never equal the 
pure, clean, raw, near-by product of the local dairymen. It is 



1913.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 60. 



7 



gratifying to know that the demand for locally produced milk, 
at a price ranging from 1 to 2 cents per quart above that ob- 
tained for average market milk, is on the increase, and is being 
met each year by more farmers entering into its production. 
Elsewhere in this report will be found a list of farms making 
milk of this class as well as a list of those making certified milk 
in Massachusetts. It is hoped that by the end of another year 
many more farmers, so entitled, will be added to this list. 

Milk Consumption. 
For the first time since 1906 we are able to report a gain in 
the apparent consumption of fluid milk in Greater Boston. 
This is a good omen and indicative that the end of the scare 
crusade against milk is at hand. The milk question is being 
treated with more and more fairness by both the scientific 
world and the press. The pasteurization of general market 
milk (and some other milks) has probably been another factor 
in restoring confidence and arresting the declining use of this 
most desirable food product. 

Price of Milk. 
The retail price of general market milk now varies in this 
State from 7 to 10 cents per quart, according to locality and 
conditions. Milk of superior quality and cleanliness, including 
inspected milk, sells for from 9 to 12 cents (in a few in- 
stances higher) per quart, and certified milk from 12 to 18 
cents per quart. There has been thus far but small demand 
for certified milk in Massachusetts. 

Condensed Milk. 
In another part of this report there will be found figures 
showing the amount of wholesale trade in condensed and 
evaporated milk from Boston. As this is the first year any 
record of these goods has been kept no exact comparisons can 
be made. We are inclined to believe, however, that the in- 
crease of trade in condensed milk is not as great as occurred 
in the preceding two or three years. 



8 



DAIRY BUREAU. 



[Jan. 



Local Milk Inspectors. 
During the last few years a large number of local milk in- 
spectors with splendidly equipped laboratories have been es- 
tablished in the various cities and towns in this Commonwealth. 
They are appointed by and are under the control of local boards 
of health. The character and ability of these men is noteworthy, 
and the work they are doing is highly creditable to the State. 
A complete list of these inspectors may be found in another part 
of this report. 

Oleomargarine . 

The number of retail oleomargarine licenses in force in this 
State November, 1911, was 459, while in 1912 it was 846, 
showing an increase of 387. Oleomargarine receipts in Boston, 
as reported by the Chamber of Commerce in 1911, was 104,685 
packages, while in 1912 it was 140,040, showing an increase of 
35,355 packages. Oleomargarine produced in the United States 
in 1911 was 121,162,795 pounds, while in 1912 it was 128,601,053 
pounds, showing an increase of 7,438,258 pounds. This increase 
in the manufacture and sale of oleomargarine is probably due to 
the high price of butter which has prevailed throughout the year. 

So far as our agents have been able to discover no attempts 
to sell artificially colored oleomargarine have been made. 
For further details see tables on page 12. 

Renovated Butter. 
In 1911 there were 39,292,591 pounds of renovated butter 
produced in the United States, while in 1912 there were 46,- 
387,398 pounds, showing an increase of 7,094,807 in twelve 
months, an increase also due to the prevailing high price of 
butter. See table on page 13. 

Butter. 

The annual statement of the Chamber of Commerce shows 
an increase in the consumption of butter during 1912 of but 
398,597 pounds, figures much below the average increase and 
due undoubtedly to the average wholesale price of 31.2 cents 
per pound, the highest on record by at least 1 cent per pound. 
Details will be found in tables on pages 13 and 14. 



1913.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 60. 



9 



Legislation. 

Last year this Bureau introduced a bill in the Legislature 
modifying the condensed milk law which was enacted in ac- 
cordance with the suggestions offered. This year we find that 
the Bureau has reached the point where more money is needed 
to carry on its police and office work and to add to its efficiency 
in endeavoring to secure more satisfactory dairy conditions in 
Massachusetts. We therefore ask that section 12 of chapter 
89 of the Revised Laws, as amended by chapter 416 of the 
Acts of 1908, be amended by striking out the word "eight" 
in the first line, and inserting in place thereof the word "ten", 
so that said section shall read as follows : — 

Section 12. The bureau may expend not more than ten thousand 
dollars annually in its work, and it may co-operate with the state 
board of health and with inspectors of milk, but it shall not interfere 
with the duties of such board or officers. It shall annually, before 
the fifteenth day of January, report to the general court in detail 
the number of agents, assistants, experts and chemists employed by 
it, with their expenses and disbursements, of all investigations made 
by it, of all cases prosecuted with the results thereof, and other infor- 
mation advantageous to the dairy industry. 

Also that section 2 of said chapter 416 be amended by striking 
out the word "eight" in the first line, and inserting in place 
thereof the word "ten", so that said section shall read as 
follows : — 

Section 2. The said sum of ten thousand dollars shall be allowed 
from the first day of December, nineteen hundred and twelve. 

Personnel of the Bureau. 
The personnel of the Bureau is as follows: Charles M. Gard- 
ner of Westfield, chairman, George W. Trull of Tewksbury 
and Omer E. Bradway of Monson. The executive force, 
agents, chemists, etc., are as follows: executive officer and 
secretary, J. Lewis Ellsworth; general agent, P. M. Harwood; 
B. F. Davenport, M.D., of Boston, and F. W. Farrell of the 
Emerson Laboratory, Springfield, have done the chemical 
work; A. W. Lombard has continued to act as agent, and five 
others have been temporarily employed. 



10 



DAIRY BUREAU. 



[Jan. 



Summary of Police Work. 

Total number of inspections, i 8,028 

Number of inspections where no sample was taken, . . 5,968 
Number of samples of butter, oleomargarine, and condensed 

milk, all purchased, 2,042 

Number of samples of milk and cream, 124 

Cases entered in court, 216 

Addresses by general agent and others, 28 



Cases prosecuted during the twelve months ending Nov. 30, 
1912, by months and courts, with law violated, and results, are 
as follows : — 



Court. 


Month. 


Num- 
ber. 


Law violated. 


Con- 
victed. 


Dis- 
charged. 


Haverhill, Northern Essex 


December, . 


1 


1 milk. 




_ 


District. 








LawTence Police, 


December, . 


2 


2 renovated butter, 


2 




New Bedford, Third Bristol 


December, . 


6 


6 oleomargarine, . 


6 




District. 












Newton Police, , 


December, . 




1 renovated butter, 


1 




Fall Kiver, Second Bristol 


December, . 


4 


2 renovated butter. 


4 




District. 




2 oleomargarine. 






Lynn Police, 


January, 


13 


4 oleomargarine, 9 


13 


_ 








renovated butter. 






Peabody Police, . 


January, 


2 


2 oleomargarine, . 


2 


- 


Grafton, First Eastern 


January, 


1 


1 milk, . 


1 




Worcester District. 










Haverhill, Northern Essex 


January, 


35 


12 oleomargarine, 23 


35 




District. 




renovated butter. 






Hudson Police, . 


January, 




1 oleomargarine, . 


1 




Haverhill, Northern Essex 


January, 


4 


2 renovated butter. 


4 




District. 




2 oleomargarine. 






Worcester Central District, 


January, 


2 


2 oleomargarine, . 


2 




Lynn Police, 


February, . 


8 


8 oleomargarine, . 


8 




Holyoke Police, . 


February, . 


6 


4 renovated butter. 


6 






2 oleomargarine. 






North Adams, Northern 


February, . 


20 


10 oleomargarine, 10 


20 




Berkshire District. 




renovated butter. 






Pittsfield, Central Berkshire 


February, . 


4 


4 oleomargarine, . 


4 




District. 










Clinton, Second Eastern 


March, 


4 


2 renovated butter, 


4 




Worcester District. 




2 oleomargarine. 






Southbridge, First Southern 


March, 


1 


1 milk, . 


1 




Worcester District. 












Somerville Police, 


March, 


2 


2 oleomargarine, . 


2 




Boston Municipal, 


March, 


2 


2 oleomargarine, . 


2 




East Boston District, . 


March, 


4 


4 renovated butter. 


4 




Boston Municipal, 


March, 


3 


1 renovated butter. 


3 








2 oleomargarine. 






Charlestown District Mu- 


March, 


2 


2 oleomargarine, . 


2 




nicipal. 












Boston Municipal, 


March, 


2 


2 renovated butter, 


2 




Worcester Central District, . 


April, . 

i 


2 


2 oleomargarine, . j 


2 





1 There were 106 extra samples taken during the year, therefore this number is less than 
the sum of the next three items. 



1913.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 60. 11 



Court. 


Month. 


Num- 
ber. 


Law violated. 


Con- 
victed. 


Dis- 
charged. 


Lowell Police, 


April, , 


31 


9 renovated butter. 


31 


_ 








22 oleomargarine. 






Gloucester, iLastern iijssex 


April, . 


in 


10 oleomargarine, . 


in 




District. 










Salem, First Essex District, 


April, . 


2 


2 oleomargarine, . 


2 


_ 


Salem, First Essex District, 


April, . 


2 


2 oleomargarine, . 


2 


_ 


South Boston District Mu- 


April, . 


7 


1 oleomargarine, 6 


7 


- 


nicipal. 






renovated butter. 






Springfield Police, 


June, 


X 


1 miiK, . 


1 




iNew jjcaioru, J. Liirci x>riSLOi 


June, 




4 renovated butter, 


A 
4 




District. 










Gloucester, Eastern Essex 


June, . 


2 


2 renovated butter. 


2 


_ 


District. 








Lawrence Police, . 


June, . 


10 


8 oleomargarine, 2 


10 


_ 








renovated butter. 






Lowell Police, 


July, 


1 


1 oleomargarine. 


1 




Springfield Police, 


August, 


^ 


1 milk, . 


1 




Gardner, First Northern 


August, 




1 milk, 


1 




Worcester District. 










Waltham, Second Eastern 


November, . 


9 


6 renovated butter, 


9 




Middlesex District. 




3 oleomargarine. 






Worcester, Central District, 


November, . 


2 


2 renovated butter, 


2 




Northampton, Hampshire 


November, . 


1 


1 milk, . 


1 




District. 













Note. — The Bureau is indebted to the milk inspectors of Massachusetts for assistance 
which has resulted in court cases. 



The charges in the several cases entered in court for the year 
ending Nov. 30, 1912, have been as follows: — 

Selling renovated butter in unmarked packages, .... 88 

Selling oleomargarine without being registered, .... 2 

Selling oleomargarine in unmarked 1 packages, .... 28 
Furnishing oleomargarine in restaurants, etc., without notice to 

guests, 92 

Selling milk containing added water, 6 

216 



The following table shows the inspections without samples, 
and the number of samples taken during the past ten years : — 



Years. 


Inspections 
without 
Samples. 


Samples. 


1903-11 (inclusive), 


45,714 


12,409 


1912 


5,968 


2,166 




51,682 


14,575 




5,168 


1,458 



^ In these cases oleomargarine was sold when butter was asked for, but the charge was 
made in this way for convenience. 



12 DAIRY BUREAU. [Jan. 

Tables relating to Oleomargarine. 
The number of United States oleomargarine licenses in force 
in Massachusetts in November, 1911 and 1912 is as follows: — 



1911. 1912. 

Wholesale licenses in Boston, 20 18 

Wholesale hcenses in other cities, 8 9 

Total 28 27 

Retail hcenses in Boston, 61 124 

Retail licenses in other cities and towns, .... 398 722 

Total, 459 846 



The following figures, taken from the annual report of the 
United States Commissioner of Internal Revenue for 1912, 
show the production, withdrawn tax paid, and withdrawn for 
export of the two classes of oleomargarine, as defined by act of 
May 9, 1902, covering the period of ten years, since it went 
into effect on July 1, 1902: — 



Oleomargarine (Pounds) . 





Product taxed at Rate of 
10 Cents per Pound. 


Product taxed at Rate of 
J4 Cent per Pound. 


Year. 


Produced. 


With- 
drawn Tax 
paid. 


With- 
drawn for 
Export. 


Produced. 


With- 
drawn Tax 
paid. 


With- 
drawn for 
Export. 


1903, . 


5,710,407 


2,312,493 


3,334,969 


67,573,689 


66,785,796 


151,693 


1904, . 


3,785,670 


1,297.068 


2,504,940 


46,413,972 


46,397,984 


123.425 


1905, . 


5,560,304 


3,121,640 


2,405,763 


46,427,032 


46,223.691 


137,670 


1906, . 


4,888,986 


2,503,095 


2,422,320 


50,545,914 


50,536,466 


78,750 


1907, ... 


7,758,529 


5,009,094 


2,695,276 


63,608,246 


63.303,016 


129,350 


1908, . 


7,452,800 


4,982,029 


2,522,188 


74,072,800 


73,916,869 


109,480 


1909, . 


5,710,301 


3,275,968 


2,403,742 


86,572,514 


86,221,310 


112.958 


1910, . 


6,176,991 


3,416,286 


2,767,195 


135,685,289 


135,159,429 


97.575 


1911, . 


5,830,995 


2,764,971 


3,054,344 


115,331,800 


115,448,006 


91.750 


1912, . 


6,235,639 


3,174,331 


3,044,122 


122,365,414 


121,945,038 


106.160 


Totals, 


59,110,622 


31,856,975 


27,154,859 


808,596,670 


805,937,605 


1.138,811 



1913.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 60. 13 



Table relating to Renovated Butter. 
The following figures, from the same source as the preceding 
table, show the production and withdrawn tax paid of renovated 
butter, 1902-12: — 

Renovated Butter (Pounds). 



Year. 


Production. 


Withdrawn Tax 
paid. 




54,658,790 


54,223,234 




54,171,183 


54,204,478 




60,029,421 


60,171,504 


1906, 


53,549,900 


53,361,088 




62,965,613 


63,078,504 


1908 


50,479,489 


50,411,446 


1909 


47,345,361 


47,402,382 




47,433,575 


47,378,446 


1911 


39,292,591 


39,352,445 


1912, 


46,387,398 


46,413,895 


Totals, 


516,313,321 


515,997,422 



Tables relating to Butter. 
The following table shows the average quotation for the best 
fresh creamery butter, in a strictly w^holesale way, in the 
Boston market for the last ten years, as compiled by the Boston 
Chamber of Commerce : — 



Month. 


1912. 

Cents. 


1911. 

Cents. 


1910. 

Cents. 


1909. 

Cents. 


1908. 

Cents. 


1907. 

Cents. 


1906. 

Cents. 


1905. 

Cents. 


1904. 

Cents. 


1903. 

Cents. 


January, . 


36.9 


28.8 


33.5 


30.9 


29.7 


30.4 


25.2 


28.0 


22.7 


28.0 


February, . 


32.5 


26.9 


30.5 


30.0 


32.1 


31.7 


25.2 


31.6 


24.6 


27.0 


March, 


32.1 


24.2 


32.0 


29.1 


30.2 


30.2 


25.5 


28.0 


24.1 


27.0 


April, 


32.7 


21.7 


31.5 


27.9 


28.4 


32.2 


22.2 


29.1 


21.6 


27.5 


May, . 


30.4 


22.8 


29.0 


26.6 


24.1 


31.4 


19.9 


23.9 


19.9 


22.5 


June, 


27.9 


24.2 


28.2 


26.4 


24.5 


24.3 


20.2 


20.7 


18.4 


22.75 


July, . 


28.1 


26.0 


28.6 


27.2 


23.6 


25.9 


21.0 


20.6 


18.3 


20.5 


August, 


27.1 


27.2 


29.6 


28.2 


24.5 


26.0 


23.8 


21.6 


19.1 


20.0 


September, 


29.1 


27.7 


29.6 


31.3 


25.3 


29.2 


25.6 


21.2 


20.8 


22.0 


October, . 


31.0 


30.4 


29.4 


31.7 


27.5 


29.9 


26.9 


22.1 


21.5 


22.5 


November, 


32.9 


32.5 


30.2 


31.4 


29.5 


27.1 


27.6 


23.0 


24.1 


23.5 


December, 


34.0 


35.0 


30.0 


32.9 


31.0 


27.5 


30.7 


23.9 


25.7 


24.5 


Averages, . 


31.2 


27.3 


30.2 


29.5 


27.5 


28.8 


24.48 


24.47 


21.73 


23.97 



14 



DAIRY BUREAU. 



[Jan. 



The Chamber of Commerce figures regarding the butter 
business in Boston for 1911 and 1912 are as follows: — 





1912. 


1911. 




Pounds. 


Pounds. 


Receipts for January, 

February, 

March, 

April, 

May 

July, 

September, 

November, 


6,612,966 
3,282,660 
3,256,729 
3,565,555 
3,905,002 
7,003,321 
12,225,290 
13,'030!718 
8,346,787 
6,051,810 
4,961,020 
3,717,156 
2,263,182 


12,272,624 
2,058,615 
2,834,187 
3,290,750 
3,741,069 
6,070,694 

8,282,768 
7,702,794 
6,288,939 
5,000,839 
3,329,460 
3,019,606 




78,222,196 
24,005 


76,146,873 
74,446 


Net supply, 


78,198,191 
8,340,132 


76,072,427 
6,612,966 




69,858,059 


69,459,461 



Receipts of Condensed Milk. 
The Chamber of Commerce figures regarding the receipts 
of condensed milk at Boston during 1912 are as follows: — 





Barrels. 


Cases. 1 




318 


34,212 


February 


174 


32,066 




193 


16,247 




375 


20,614 




107 


23,578 




187 


27,080 


July, 


217 


37,387 




146 


44,461 


September 


76 


14.838 


October, 


262 


22,240 




27 


27,144 




222 


22,079 


Totals, 


2,304 


321,946 



1 Includes evaporated cream. 



1913.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 60. 



15 



Milk. 



Milk brought into Boston by Different Railroads, Dec. 1, 1911, to 
Nov. 30, 1912, as reported by the Railroad Commissioners 
(Quarts). 



Date. 


Boston & 
Albany. 


Boston & 
Maine. 


New York, 
New Haven 
& Hartford. 


Total. 


December, 


1911. 


957,011 


5,684,134 


1,681,167 


8,322,312 


January, 

February, 

March, . 

April, . 

May, 

June, 

July, . 

August, 

September, 

October, 

November, 


1912. 


699,099 
663,677 
778,999 
784,973 
999,002 
852,059 
1,323,508 
1,065,419 
1,044,702 
907,501 
1,114,468 


5,640,697 
5,463,501 
5,959,732 
5,887,748 
5.926,088 
6,448,720 
6,389,101 
1,478,834 
6,622,503 
6,801,240 
6,534,098 


1,746,433 
1,660,086 
1,798,682 
1,669,220 
1,609,096 
1,718,713 
1,468,410 
6,367,389 
1,446,076 
1,472,292 
1,354,856 


8,086,229 
7,787,264 
8,537,413 
8,341,941 
8,534,186 
9,019,492 
9,181,019 
8,911,642 
9,113,281 
9,181,033 
9,003,422 


Totals, 




11,190,418 


68,836,396 


23,992,420 


104,019,234 



Receipts, 12 months ending Nov. 30, 1906, 114,233,976 quarts. 

Receipts, 12 months ending Nov, 30, 1911, 90,092,772 quarts. 



Comparative List of Number of Cows assessed in Massachusetts, May 1, 
1906, and April 1, 1912. 



Counties. 


1906. 


1912. 


Decrease. 


Increase. 


Barnstable, 


2,448 


2,305 


143 




Berkshire 


17,404 


16,463 


941 




Bristol, 


13,702 


13,552 


150 




Dukes, 


656 


583 


73 




Essex, 

Franklin, 


17,131 


14,529 


2,602 




12,715 


11,941 


774 




Hampden, 


12,096 


10,504 


1,592 




Hampshire 


14,383 


12,261 


2,122 




Middlesex, 


29,508 


25,932 


3,576 




Nantucket, 


378 


419 




41 


Norfolk, 


11,200 


10,095 


1,105 




Plymouth, 


8,465 


7,765 


700 




Suffolk, . . • . 


1,186 


1,015 


171 




Worcester 


40,544 


34,244 


6,300 




Totals, 


181,816 


161,608 


20,249 


41 



Net decrease, . . . . 
Average net decrease per annum. 



20,208 
3,368 



16 



DAIRY BUREAU. 



[Jan. 



List of Massachusetts Farms making Milk of Superior Quality and 
Cleanliness and selling their Product higher than the Regular Mar- 
ket Price. 



Location. Farm. 



Owner, Manager. 



Ap- 
proxi- 
mate 
Num- 
ber of 
Cows. 



Where marketed. 



Agawam, Reilly Farm, 

Agawam, Colonial Farm, . 

Agawam, Elm Shade Dairy, 

Agawam, Glen Farm, 

Andover, Shattuck Farms, 

Barre, Highland View Farm, . 

Brookfield, Belding Farm, 

Caryville, Dudley B. Fowler's 
farm. 

Charles River, Walker-Gordon 
Farm. 

Cohasset, The Oaks Farm, 
Dighton, Ralph Earle's farm, . 
Dorchester, Codman Farm, 
Framingham, Millwood Farm, . 

Franklin, Ray Farm, 

Gloucester, Howard P. Lane's 
farm. 

Gloucester, H. Wallace Lane's 
farm. 

Gloucester, Peter Hadstrom's 
farm. 

Grafton, D. E. Hallett's farm, . 
Granby, C. W. Ball's farm, 
Greenfield, Wayside Farm, 
Hamilton, Miles River Farm, . 
Hard wick, Mixter Farm, . 



Haverhill (Bradford District), 

Cedar Crest Farm. 
Haverhill, North Broadway 

Milk Farm. 
Haverhill (P. O. East Haverhill) 

Leonard H. Kimball's farm. 
Holliston, W. E. Marchant's 

farm . 

Holyoke, Whiting Farm, . 
Longmeadow, Hillbrow Farm, . 



J. J. Reilly, owner and 

manager. 
H. E. Bodurtha, owner 

and manager. 
S. S. Bodurtha, owner 

and manager. 
W. H. Seaver, owner and 

manager. 
F. Shattuck, owner and 

manager. 

D. A. Howe, owner, G. E. 
Farnsworth, manager. 

W.C. Belding, owner, L.L. 

Belding, manager. 
Dudley B. Fowler, owner 

and manager. 
Walker-Gordon Laboratory 

Company, owner, Charles 

H. Walker, manager. 

C. W. Barron, owner, W. E. 
Stilwell, manager. 

Ralph Earle, owner and 

manager. 
Watson B. Fearing, owner 

and manager. 
Mrs. E. F. Bowditch, 

owner, J. P. Bowditch, 

manager, F. E. Barrett, 

superintendent. 

E. K. Ray, estate, owner, 
Joseph G. Ray, trustee, 
manager. 

Howard P. Lane, owner 

and manager. 
H. Wallace Lane, owner 

and manager. 
Peter Hadstrom, owner 

and manager. 

D. E. Hallett, owner and 
manager. 

C . W . Ball , owner and man- 
ager. 

Frank H. Reed, owner, Mr. 

Purrington, manager. 
Maxwell Norman, owner 

and manager. 
Mary A. Mixter, owner. 

Dr. Samuel J. Mixter, 

manager, S. R. Parker, 

Superintendent. 
C. Herbert Poor, owner 

and manager. 

E. A. Emerson, owner and 
manager. 

Leonard H. Kimball, 

owner and manager. 
W. E. Marchant, owner 

and manager. 
W. F. Whiting, owner, John 

F. Richardson, manager. 
H. M. Burt, owner and 

manager. 



17 
10 
25 
12 
50 
20 
15 
20 
100 

83 
15 
58 
190 

100 

50 
30 
6 
40 
29 
25 
100 
165 

20 
35 
35 
12 
20 
20 



Springfield. 1 

Springfield. 

Springfield. 

Springfield. 

Lawrence. 

Worcester. 

Springfield. 

Boston, by C . Brig- 
ham Company. 
Boston. 

Boston. 
Fall River. 2 
Boston. 

Boston and Welles- 
ley. 

Boston, by Elm 
Farm Company. 

Gloucester. 

Gloucester. 

Gloucester. 

Boston, by C. Brig- 
ham Company. 
Holyoke . 

Greenfield . 

Boston. 

Boston. 

Haverhill.' 

Haverhill. 

Haverhill. 

Boston, by C. Brig- 
ham Company. 
Holyoke. 

Springfield. 



1 Several out-of-State farms also furnish milk of this class in Springfield. 

2 Several Rhode Island farms also furnish milk of this class in Fall River. 

» Two New Hampshire dairymen, Geo. B. Freeman and Herbert N. Sawj^er, also sell 
milk of this class in Haverhill. 



1913.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 60. 



17 



List of Massachusetts Farms making Milk of Superior Quality and 
Cleanliness and selling their Product higher than the Regular Mar- 
ket Price — Concluded. 



Location, Farm. 



Owner, Manager. 



Ap- 
proxi- 
mate 
Num- 
ber of 
Cows. 



Where marketed . 



Lowell, Hood Farm, . 

Lunenburg, George M. Proctor' 
farm. 

Marlborough, Fairview Farm, 

Medford, Hillside Farm, 20 Gow 
Street. 

Medford, Mystic Valley Farm 

75 Arlington Street. 
Methuen, Bragdon Farms, 

Methuen, Chestnut Grove Farm 

Methuen, Cox Farms, 

Methuen, Howe Farm, 

Methuen, Spring Valley Farms 

Methuen, S. W. Williams' farm 

Millis, Lowland Farm, 

Peabody, Maplehill Farm, 

Pittsfield, E. W. Page's farm, 

Pittsfield, Mr. Bardwell's farm 

Pittsfield, Abby Lodge, . 

Reading, Elm Hill Farm, 

Saugus, Oaklandale Farm, 

South Lincoln, South Lincoln 
Dairy Company. 

Sterling, Twin Oaks Farm (P.O. 

Pratt's Junction). 
Westwood. Fox Hill Farm, 

West Newton and Barre, Wau- 
winet Farm. 

Worcester, Pleasant View Farm, 

Worcester, 

Worcester, Intervale Farm, 

Worcester, Village Farm, . 



C. I. Hood, owner, J. E. 

Dodge, manager. 
Geo. M. Proctor, owner, 

Fred A. Miller, manager. 
Elmer D. Howe & Son, 

owners and managers. 
Alberton Harris, owner 

and manager. 
John J. Mulkevin, owner 

and manager. 

E. L. Bragdon, owner and 
manager. 

F. L. Gardner, owner and 
manager. 

Louis Cox, owner, L. 

Coburn, manager. 
E. D. Taylor, owner and 

manager. 
Fred Miller, owner and 

manager. 
S. W. Williams, owner and 

manager. 
E. F. Richardson, owner 

and manager. 



E. W. Page, owner and 

manager. 
Mr. Bardwell, owner and 

manager. 
A. W. Cooley, owner, Mr. 

Carlson, manager. 
Allen C. Jones, owner and 

manager. 
Frank P. Bennett, owner 

and manager. 
South Lincoln Dairy Com- 
pany, owners, W. A. 

Blodgett, manager. 
J. F. Pratt, owner, Geo. 

E. Pratt, manager. 
Joshua Crane, owner, L. 

W. Jackman, manager. 
Geo. H. Ellis, owner, P. F. 

Staples and R. M. 

Hirdy, managers. 
Warren C. Jewett, owner 

and manager. 
Lewis J. Kendall, owner 

and manager. 
J. Lewis Ellsworth, owner 

and manager. 
H. B. Prentice, owner and 

manager. 



120 
48 
40 
10 
16 
30 
16 
31 
50 
50 
30 
25 



14 
14 

35 
50 
250 

75 
100 
400 

40 
40 
14 
30 



Lowell. 

Fitchburg. 

Marlborough. 

Medford. 

Medford. 

Lawrence. 

Lawrence. 

Lawrence. 

Lawrence. 

Lawrencie. 

Lawrence. 

Boston. 

Boston, by H. P. 

Hood & Sons.i 
Pittsfield. 

Pittsfield. 

Pittsfield. 

Boston. 

Lynn. 

Boston. 

Milk, Boston; cream, 

Worcester. 
Boston. 

Boston, Brookline 
and Newton. 

Worcester. 

Worcester. 

Worcester. 

Worcester. 



1 H. P. Hood & Sons also distribute this class of milk from 10 farms in New Hampshire. 

Note. — Deerfoot Farm Dairy, office 9 Bosworth Place, Boston, with milk depots at both 
Southborough and Northborough, sells milk of superior quality and cleanliness at a price 
above that of ordinary market milk, and handles the product of 129 dairy farms, averaging 
about 10 cows each, located in Southborough, Northborough, Westborough and Holliston. 
Most of these farms, therefore, at some time during the year come properly within the 
requirements of this list. The method of payment of this milk is explained in the following 
extract from a letter from the proprietor, Mr. Robert M. Burnett: "The milk from all our 
farms is tested once or twice a week on delivery at the dairy, samples being taken by 
Professor Prescott's agent. When the milk is found to contain below 25,000 bacteria per 



18 



DAIRY BUREAU. 



[Jan. 



cubic centimeter, and cows, feed, water and stable conditions are reported by Dr. J. W. 
Robinson as healthful and satisfactory, and the average test is not lower tlian 4^^ per cent, 
butter fat, the price paid is 50 cents per can at the Deerfoot Dairy for the full yield all 
the year around. For any milk passing the above conditions, of good quality, testing below 
43^ per cent, butter fat, we pay 45 cents per can for such proportion as we can bottle. For 
the balance of the milk not bottled, and for the milk from farms not meeting the condi- 
tions required for bottled milk, we pay the price agreed upon between the Milk Producers 
Association and the Contractors Union. For the month of December, 1912, this compact 
was with 129 farms averaging about 10 cows to the farm." 



The foregoing list is necessarily incomplete owing to the fact 
that all returns had not been received at the close of the year. 



List of Massachusetts Dairy Farms making Certified Milk. 



Name, Location. 



Ownfer, Manager. 



Ap- 
proxi- 
mate 
Num- 
ber of 
Cows. 



Certified by ■ 



Where 
marketed. 



Cedar Hill Farm, Wal- 

tham. 
Cedarcrest Farm, Wal- 

tham. 



Ledyard Farm, Ando- 
ver. 

Massachusetts Agricul- 
tural College Farm, 
Amherst. 1 

Prospect Hill Farm, 



" The Warelands, " High- 
land Lake, Norfolk. 2 

W. C. White's Farm, 
Acushnet. 



Miss Cornelia War- 
ren, Charles Cahill 

John C. Runkle, 
Louis W. Dean.' 



J. A. & W.H.Gould, 

Massachusetts Agri- 
cultural College 
Farm, J.A.Foord, 

J. A. & W.H.Gould, 



Mrs. Charlotte B. 
Ware. 

Walter C. White, . 



215 
90 

50 
50 

175 

30 

28 



Cambridge Medi- 
cal Commission. 

Cambridge Medi- 
cal Commission. 



Maiden Medical 
Commission. 

Suffolk District 
Medical Com- 
mission. 

Suffolk District 
Medical Com- 
mission. 

Suffolk District 
Medical Com- 
mission. 

New Bedford 
Medical Com- 
mission. 



Waltham, Cam- 
bridge, Boston. 

North Shore, 
Cambridge, 
Brookline, 
Boston. 

Maiden. 

Boston. 



Boston, Beverly. 
Boston. 
New Bedford. 



1 This milk is distributed by D. Whiting & Son. 

2 "The Warelands" was first in New England to produce certified milk. 

Note. — H. P. Hood & Sons distribute certified milk from their Hood Farm, Derry, 
N. H.; also from Middlebrook Farm, owned by Miss Elizabeth C. Sawyer, Dover, N. H. 



List of Local Milk Inspectors. 



Milk 



Beverly, . 
Boston, 
Brockton, . 
Cambridge, 
Chelsea, . 
Chicopee, . 
Everett, . 
Fall River, 
Fitchburg, 
Gloucester, 
Haverhill, 



Inspectors for Massachusetts Cities, 1912. 

Henry E. Dodge, 2d. 
Prof. James 0. Jordan. 
George E. Boiling. 
Dr. W. A. Noonan. 
Dr. W. S. WaUdey. 
C. J. O'Brien. 
E. Clarence Colby. 
Henry Boisseau. 
John F. Bresnahan. 
Dr. George E. Watson. 
C. Biscault. 



1913.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 60. 



19 



Holyoke, Daniel P. Hartnett. 

Lawrence, . . . . . . Dr. J. H. Tobin. 

Lowell, Melvin F. Mastei. 

Lynn, George A. Flanagan. 

Maiden, J. A. Sandford. 

Marlborough, John J. Cassidy. 

Medford, Winslow Joyce. 

Melrose, Caleb W. Clark, M.D. 

New Bedford, Herbert B. Hamilton, D.V.S. 

Newburyport, Dr. R. D. Hamilton. 

Newton, Arthur Hudson. 

North Adams, Henry A. Tower. 

Northampton, George R. Turner. 

Pittsfield, Eugene L. Hannon. 

Quincy, Edward J. Murphy. 

Salem, John J. McGrath. 

Somerville, Herbert E. Bowman. 

Springfield, Stephen C. Downs. 

Taunton, Lewis I. Tucker. 

Waltham, Arthur E. Stone, M.D. 

Woburn, Edward P. Kelly, M.D. 

Worcester, Gustaf L. Berg. 

Milk Inspectors for Massachusetts Towns, 1912. 

Adams, Dr. A. G. Potter. 

Amesbury, E. S. Worthen. 

Andover, Franklin H. Stacey. 

Arlington, Dr. L. L. Pierce. 

Attleborough, Caleb E. Parmenter. 

Barnstable, George T. Mecarta. 

Belmont, Prof. Samuel C. Prescott. 

Brookline, Frederick H. Osgood. 

CUnton, Gilman L. Chase. 

Cohasset, D. W. Gilbert, D.V.S. 

Concord, Erastus H. Smith. 

Easthampton, George L. McEvoy. 

Gardner, CUfford W. Shippee. 

Greenfield, George P. Moore. 

Hudson, Dr. A. L. Cundall. 

Leominster, WiUiam H. Dodge. 

Ludlow, A. L. Bennett, D.V.S. 

Millbury, Arthur A. Brown. 

Milton, W. C. Tucker. 

Monson, Dr. E. W. Capen. 

North Attleborough, .... Hugh Gaw, V.S. 

Pahner, Edward P. Brown. 



20 



DAIRY BUREAU. 



[Jan. 



Peabody, . 
Plainville, 
Reading, . 
Revere, 
Salisbury, 
South Framingham, 
South Hadley Falls, 
Spencer, . 
Stoneham, 
Wakefield, 
Ware, 
Watertown, 
Wellesley, 
Westfield, . 
West Springfield, 
Williamstown 
Winchendon, 
Winchester, 



H. S. Pomery, M.D. 
John C. Eiden. 
. C. H. Playden, M.D. 
Joseph E. Lamb. 
John H. Pike. 
Dr. J. H. McCann. 
George F. Boudreau. 
James A. Spencer. 
George H. Allen. 
Harry A. Simonds. 
Fred E. Marsh. 
Luther W. Simonds. 
Cecil K. Blanchard. 
WiUiam H. Porter. 
Norman T. Smith. 
G. S. Jordan, V.S. 
Dr. G. W. Stanbridge. 
Morris Dineen. 



Creameries, Milk Depots, etc. 



Co-operative Creameries. 


Number and Location. 


Name. 


Superintendent or Manager. 


1. Ashfield, 


Ashfield Creamery, . 


William Hunter, manager. 


2. Belchertown, . 


Belchertown Creamery, . 


M. G. Ward, president. 


3. Cummington, 


Cummington Creamery, . 


D. C. Morey, superintend- 
ent. 

W. H. Wright, treasurer. 


4. Easthampton, 


Hampton Creamery, 


5. Egremont (P. 0. Great 

Barrington). 

6. Monterey, 


Egremont Creamery, 
Berkshire Hills Creamery, 


E. G. Tyrell, manager. 

F. A. Campbell, treasurer. 


7. Shelburne, 


Shelburne Creamery, 


Ira Barnard, manager. 


8. Westfield. 


Wyben Springs Creamery, 


C. H. Kelso, manager. 



Proprietary Creameries. 



Number and Location. 


Name. 


Owner or Manager. 




Amherst, 


Amherst Creamery Company, . 


R, W. Pease, manager. 


2. 


Amherst, 


Fort River Creamery, 


Clarence M. Wood, manager 




(estate of E. A. King, 








owner). 


3. 


Brim field, 


Crystal Brook Creamery, . 


F. N. Lawrence, proprietor. 


4. 


Groton, .... 


Lawrence Creamery, 


Myron P. Swallow, manager. 


5. 


Heath, .... 


Cold Spring Creamery, 


I. W. Stetson & Son. 


6. 


Hinsdale, 


Hinsdale Creamery, . 


Walter C. Solomon, pro- 








prietor. 


7. 


Marlborough, . 


Este's Creamery, 


F. F. Este, proprietor. 



1913.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 60. 



21 



Educational. 



Location. 


Name. 


Manager. 




Dairy Industry Course, Massa- 
chusetts Agricultural College. 


W. P. B. Lockwood, profes- 
sor in charge. 



Principal Milk-distributing Depots. 



Name. 


Location. 


Manager. 


Alden Brothers Company, 
Oak Grove Farm, Waume- 
sit Farm . 

Anderson Brothers, . 

Boston Condensed Milk 

Company. 
Brigham, C., Company, 

Brigham, C, Company, 

Deerfoot Farms Dairy, 

Elm Farm Milk Company, 

Hood, H. P., & Sons, 

Learned, G. S. (Fitchburg 

Creamery). 
Newhall, J. A 

Perry, A. D 

Prentice, H. H., & Co. 

(Berkshire Creamery). 
Somers Creamery Company, 

Springfield Creamery, 

Tait Brothers, . 

Wachusett Creamery, 

Whiting, D., & Sons, . 


Boston office, 1171 Tremont Street, 
depot, 24-28 Duncan Street. 

Worcester, Eckman Street, . 

Boston, 484 Rutherford Avenue, . 

Cambridge, 158 Massachusetts Ave- 
nue. 

Worcester, 9 Howard Street, . 

Boston office, 9 Bosworth Street, 
depots at Northborough and 
Southborough. 

Boston, Whales Place, 

Boston, 494 Rutherford Avenue; 
branches, 24 Anson Street, Forest 
Hills, 886 Broadway, Chelsea. 

Lynn, 193 Alley Street, . 

Maiden, 425 Main Street, 
Watertown, 479 Pleasant Street, . 
Lawrence, 629 Common Street, . 
Fitchburg, 26 Gushing Street, 
Newbury port, 32 Munroe Street, . 
Worcester, Kansas Street, 
Pittsfield, Crane Avenue, 
Springfield, 178 Dwight Street, 
Springfield, Main Street, 
Springfield, 37 Vinton Street, 
Worcester, 6 Lincoln Street, . 
Boston, 570 Rutherford Avenue, . 


Charles L. Alden, presi- 
dent, John Alden, 
treasurer. 

Anderson Bros. 

W. A. Graustein. 
John K. Whiting. 
C. Brigham Company. 
S. H. Howes. 

James H. Knapp, treas- 
urer. 

Charles H. Hood. 

G. S. Learned. 
J. A. Newhall. 
A. D. Perry. 

H. H. Prentice. 
W. M. Cushman. 

F. B. Allen, proprietor. 

Tait Brothers, proprie- 
tors. 

E. H. Thayer & Co., 

proprietors. 
George Whiting. 


Milk Laboratory. 


Walker-Gordon Laboratory, 


Boston, 793 Boylston Street, . 


George W. Franklin. 


Receiving Depots for Milk, for Shipments to New York Citij. 


The Borden Company of 
New York. 

Willow Brook Dairy Com- 
pany. 


West Stockbridge 

Sheffield, 


Thomas Roberts. 
Frank Percy. 



22 DAIRY BUREAU. [Jan. 1913. 

Expenses. 

The following is a classified statement of the expenses for 
the year ending Nov. 30, 1912: — 

Bureau: compensation and traveling expenses, . . $609 61 

Agents: compensation, 2,565 00 

Agents: traveling expenses and samples purchased, . 2,924 91 

General agent : traveling and necessary expenses, . . 422 38 

Chemists: analyses, tests, court attendance, . . . 1,099 68 

Printing and supplies, 289 03 

Educational, 89 39 



Total, 18,000 00 



P. M. HARWOOD, 

General Agent. 

Accepted and adopted as the report of the Dairy Bureau. 

CHARLES M. GARDNER. 
GEORGE W. TRULL. 
OMER E. BRADWAY. 



Public Document 



No. 60 



TWENTY-THIRD ANNUAL REPORT 

or THE 

DAIRY BUREAU 

OF THE 

Massachusetts Board of Agriculture, 

REQUIBED UNDER 

Chapter 89, Section 12, Revised Laws. 



January 15, 19 14 . 




BOSTON : 

WRIGHT & POTTER PRINTING CO., STATE PRINTERS, 
32 DERNE STREET. 
1914. 



Public Document 



No. 60 



TWENTY-THIKD ANNUAL WoKT 

OF THE 

"dairy bureau 



OF THE 

Massachusetts Board of Agriculture, 

REQUIRED UNDER 

Chapter 89, Section 12, Revised Laws. 



January 15, 1914. 




BOSTON: 

WRIGHT & POTTER PRINTING CO., STATE PRINTERS, 
32 DERNE STREET. 
1914. 



Approved by 
The State Board of Publication. 



3 



Dairy Bureau— 1913 . 



CHARLES M. GARDNER, Westfield, Chairman. 
GEORGE W. TRULL, Tewksbury, P. 0. Lowell, R. F. D. 
OMER E. BRADWAY, Monson, Mass. 



Secretary. 

J. LEWIS ELLSWORTH, Executive Officer and Secretary of the 

State Board of Agrictdture to May 1, 1913. 
WILFRID WHEELER, Executive Officer and Secretary of the 

State Board of Agriculture from May 1, 1913. 



General Agent. 
P. M. HARWOOD. 
Address, Room 136, State House, Boston. 



QL{)t €0mm0nu)ealtl) of illaeaacbusetts- 



REPORT OF THE DAIRY BUREAU. 



The work of the Bureau for the year 1913 has been aug- 
mented by additional duties attendant upon the carrying 
out of the resolve of the Legislature for the encouragement 
of practical dairying. By vote of the Board of Agriculture 
this work was given over to its Dairy Bureau. The resolve 
reads as follows: — 

Chapter 96, Acts of 1913. 

Resolve to provide for the Encouragement of Dairying and 
THE Production of Milk and Dairy Products of Superior 
Quality. 

Resolved, That the state board of agriculture is hereby authorized 
to provide for the encouragement of practical dairymen in the produc- 
tion of milk and dairy products of superior quaUty and cleanliness, by 
offering prizes for the best kept stables, the lowest bacteria counts and 
best quality of milk, or otherwise, as the board may determine; by 
demonstrations illustrating the best methods of dairying; by agents 
who shall instruct the citizens of the commonwealth in matters of 
stable construction and management and dairy methods in general; 
by the distribution of literature giving information in regard to the best 
methods of dairying and especially in regard to the production of clean 
milk; or in such other manner as the board may deem best for the 
encouragement of dairying and the production of clean milk. For 
travelling, incidental, administrative and office expenses necessarily 
incurred in carrying out the purposes of this resolve the said board 
may expend a sum not exceeding five thousand dollars annually for 
three years, beginning with the year nineteen hundred and thirteen, 
and if any part of the said five thousand dollars remains unexpended 
at the close of any one year, the balance may be expended in the fol- 
lowing year. [Approved May 26, 1913. 



6 



DAIRY BUREAU. 



[Jan. 



This work — encouragement of practical dairying — opens 
up a field of great interest. During recent years, in milk- 
shipping sections of the State, many farmers have either 
curtailed their business, given up milk production,^ sold their 
farms or changed their system of farming. The farms when 
sold have usually gone into the hands of city people for 
country homes or for so-called fancy farming. Poles and 
other immigrants have not purchased dairy farms to any 
extent, preferring the onion and tobacco farms of the Con- 
necticut valley or truck farms adjacent to large cities. 

We are of the opinion that the great hope for the future 
of Massachusetts dairying lies in the production of clean, 
wholesome milk for near-by markets for a price higher than 
that paid for railroad market milk from northern New 
York, northern New England and Canada, which cannot be 
safely sold without pasteurization. Whatever may be done 
in the way of inspection and supervision in the future, long- 
hauled milk sold in large cities will continue to be pas- 
teurized, — or treated in some equal or superior manner, — 
in order that the public health may be safeguarded and the 
milk contractors and dealers protected. We believe that 
inspection of dairies, while necessary and important, is fre- 
quently overestimated in the public mind, and that the real 
good that comes from these inspections is the simple re- 
moval of unsound animals and of unsanitary conditions 
without frills, fads and unnecessary requirements. Dairy 
inspection is not a guarantee of cleanliness. The best way 
in which clean milk can be secured from dairies three hundred 
and sixty-five days in the year is to pay for it on the basis 
of cleanliness and freedom from contamination. 

With the limited sum of S5,000 per annum at our dis- 
posal, we cannot do all that we would like. In fact, we can 
only make a beginning in a few ways. We believe that by 
encouragement and incidental instruction, habits of dairy- 
men, however good, can be improved. In carrying out this 
idea we have during the year offered prizes aggregating 
$3,000, S2,550 of which was for clean milk, and $450 for the 
protection of dairies from flies. For convenience, the State 

1 In 1890 there were assessed in Massachusetts 200,658 cows; in 1906, 181,816 cows; in 1912, 
161,608; and in 1913, 151,270 cows. This shows a decrease, from 1890 to 1913, of 49,382 cows, 
from 1906 to 1913, of 30,540; and from 1912 to 1913, of 10,332. 



1914.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 60. 



7 



was divided into two sections, — eastern and western. In 
the eastern section there were 37 entries. These dairies 
were examined in the month of September. Answers to per- 
tinent questions were obtained, photographs of premises 
taken, and samples of milk run through absorbent cotton, 
and the cottons examined later for sediment. The prizes 
were awarded September 30 and were made public at the 
Brockton Fair. In the western section there were 114 en- 
tries. These dairies were examined in the month of October 
and the prizes awarded later. The names of the winners 
were announced at the State Board of Agriculture meeting 
at Springfield, December 1. In the contest for dairies best 
protected from flies there w^ere 18 entries. These dairies 
were examined early in October, and the announcement of 
the prizes was made at the Springfield meeting. So far as 
we know, these were the first prizes ever offered along these 
lines, but the results have exceeded our most sanguine ex- 
pectations. The successful contestants have cheerfully 
signed the following expression of determination: — 

Consideration of the generosity of the Commonwealth in offering 
liberal prizes for the production of clean milk, together with my own 
interest in the matter, leads me to express my determination to con- 
tinue the means adopted in this contest, and to add thereto from time 
to time such improvements as appear practical, to the end that the 
present high standing of Massachusetts milk may be maintained and 
its quality improved. 

Many contestants have voluntarily stated that they learned 
more about the production of clean milk in this contest 
than they ever knew before. 

For details in the protection from flies contest, reference 
is made to Circular No. 10 of the series now being pub- 
lished by the State Board of Agriculture. Further details 
in regard to the clean milk contest will be found in Circular 
No. 13 of the same series. 

It is hoped that during the coming year even more far- 
reaching results may be realized from plans already in 
contemplation. 

The Bureau takes this opportunity to express its appre- 
ciation and thanks for the services of Prof. Samuel C. 
Prescott of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 



8 



DAIRY BUREAU. 



[Jan. 



and Mr. E. H. Forbush of the State Board of Agriculture, 
as judges who acted without pay in the clean milk and 
protection from flies contests, respectively; also to milk in- 
spectors S. C. Downs and J. A. Gamble of Springfield, G. L. 
Berg of Worcester, Fred E. Marsh of Ware, CHfford W. 
Shippee of Gardner, and others who did much to awaken local 
interest, besides furnishing valuable assistance in the clean 
milk contest; also to Mr. Fred F. Walker, Commis- 
sioner of Animal Industry, and the inspectors of animals 
throughout the Commonwealth, for valuable assistance in 
obtaining information relating to the dairymen in Massa- 
chusetts. 

The police work of the Board for 1913 has resulted in 
149 cases in court and 146 convictions. Seven of these 
cases were for violation of the milk laws, 54 for the viola- 
tion of the renovated butter law and 88 for the violation 
of the oleomargarine laws. 

In the educational work, 17 lectures have been given by 
the general agent. These lectures have explained the food 
value of milk, advocated its increased consumption and more 
economical distribution, and that its price be based upon 
quality and cleanliness. We believe these to be among the 
basic essentials in bringing to dairymen a more prosperous 
condition, and to consumers greater security in their milk 
supply. Most of the creameries, and many dairy plants 
in the State, have been visited during the year, and special 
exhibits of the work of the Bureau were made at Brockton 
and Springfield. 

Bulletins on "Dairying in Denmark," edited by P. M. 
Harwood, "Cost of Milk Production," by Prof. Fred Ras- 
mussen, "What it Costs to produce Milk in New England," 
by P. M. Harwood, with extracts from special articles by 
Mr. Elmer D. Howe, Prof. John M. Trueman, Prof. Fred 
Rasmussen, and Dr. Joseph B. Lindsey, have been pub- 
lished, and statistics relating to milk producers and breeders 
of pure-bred dairy stock have been gathered. 

Early in the year the general agent was appointed by the 
Governor, together with Dr. Mark W. Richardson of the State 
Board of Health and Gen. Charles W. Wood of Worcester, 
to attend a milk conference in New York. This conference 



1914.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 60. 



9 



voted that the main control of the milk business should 
remain in the hands of the agricultural departments of the 
several States represented, and the milk inspection divided 
between agricultural and health authorities. Later in the 
year the general agent was appointed by the governor to 
attend a conference of the United States department and 
State departments for bringing about more uniform laws 
and regulations in the control of dairy and food supplies. 

Milk Consumption. 
It is gratifying to know that the consumption of milk in 
Greater Boston is gradually increasing from the low ebb 
reached in 1911. The figures of the Massachusetts Board 
of Railroad Commissioners show the receipts of railroad milk 
to be 107,306,849 quarts. (See table on page 16.) 

Condensed Milk. 
The Chamber of Commerce gives receipts of condensed 
milk, including evaporated cream in Boston for 1913, as 
3,484 barrels and 321,883 cases, as against 2,304 barrels and 
321,946 cases in 1912. This indicates but slight increase in 
the consumption of these products during the year. (See 
table on page 16.) 

Milk Inspectors. 
The number of milk inspectors in the State has been in- 
creased during the year, and their high reputation for effi- 
ciency maintained. Our thanks are due to many for their 
kindly co-operation and assistance at all times. A list 
of these inspectors will be found on pages 21-23. 

Oleomargarine. 
The number of retail oleomargarine licenses in force in 
the State November, 1912, was 846, while in 1913 it was 
884, showing an increase of 38 oleomargarine licenses in 
Boston. As reported by the Chamber of Commerce in 1912, 
it was 140,040 packages, while in 1913 it was 127,994, show- 
ing a decrease of 12,046. Oleomargarine produced in the 



10 



DAIRY BUREAU. 



[Jan. 



United States in 1912 was 128,601,053 pounds, while in 
1913 it was 145,227,872, showing an increase of 16,626,829. 
This increase in the manufacture of oleomargarine, and its 
apparent increased consumption in the United States, is 
undoubtedly due to the high cost of living, but the decrease 
in number of packages of oleomargarine wholesaled in 
Boston, together with the but slight increase in number of 
Massachusetts licenses, indicates that the .majority of people 
in this State still prefer to use genuine butter. (For further 
details, see tables on page 13.) 

Renovated Butter. 
In 1912 there were 46,387,398 pounds of renovated butter 
produced in the United States, while in 1913 there were 
38,354,762, showing a decrease of 8,032,636 pounds in twelve 
months, which indicates a decline of these goods in public 
favor. (See table on page 14.) 

Butter. 

The annual statement of the Boston Chamber of Com- 
merce shows an increase in the consumption of butter, 
Boston output, during 1913 of 1,312,224 pounds, which is 
a fairly normal increase. The average wholesale price of 
31.7 cents for the year, against 31.2 cents for 1912, has had 
no apparent effect upon the butter consumption. (Details 
will be found on pages 14 and 15.) 

Personnel of the Bureau. 
The personnel of the Bureau is as follows: Charles M. 
Gardner of Westfield, chairman, George W. Trull of Tewks- 
bury and Omer E. Brad way of Monson. The executive 
force, agents and analysts, etc., are as follows: executive 
officer and secretary, Wilfred Wheeler; ^ general agent, 
P. M. Harwood; analysts, B. F. Davenport, M.D., Boston, 
and F. W. Farrell, Emerson Laboratory, Springfield; agent, 
A. W. Lombard; and five others have been temporarily 
employed. 



1 Since May 1, 1913, 



1914.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 60. 11 



Summary of Police Work. 

Total number of inspections, ^ 8,161 

Number of inspections where no samples were taken, . . 4,609 
Number of samples of butter, oleomargarine and condensed 

milk, all purchased, 3,458 

Number of samples of milk and cream, 94 

Cases entered in court, 14 

Addresses by general agent and others, 17 



Cases prosecuted during the twelve months ending Nov. 30, 
1913, by months and courts, with law violated, and results, 
are as follows : — 



Court. 


Month. 


Num- 
ber. 


Law violated. 


Con- 
victed. 


Dis- 
charged. 


T r> r 

XjyUXl JtrOilC^t • • • 




4 




4 






"OliPATYl VlAT* 


2 




2 




dlesex District. 








GioucGstcr, EastGrn £iSS6x 


December, 


2 


2 oleomargarine, 


2 




District. 








Worcester, Central District, 


December, . 


4 


4 oleomargarine, . 


4 


- 


New Bedford, Third Bristol 


January, 


38 


18 renovated butter. 


34 


4 


District. 




20 oleomargarine. 






Holyoke Police, . 


January, 


3 


3 oleomargarine. 


3 




Lawrence Police, 


February, . 


16 


6 renovated butter. 


16 






10 oleomargarine. 






East Brookfield, Western 


March, 


2 


2 renovated butter. 


2 




Worcester District. 








Salem, First Essex District, 


March, 


2 


2 oleomargarine, . 


2 




Lynn Police, 


March, 


6 


2 renovated butter, 


6 






4 oleomargarine. 






Worcester, Central District, 


March, 


7 


1 renovated butter. 


7 










6 oleomargarine. 






Webster, First Southern 


March, 


4 


4 renovated butter, 


4 




Worcester District. 












Boston Municipal, 


April, . 


2 


2 oleomargarine, . 


2 




Haverhill, Northern Essex 


April, . 


16 


8 renovated butter, 


16 




District. 




8 oleomargarine. 






Athol, First Northern 


April, , 


4 


4 oleomargarine, . 


4 




Worcester District. 










Gardner, First Northern 


April, . 


7 


3 renovated butter. 


7 




Worcester District. 




4 oleomargarine. 






Boston Municipal, Charles- 


April, . 


1 


1 oleomargarine, . 


1 




town District. 










Springfield Police, 


April, . 


3 


3 oleomargarine, . 


3 




Boston Municipal, Brighton 


May, . 


2 


2 renovated butter, 


2 




District. 










Lowell Police, 


May, . 


7 


7 oleomargarine, . 


7 




Salem, First Essex District, 


May, . 


2 


2 renovated butter. 


2 




Worcester, Central District, 


May, . 


2 


2 cream, 


2 




Worcester, Central District, 


June, . 


1 


1 cream, 


1 





1 There were 79 extra samples taken during the year, therefore this number is less than the 
sum of the next three items. 



12 


DAIRY 


BUREAU. 




[Jan. 


Court. 


Month. 


Num- 
ber. 


Law violated. 


Con- 
victed. 


Dis- 
charged. 


Haverhill, Northern Essex 

District. 
Lawrence Police, 

Quincy, East Norfolk Dis- 
trict. 
Chelsea Police, . 


July, . 
November, . 
November, . 
November, . 


2 
4 

2 
2 


2 cream, 

2 milk, 2 oleomar- 
garine. 
2 renovated butter, 

2 oleomargarine, . 


2 
4 
2 
2 





Note, — The Bureau is indebted to the milk inspectors of Massachusetts for assistance 
which has resulted in court cases. 



The charges in the several cases entered in court for the 
year ending Nov. 30, 1913, have been as follows: — 



Selling renovated butter in unmarked packages, .... 54 

Selling oleomargarine without being registered, . . . . 3 
Selling oleomargarine in unmarked ^ packages, . . .11 
Furnishing oleomargarine in restaurants, etc., without notice to 

guests, 73 

Selling milk below standard, 2 

Selling cream below standard, 5 

Selling oleomargarine without sign in store, 1 



149 



The following table shows the inspections without samples, 
and the number of samples taken during the past eleven 
years : — 



Years. 


Inspections 
without 
Samples. 


Samples. 


1903-12 (inclusive), 


51,682 


14,575 


1913, 


4,609 


3,552 




56,291 


18,127 




5,117 


1,647 



1 In these cases oleomargarine was sold when butter was asked for, but the charge was made 
in this way for convenience. 



1914.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 60. 



13 



Tables kelating to Oleomargarine. 
The number of United States oleomargarine licenses in 
force in Massachusetts in November, 1912 and 1913, is as 



follows: — 

1912. 1913. 

Wholesale licenses in Boston, 18 19 

Wholesale licenses in other cities, 9 12 



Totals, 27 31 

Retail licenses in Boston, 124 121 

Retail licenses in other cities and towns, . . . . 722 763 



Totals, 846 884 



The following figures, taken from the annual report of the 
United States Commissioner of Internal Revenue for 1913, 
show the production, withdrawn tax paid, and withdrawn 
for export of the two classes of oleomargarine, as defined 
by act of May 9, 1902, covering the period of eleven years, 
since it w^nt into effect on July 1, 1902: — 



Oleomargarine (Pounds). 





Product taxed at Rate of 
10 Cents per Pound. 


Product taxed at Rate of 
14 Cent per Pound. 


Year. 


Produced. 


With- 
drawn Tax 
paid. 


With- 
drawn for 
Export. 


Produced. 


With- 
drawn Tax 
paid. 


With- 
drawn for 
Export. 


1903, . 


5,710,407 


2,312,493 


3,334,969 


67,573,689 


66,785,796 


151,693 


1904, . 


3,785,670 


1,297,068 


2,504,940 


46,413,972 


46,397,984 


123,425 


1905, . 


5,560,304 


3,121,640 


2,405,763 


46,427,032 


46,223,691 


137,670 


1906, . 


4,888,986 


2,503,095 


2,422,320 


50,545,914 


50,536,466 


78,750 


1907, . 


7,758,529 


5,009,094 


2,695,276 


63,608,246 


63,303,016 


129,350 


1908, . 


7,452,800 


4,982,029 


2,522,188 


74,072,800 


73,916,869 


109,480 


1909, . 


5,710,301 


3,275,968 


2,403,742 


86,572,514 


86,221,310 


112,958 


1910, . 


6,176,991 


3,416,286 


2,767,195 


135,685,289 


135,159,429 


97,575 


1911, . 


5,830,995 


2,764,971 


3,054,344 


115,331,800 


115,448,006 


91,750 


1912, . 


6,235,639 


3,174,331 


3,044,122 


122,365,414 


121,945,038 


106,160 


1913, . 


6,520,436 


4,090,658 


2,417,973 


138,707,426 


138,242,848 


59,686 


Totals, 


65,631,058 


35,947,633 


29,572,832 


947,304,096 


944,180,453 


1,198,497 



14 



DAIRY BUREAU. 



[Jan. 



Renovated Butter. 
The following figures, from the same source as the pre- 
ceding table, show the production and withdrawn tax paid 
of renovated butter, 1902-13:—- 



Renovated Butter (Pounds). 



Year. 


Production, 


Withdrawn Tax 
paid. 


1903, 

1904, 

1905, 

1906, 

1907, 

1908. 

1909, 

1910 

1911 

1912, 

1913 


54,658,790 
54,171,183 
60,029,421 
53,549,900 
62,965,613 
50,479,489 
47,345,361 
47,433,575 
39,292,591 
46,387,398 
38,354,762 


54,223,234 
54,204,478 
60,171,504 
53,361,088 
63,078,504 
50,411,446 
47,402,382 
47.378,446 
39,352,445 
46,413,895 
38,285,114 


Totals 


554,668,083 


554,282,536 



Butter. 

The following table shows the average quotation for the 
best fresh creamery butter, in a strictly wholesale way, in 
the Boston market for the last ten years, as compiled by 
the Boston Chamber of Commerce: — 



Month. 


1913. 

Cents. 


1912. 

Cents. 


1911. 

Cents. 


1910. 

Cents. 


1909. 

Cents. 


1908. 

Cents. 


1907. 

Cents. 


1906. 

Cents. 


1905. 

Cents. 


1904. 

Cents. 


January, . 


33.9 


36.9 


28.8 


33.5 


30.9 


29.7 


30.4 


25.2 


28.0 


22.7 


February, . 


34.9 


32.5 


26.9 


30.5 


30.0 


32.1 


31.7 


25.2 


31.6 


24.6 


March, 


36.4 


32.1 


24.2 


32.0 


29.1 


30.2 


30.2 


25.5 


28.0 


24.1 


April, 


34.5 


32.7 


21.7 


31.5 


27.9 


28.4 


32.2 


22.2 


29.1 


21.6 


May, . 


28.7 


30.4 


22.8 


29.0 


26.6 


24.1 


31.4 


19.9 


23.9 


19.9 


June, 


28.2 


27.9 


24.2 


28. 2 


26.4 


24.5 


24.3 


20.2 


20.7 


18.4 



1914.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 60. 15 



Month. 


1913. 

Cents. 


1912. 

Cents. 


1911. 

Cents. 


1910. 


1909. 


1908. 

Cents. 


1907. 


1906. 

Cents. 


1905. 

Cents 


1904. 


July, . 


27.5 


28.1 


26.0 


28.6 


27.2 


23.6 


25.9 


21.0 


20.6 


18.3 


August, 


28.2 


27.1 


27.2 


29.6 


28.2 


24.5 


26.0 


23.8 


21.6 


19.1 


September, 


31.3 


29.1 


27.7 


29.6 


31.3 


25.3 


29.2 


25.6 


21.2 


20.8 


October, . 


31.2 


31.0 


30.4 


29.4 


31.7 


27.5 


29.9 


26.9 


22.1 


21.5 


November, 


31.9 


32.9 


32.5 


30.2 


31.4 


29.5 


27.1 


27.6 


23.0 


24.1 


December, 


33.8 


34.0 


35.0 


30.0 


32.9 


31.0 


27.5 


30.7 


23.9 


25.7 


Averages, . 


31.7 


31.2 


27.3 


30.2 


29.5 


27.5 


28.8 


24.48 


24.47 


21.73 



The Chamber of Commerce figures regarding the butter 
business in Boston for 1912 and 1913 are as follows: — 





1913. 


1912. 




Pounds. 


Pounds. 




8,340,102 


6,612,966 


Receipts for January, 


2,314,428 


3,282,660 




2,870,790 


3,256,729 




3,365,435 


3,565,555 


April, 


4,433,969 


3,905,002 


May, 


8,659,092 


7,003,321 




12,938,572 


12,225,290 


July 


12,323,011 


13,030,718 




8,3.33,419 


8,346,787 




6,096,706 


6,051,810 




4,241,941 


4,961,020 




2,876,134 


3,717,156 




3,251,088 


2,263,182 




80,044,687 


78,222,196 


Exports for year, deduct, 


200 


24,005 




80,044,487 


78,198,181 


Storage stock December 27, deduct, 


8,874,204 


8,340,102 




71,170,283 


69,858,059 



16 



DAIRY BUREAU. 



[Jan. 



Receipts of Condensed Milk. 
The Chamber of Commerce figures regarding the receipts of 
condensed milk at Boston for 1912 and 1913 are as follows: — 





1913. 


1913. 


1912. 


1912. 


• 


Barrels. 


Cases. 1 


Barrels. 


Cases. ^ 


January, 


147 


19,621 


318 


34,212 




167 


24,862 


174 


32,066 


March, 


260 


30,670 


193 


16,247 




170 


22,193 


375 


20,614 




96 


21,946 


107 


23,578 




320 


38,300 


187 


27,080 


July 


269 


39,502 


217 


37,387 




137 


22,902 


146 


44,461 


September, 


254 


28,693 


76 


14,838 




1,328 


25,895 


262 


22,240 




130 


17,694 


27 


27,144 




206 


29,605 


222 


22,079 


Totals, 


3,484 


321,883 


2,304 


321,946 



1 Includes evaporated cream. 



Milk. 

Milk brought into Boston by Different Railroads, Dec. 1, 1912, to Nov. 
30, 1913, as reported by the Railroad Commissioners (Quarts). 



D.\TE. 


Boston & 
Albany. 


Boston & 
Maine. 


New York, 
New Haven 
& Hartford. 


Total. 


1912. 

December, 


651,882 


6,916.685 


1,422,419 


8,990,986 


1913. 


429,311 


7,179,151 


1,437,881 


9.046,343 


February, 


380,481 


6,693,732 


1.439,468 


8,513,681 




444,513 


7,377,392 


1,546,405 


9,368.310 


April, 


442,251 


7,438,618 


1.475.735 


9,356.604 




500,943 


7,732,448 


1,748,368 


9.981.759 




465,740 


7,520,704 


1.662.461 


9.648.905 


July, 


451,915 


7,430,444 


1,725.201 


9.607.560 


August, 


436,862 


6,820,345 


1,612.586 


8.869,793 


September, 


490,677 


6,151,288 


1,550,894 


8.192,859 


October 


550,381 


5,913,873 


1,594,625 


8,058,879 




586,978 


5,578,902 


1.505,290 


7,671,170 


Totals 


5,831,934 


82,753,582 


18,721,333 


107,306,849 



1914.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 60. 17 



Comparative List of Number of Cows assessed in Massachusetts, May 1, 
1906, April 1, 1912, and May 1, 1913. 



Counties. 


1906. 


1912. 


1913. 


Decrease. 


Increase. 


1906-13. 


1912-13. 


1906-13. 


1912-13. 


Barnstable, . 


2,448 


2,305 


2,251 


197 


54 






Berkshire, 


17,404 


16,463 


15,317 


2,087 


1 146 






Bristol, .... 


13,702 


13,552 


12,803 


899 


749 






Dukes, .... 


656 


583 


588 


68 






E 



Essex, .... 


17,131 


14,529 


13,456 


3,675 


1 ,073 






Franklin, 


12,715 


11,941 


10,986 


1,729 


955 


- 


- 


Hampden, 


12,096 


10,504 


9,486 


2,610 


1,018 






Hampshire, . 


14,383 


12,261 


11,467 


2,916 


794 






Middlesex, 


29,508 


25,932 


24,060 


5,448 


1,018 






Nantucket, . 


378 


419 


453 






75 


34 


Norfolk, 


11,200 


10,095 


9,766 


1,434 


329 






Plymouth, . 


8,465 


7,765 


7,613 


852 


152 






Suffolk, 


1,186 


1,015 


1,138 


48 






123 


Worcester, 


40,544 


34,244 


31,892 


8,652 


2,352 






Totals, . 


181,816 


161,608 


151,276 


30,615 


10,494 


75 


162 



List of Massachusetts Farms making Milk of Superior Quality and 
Cleanliness and selling their Product higher than the Regular Mar- 
ket Price. 







Ap- 








proxi- 




Location, Farm. 


Owner and Manager. 


mate 
Num- 
ber of 
Cows. 


Where marketed. 


Agawam, Reilly Farm, 


J. J. Reilly, owner and 
manager. 


17 


Springfield. ^ 


Agawam, Colonial Farm, . 


H. E. Bodurtha, owner 


12 


Springfield. 


and manager. 






Agawam, Elm Shade Dairy, . . 


S. S. & E. F. Bodurtha. 
owners and managers. 


25 


Springfield. 


Amherst, ..... 


H. M. Thompson, owner 
and manager. 


25 


Holyoke. 


Amherst, Groff & Simmons' 


Groff & Simmons, owners 


34 


Amherst. 


farm. 


and managers. 






Andover, Arden Farm, 


Wm. M. Wood, owner, J. 


552 


Andover. Lawrence, 


M. Putnam, superin- 
tendent, Austin C. 




Woburn and Bos- 






ton. 




Huggins, manager of 








creamery. 






Andover, Shattuck Farms, 


F. Shattuck, owner and 
manager. 


50 


Lawrence. 



1 Several out-of-State farms also furnish milk of this class in Springfield. 

2 Twenty-five cows in Andover and 30 in New Hampshire. 



18 



DAIRY BUREAU. 



[Jan. 



List of Massachusetts Farms making Milk of Superior Quality and 
Cleanliness and selling their Product higher than the Regular Mar- 
ket Price — Continued. 



Location, Farm. 




Where marketed. 



Aubvirn, Wellswood Farm, 

Barnstable, Bay Farm, 

Barre, Highland View Farm, . 

Bolton, Rocky Dundee Farm, . 

Boston, Walker-Gordon Farm, 
1106 Boylston Street. 

Brockton, Montello Station, 

Dutchland Farm. 
Chilmark, West Tisbury, P. O. 

Oak view Farm. 
Dighton, Rock Farm, 

Dorchester, Codman Farm, 

East Lynn, . . . . 

Fair haven, Dana Farm, 

Framingham, Millwood Farm, . 

Framingham, Waverney Farm, . 
Franklin, Ray Farm, 

Gloucester, Howard P. Lane's 
farm. 

Gloucester, H. Wallace Lane's 
farm. 

Gloucester, Peter Hadstrom's 
farm. 

Granby, C. W. Ball's farm, 
Greenfield, Wayside Farm, 
Hamilton, Miles River Farm, . 



Hardwick, Mixter Farm, 



Haverhill (Bradford District), 
J. B. Sawyer's farm. 

Haverhill (Bradford District), 
Cedar Crest Farm. 

Haverhill, North Broadway 
Milk Farm. 

Haverhill (P. O. East Haver- 
hill), Fred Kimball's Farm. 



Geo. O. Keep, owner and 

manager. 
H. C. Everett, owner and 

manager. 

D. A. Howe, owner, W. 
E. Howe, manager. 

R. H. Randall, lessee and 

manager. 
Walker-Gordon Laboratory 

Company, owner, John 

Nichols, manager. 
Fred F. Field, owner. 

Earl D. Upton, manager. 
J. F. Adams, owner, 

J. W. Earle, owner, Ralph 

Earle, manager. 
Watson B. Fearing, owner 

and manager. 
J. D. Coombs, lessee and 

manager. 
Eliza N. and Edith Dana, 

owners and managers. 

Mrs. E, F. Bowditch, 
owner, J. P. Bowditch, 
manager, F. E. Barrett, 
superintendent. 

Reginald W. Bird, owner, 
A. E. White, manager. 

E. K. Ray, estate owner, 
Joseph G. Ray, trustee 
and manager. 

Howard P. Lane, owner 
and manager. 

H. Wallace Lane, owner 
and manager. 

Peter Hadstrom, owner 
and manager. 

C. W. Ball, owner and man- 
ager. 

Frank H. Reed, owner, Mr. 
Purrington, manager. 

Maxwell Norman, owner 
and manager, C. E. 
Johnson, superintend- 
ent. 

Mary A. Mixter, owner. 
Dr. Samuel J. Mixter, 
manager, S. R. Parker, 
superintendent. 

J. B. Sawyer, owner and 



C. Herbert Poor, owner 

and manager. 
E. A. Emerson, owner and 

manager. 
Fred Kimball, owner, 

Leonard Kimball, man- 



30 

25 
20 
100 

70 
17 
15 
58 
3 

52 
178 

50 
100 

50 
30 
5 
29 
25 
140 

165 



Worcester. 
Barnstable. 
Worcester. 
Clinton. 

Boston and vicinity. 
Brockton. 

Vineyard Haven and 

Edgartown. 
Fall River. 1 

Boston. 

East Lynn. 

Fairhaven, Marion 
and Mattapoisett 
(in summer). 

Boston and Welles- 
ley. 

Boston. 

Boston, by Elm 
Farm Company. 

Gloucester. 

Gloucester. 

Gloucester. 

Holyoke. 

Greenfield. 

Boston. 



Boston. 

Haverhill. 
Haverhill. 2 
Haverhill. 
Haverhill. 



1 Several Rhode Island farms also furnish milk of this class in Fall River. 

2 Two New Hampshire dairymen, Geo. B. Freeman and Herbert N. Sawyer, also sell 
milk of this class in Haverhill. 



1914. 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 60. 



19 



List of Massachusetts Farms making Milk of Superior Quality and 
Cleanliness and selling their Product higher than the Regular Mar- 
ket Price — Continued. 



Location, Farm. 



Owner and Manager. 



Ap- 
proxi- 
mate 
Num- 
ber of 
Cows. 



Where marketed. 



Holyoke, Whiting Farm, 
Longmeadow, Hillbrow Farm, . 
Lowell, Hood Farm, . 
Ludlow, E. E. Chapman's Farm, 
Lunenbvirg, Sunnyside Farm, . 
Marlborough, Fairview Farm, . 

Medford, Mystic Valley Farm, 

75 Arlington Street. 
Medford, Hillside Farm, 20 Gow 

Street. 

Methuen, Bragdon Farms, 
Methuen, Cox Farms, 
Methuen, Howe Farm, 
Methuen, Spring Valley Farms, 
Methuen, S. W. Williams' farm, 
Millis, Lowland Farm, 
Milton, Highland Farm, . 

Needham, K. E. Webb's Farm, 

Norfolk, Meadowside Farm, 

North Amherst, The Elms, 

Northampton, W. J. LaFleur's 
farm. 

Oak Bluffs, Woodsedge Farm, . 

Paxton, E. G. Richard's farm, . 

Paxton, Echo Farm, 

Peabody, Maplehill Farm, 

Pittsfield, E. W. Page's farm, . 

Pittsfield, Mr. Bardwell's farm, 

Pittsfield, Abby Lodge, . 

Saugus, Oaklandvale Farm, 

South Lincoln, South Lincoln 
Dairy Company. 

South Natick, Carver Hill 
Farm. 

Sherborn, 

Sherborn, 



W. F. Whiting, owner, John 

F. Richardson, manager. 
H. M. Biu-t, owner and 

manager. 
C. I. Hood, owner, J. E. 

Dodge, manager. 
Edward E. Chapman, 

owner and manager. 
Geo. M. Proctor, owner, 

Fred A. Miller, manager. 
Elmer D. Howe & Son, 

owners and managers. 
John J. Mulkevin, owner 

and manager. 
Alberton Harris, owner 

and manager. 
E. L. Bragdon, owner and 

manager. 
Louis Cox, owner, L. 

Coburn, manager. 
E. D. Taylor, owner and 

manager. 
Fred Miller, owner and 

manager. 
S. W. Williams, owner and 

manager. 

E. F. Richardson, owner 
and manager. 

Patriquin & Newton, 
lessees, George Patri- 
quin, manager. 

Keneth C. Webb, owner 
and manager. 

T. D. Cook & Co., owners 
and managers. 

R. D. Dickinson, owner 
and manager. 

W. J. LaFleur, owner and 
manager. 

F. W. Chase, owner and 
manager. 

E.G. Richards, owner and 
manager. 

W. J. Woods, owner, Jo- 
seph Graham, manager. 



E. W. Page, owner and 

manager. 
Mr. Bardwell, owner and 

manager. 
A. W. Cooley, owner, Mr. 

Carlson, manager. 
Frank P. Bennett, owner 

and manager. 
South Lincoln Dairy Com- 
pany, owners, W. A. 

Blodgett, manager. 
Carver Hill Farms Inc., 

Austin Potter. 



H. N. Brown, owner and 

manager. 
J. M. Merriam, owner and 

manager. 



20 
20 
120 
22 
48 
10 
16 
10 
30 
31 
50 
50 
30 



14 

35 
112 
250 

75 

50 
40 



Holyoke. 

Springfield. 

Lowell. 

Ludlow and Indian 

Orchard. 
Fitchburg. 

Marlborough. 

Medford. 

Medford. 

Lawrence. 

Lawrence. 

Lawrence. 

Lawrence. 

Lawrence. 

Boston. 

Milton. 

Needham. 
Boston. 
Amherst. 
Northampton. 
Oak Bluffs. 

Worcester, by C. 

Brigham & Co. 
Worcester, by C. 

Brigham & Co. 
Boston, by H. P. 

Hood & Sons, i 
Pittsfield. 

Pittsfield. 

Boston. 

Lynn. 

Boston, Cambridge 
and Brookline. 

Boston, Wellesley, 
Natick, Needham 
and Dover. 

Boston. 

Boston. 



1 H. P. Hood & Sons also distribute this class of milk from 10 farms in New Hampshire. 



20 



DAIRY BUREAU. 



[Jan. 



List of Massachusetts Farms making Milk of Superior Quality and 
Cleanliness and selling their Product higher than the Regular Mar- 
ket Price — Concluded. 



Location, Farm. 


Owner and Manager. 


Ap- 
proxi- 
mate 
Num- 
ber of 
Cows. 


Where marketed. 


sterling, iwin uaKs rarm [r. 


xiodney Monk, owner and 


7K 

to 


Milk, Boston; cream. 


O. Pratt's Junction). 


manager. 




Worcester. 


Stoughton, Tobey Farm, . 


E. B. Hutchins, owner and 


10 


Brockton. 




manager. 






Taunton, Geo. Soper's farm, . 


George Soper, owner and 




Taunton. 




manager. 






Westwood, Fox Hill Farm, 


Joshua Crane, owner, L. 


100 


Boston. 


W. Jackman, manager. 






West Newton and Barre, Wau- 


Geo. H. Ellis, owner, P. F. 


400 


Boston, Brookline 


winet Farm. 


Staples and R. M. 




and Newton. 




Hardy, managers. 






Warren, Maple Farm, 


J. R. Blair, owner, R. A. 


27 


Boston, by C. Brig- 


Siddens, manager. 




ham Company. 


Worcester, Pleasant View Farm, 


Warren C. Jewett, owner 


40 


Worcester. 




and manager. 






Worcester, ..... 


Lewis J. Kendall, owner 


40 


Worcester. 




and manager. 






Worcester, Intervale Farm, 


J. Lewis Ellsworth, owner 


14 


Worcester. 




and manager. 






Worcester, Village Farm, . 


H. B. Prentice, owner and 


30 


Worcester. 




manager. 







Note. — Deerfoot Farm Dairy, office 9 Bosworth Place, Boston, with milk depots at both 
Southborough and Northborough, sells milk of superior quality and cleanliness at a price 
above that of ordinary market milk , and handles the product of 129 dairy farms, averaging 
about 10 cowa each, located in Southborough, Northborough, Westborough and HoUiston. 
Most of these farms, therefore, at some time during the year come properly within the 
requirements of this list. The method of payment of this milk is explained in the following 
extract from a letter from the proprietor, Mr. Robert M. Burnett: "The milk from all our 
farms is tested once or twice a week on delivery at the dairy, samples being taken by 
Professor Prescott's agent. When the milk is found to contain below 25,000 bacteria per 
cubic centimeter, and cows, feed, water and stable conditions are reported by Dr. J. W. 
Robinson as healthful and satisfactory, and the average test is not lower than 4H per cent, 
butter fat, the price paid is 50 cents per can at the Deerfoot Dairy for the full yield all the 
year around. For any milk passing the above conditions, of good quality, testing below 
4H per cent, butter fat, we pay 45 cents per can for such proportion as we can bottle. For 
the balance of the milk not bottled, and for the milk from farms not meeting the condi- 
tions required for bottled milk, we pay the price agreed upon between the Milk Producers 
Association and the Contractors Union. For the month of December, 1912, this compact 
was with 129 farms averaging about 10 cows to the farm." 



The foregoing list is necessarily incomplete and subject to 
continual change. Additional names, ehgible to this list, are 
earnestly solicited. 



1914.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 60. 21 

List of Massachusetts Dairy Farms making Certified Milk. 



Name, Location. 



Owner and Manager. 



Ap- 
proxi- 
mate 
Num- 
ber of 
Cows. 



Certified by 



Where 
marketed. 



Cedar Hill Farm, Wal- 
tham. 

Cedar Crest Farm, Wal- 
tham. 

Cherry Hill Farm, Bev- 
erly. 

A. D. Davis, farm, 
Sheffield. 



Ledyard Farm, Ando- 
ver. 

Massachusetts Agricul- 
tural College Farm, 
Amherst. 

Oaks Farm, Cohasset, 



Prospect Hill 
Essex. 



Farm, 



W. C. White's farm, 
Acushnet. 



Miss Cornelia War- 
ren, owner, Chas. 
Cahill, manager. 

John C. Runkle, 
owner, Louis W. 
Dean, manager. 

H. P. Hood & Sons, 
owners, O. H. 
Perrin, manager. 

A. D. Davis, owner 
and manager. 



J. A. & W. H. Gould, 

Massachusetts Agri- 
cultural College 
Farm, J. A. Foord. 
C. W. Barron, owner, 
W. E. Stilwell, man- 
ager. 

J. A. & W.H.Gould, 



Walter C. White, 



215 



50 
65 

50 

175 

28 



Cambridge Medi- 
cal Commission. 

Cambridge Medi- 
cal Commission. 

Medical Milk 
Commission of 
Boston. 



Maiden Medical 

Commission. 
Medical Milk 

Commission of 

Boston. 
Medical Milk 

Commission of 

Cohasset. 
Medical Milk 

Commission of 

Boston. 

New Bedford 
Medical Com- 
mission. 



Waltham, Cam- 
bridge,Boston. 

North Shore, 
Cambridge, 
Boston. 

Boston, North 
Shore, Law- 
rence. 

A little in Great 
Barrington . 
Mostly o u t - 
side of State. 

Maiden. 

Boston. 



Cohasset. 



Boston, Brook- 
line, Jamaica 
Plain, North 
Shore. 

New Bedford. 



List of Local Milk Inspectors. 

Milk Inspectors for Massachusetts Cities, 1913. 



Beverly, Henry E. Dodge, 2d. 

Boston, Prof. James 0. Jordan. 

Brockton, George E. Boiling. 

Cambridge, Dr. W. A. Noonan. 

Chelsea, Dr. W. S. Walkley. 

Chicopee, C. J. O'Brien. 

Everett, E. Clarence Colb3\ 

Fall River, Henry Boisseau. 

Fitchburg, John F. Bresnahan. 

Gloucester, Dr. George E. Watson. 

Haverhill, Dr. Homer L. Conner. 

Holj^oke, Daniel P. Hartnett. 

Lawrence, ...... Dr. J. H. Tobin. 

Lowell, Melvin F. Master. 

Lynn, George A. Flanagan. 

Maiden, J. A. Sandford. 

Marlborough, John J. Cassidy. 

Medford, Winslow Joyce. 

Melrose, Caleb W. Clark, M.D. 

New Bedford, . . . . Herbert B. Hamilton, D.V.S. 



22 DAIRY BUREAU. [Jan. 

Newburyport, . . . . . Dr. R. D. Hamilton. 

Newton, Arthur Hudson. 

North Adams, Henry A. Tower. 

Northampton, George R. Turner. 

Pittsfield, Eugene L. Hannon. 

Quincy, Edward J. Murphy. 

Salem, John J. McGrath. 

Somerville, Herbert E. Bowman. 

Springfield, Stephen C. Downs. 

Taunton, Lewis I. Tucker. 

Waltham, Arthur E. Stone, M.D. 

Woburn, Edward P. Kelly, M.D. 

Worcester, Gustaf L. Berg. 

Milk Inspectors for Massachusetts Towns, 1913. 

Adams, Dr. A. G. Potter. 

Amesbury, E. S. Worthen. 

Andover, Franklin H. Stacey. 

Arhngton, Dr. L. L. Pierce. 

Attleborough, Caleb E. Parmenter. 

Barnstable, George T. Mecarta. 

Belmont, Thomas F. Harris. 

Brookline, Frederick H. Osgood. 

Canton, R. N. Hoyt. 

Clinton, Gilman L. Chase. 

Cohasset, Dr. D. W. Gilbert, D.V.S. 

Concord, Erastus H. Smith. 

Dedham, Edward Knobel. 

Easthampton, George L. McEvoy. 

Fairhaven, . . . . . . Bertha F. Carl Frommel, M.D. 

Framingham, R. N. Hoyt. 

Gardner, Clifford W. Shippee. 

Greenfield, George P. Moore. 

Hudson, Dr. A. L. Cundall. 

Lancaster, George E. Howe. 

Leominster, William H. Dodge. 

Ludlow, A. L. Bennett, D.V.S. 

Marblehead, Andrew W. Stone. 

Middleborough, . . . . . T. F. Conway. 

Millbury, Arthur A. Brown. 

Milton, W. C. Tucker. 

Monson, Dr. E. W. Capen. 

Needham, R. N. Hoyt. 

North Attleborough, .... Hugh Gaw, V.S. 

Palmer, Edward P. Brown. 

Peabody, . . . . . . H. S. Pomeroy, M.D. 

Plainville, John C. Eiden. 



1914, 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 60. 



23 



John H. Pike. 
Albert R. Brown. 
Dr. J. H. McCann. 
George F. Boudreau. 
James A. Spencer. 



Reading, . . . . . . C. H. Playden, M.D. 

Revere, Joseph E. Lamb. 

Sahsbury, 

Southbridge, .... 
South Framingham, 
South Hadley Falls, 

Spencer, 

Stoneham, George H. Allen. 

Swampscott, Herbert D. Smith. 

Wakefield, Harry A. Simmonds. 

Ware, Fred E. Marsh. 

Watertown, Luther W. Simmonds. 

Wellesley, R. N. Hoyt. 

Westborough, Charles H. Reed. 

Westfield, WiUiam H. Porter. 

Weston, R. N. Hoyt. 

West Springfield, .... Norman T. Smith. 

Williamstown, G. S. Jordan, V.S. 

Winchendon, Dr. G. W. Stanbridge. 

Winchester, Morris Dineen. 

Winthrop, Smith A. Mowray. 



Creameries, Milk Depots, 
Co-operative Creameries. 



ETC. 



NUMBKR AND LOCATION. 


Name. 


Superintendent or Manager. 


L Ashfield, 


Ashfield Creamery, . 


William Hunter, manager. 


2. Belchertown, . 


Belchertown Creamery, . 


M. G. Ward, president. 


3. Cxunmington, 


Cummington Creamery, . 


D. C. Morey, superintend- 
ent. 

W. H. Wright, treasurer. 


4. Easthampton, 


Hampton Creamery, 


5. Egremont (P. O. Great 

Barrington). 

6. Monterey, 


Egremont Creamery, 
Berkshire Hills Creamery, 


E. G. Tyrell, manager. 

F. A. Campbell, treasurer. 


7. Shelburne, 


Shelburne Creamery, 


Ira Barnard, manager. 


8. Westfield, 


Wyben Springs Creamery, 


C. H. Kelso, manager. 



Proprietary Creameries. 



Number and Location. 


Name. 


Owner or Manager. 


1. Amherst, 


Amherst Creamery Company, . 


R. W. Pease, manager. . 


2. Amherst, 


Fort River Creamery, 


Clarence M. Wood, manager 




(estate of E. A. King, 


3. Brimfield, 




owner). 


Crystal Brook Creamery, 


F. N. Lawrence, proprietor. 


4. Groton, .... 


Lawrence Creamery, 


Mjn-on P. Swallow, manager. 


5. Heath 


Cold Spring Creamery, 


I. W. Stetson & Son. 


6. Hinsdale, 


Hinsdale Creamery, . 


Walter C. Solomon, pro- 


7. Marlborough, 




prietor. 


Este's Creamery, 


F. F. Este, proprietor. 



24 



DAIRY BUREAU. 



[Jan. 



Educational. 



Location. 


Name. 


Manager. 


Amherst, .... 


Dairy Industry Course, Massa- 
chusetts Agricultural College. 


VV. P. B. Lockwood, profes- 
sor in charge. 



Principal Milk-distributing Depots. 



Name. 



Location. 



Manager. 



Acton Farms Milk Com- 
pany. 

Alden Brothers Company, 
Oak Grove Farm, Waume- 
sit Farm. 

Anderson Brothers, . 

Boston Condensed Milk 

Company. 
Brigham, C., Company, . 

Brigham, C, Company, 

Deerfoot Farms Dairy, 

Elm Farm Milk Company, 
Hood, H. P., & Sons, 



Learned, G. S. (Fitchburg 

Creamery). 
Newhall, J. A 

Perry, A. D., . . . 



Prentice, H. H., & Co. 

(Berkshire Creamery). 
Somers Creamery Company, 

Springfield Creamery, 

Tait Brothers, . 

Wachusett Creamery, 

Whiting, D., & Sons, 



Somerville, Windsor Street, . 

Boston office, 1171 Tremont Street, 
depot, 24-28 Duncan Street. 

Worcester, Eckman Street, 

Boston, 484 Rutherford Avenue, . 

Cambridge, 158 Massachusetts Ave- 
nue. 

Worcester, 9 Howard Street, . 

Boston office, 9 Bosworth Street, 
depwts at Northborough and 
Southborough. 

Boston, Wales Place, 

Boston, 494 Rutherford Avenue; 
branches, 24 Anson Street, Forest 
Hills, 886 Broadway, Chelsea. 

Lynn, 193 Alley Street, . 

Maiden, 425 Main Street, 
Watertown, 479 Pleasant Street, . 
Lawrence, 629 Common Street, 
Fitchburg, 26 Gushing Street, 
Newburyport, 32 Munroe Street, . 
Worcester, Kansas Street, 
Pittsfield, Crane Avenue, 
Springfield, 178 Dwight Street, 
Springfield, Main Street, 
Springfield, 37 Vinton Street, 
Worcester, 6 Lincoln Street, . 
Boston, 570 Rutherford Avenue, . 



Arthur B. Parker, treas- 
urer. 

Charles L. Alden, presi- 
dent, John A 1 d e u , 
treasurer. 

Anderson Bros. 



W. A. Graustein. 
John K. Whiting. 
C. Brigham Company. 
S. H. Howes. 



James H. Knapp, treas- 
urer. 
Charles H. Hood. 



G. S. Learned. 
J. A. Newhall. 
A. D. Perry. 

H. H. Prentice. 
W. M. Cushman. 

F. B. Allen, proprietor. 

Tait Brothers, proprie- 
tors. 

E. H. Thayer & Co., 

proprietors. 
George Whiting. 



Milk Laboratory. 



Walker-Gordon Laboratory, Boston, 793 Boylston Street, 



George W. Franklin. 



Receiving Depots for Milk, for Shipments to New York City. 



The Borden Company of 


West Stockbridge, .... 


Thomas Roberts. 


New York. 




Willow Brook Dairy Com- 


Sheffield 


Frank Percy. 


pany. 







1914.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 60. 25 

Encouragement of Dairying Expenses, August to 
November. 

Printing, $51 18 

Agents: compensation, 183 35 

Agents: expenses, 426 29 

Judges: expenses, 24 45 

Photography, 55 80 

Supplies, 93 74 



Total expenses, $834 81 

Prizes, 3,000 00 



Total expenditures, $3,834 81 

Regular Bureau Expenses. 

The following is a classified statement of the expenses 
for the year ending Nov^. 30, 1913: — 

Bureau: compensation and traveUng expenses, . . . $496 36 

Agents: compensation, 3,010 62 

Agents: travehng expenses and samples purchased, . 2,612 63 

General agent: traveling and necessary expenses, . 263 33 

Analysts: analyses, tests, court attendance, . . . 929 50 

Printing and supphes, 511 06 

Educational, 176 50 



Total, $8,000 00 

P. M. HARWOOD, 

General Agent. 

Accepted and adopted as the report of the Dairy Bureau. 



CHARLES M. GARDNER. 
GEORGE W. trull. 
O. E. BRADWAY. 



Public Document 



3 



No. 60 



TWENTT-FOTJRTH ANNUAL REPORT 



DAIRY BUREAU 



Massachusehs Boakd of Agricultuee, 



REQUIRED UNDER 



Chapter 89, Section 12, Revised Laws. 



January 15, 1915. 




BOSTON: 

• WEIGHT & POTTEE FEINTING CO., STATE PEINTEES, 
32 DEENE STEEET. 
1915. 



Public Document 



No. 60 



TWENTY-FOURTH ANNUAL REPORT 

OF THE 

' DAIRY BUREAU 



OF THE 

Massachusetts Boaed of Agriculture, 

KEQUIRED UNDER 

Chapter 89, Section 12, Revised Laws. 



January 15, 1915. 




BOSTON: 

WRIGHT & POTTER PRINTING CO., STATE PRINTERS, 
32 DERNE STREET. 
1915. 



Approved by 
The State Board op Publication. 



2) 



Dairy Bureau— 19 14. 



CHARLES M. GARDNER, Westfield, Chairman. 
GEORGE W. TRULL, Tewksbury, P. 0. Lowell, R. F. D. 
OMER E. BRADWAY, Monson. 



Secretary. 

WILFRID WHEELER, Executive Officer and Secretary of the State 
Board of Agricidture. 



General Agent. 
P. M. HARWOOD, 
Address, Room 136, State House, Boston. 



Sl)c OlcimmonruEoltl) of itTassactjusctts. 



REPORT OF THE DAIRY BUREAU. 



The work of carrying out the provisions of chapter 96 of the 
Resolves of 1913, relating to encouragement of practical dairy- 
ing, has been continued by the Bureau during 1914. 

The number of entries in the clean milk contest of 1913, open 
to dairies of five or more cows whose owners were practical 
farmers superintending their own dairies, was 151. The num- 
ber of entries in the corresponding class in 1914 was 229, an 
increase of 78. 

The cleanliness of the samples taken in 1914 showed great 
improvement over those of the year before, thus proving that 
this feature of the work is meeting with excellent results. 

In the clean milk contest, 1914, the State was divided into 
four districts, namely, western, comprising the four western 
counties; central, Worcester county; northeastern, Middlesex 
and Essex counties; and southeastern, comprising the remain- 
ing counties of the State. 

Twenty-five prizes ranging from |6 to $50 each were offered 
in each district. There was also offered a sweepstakes prize of 
$100. A prize of $125 was offered to the district making the 
largest number of entries, and $100 to the district making the 
best showing of clean milk. All the above prizes were awarded 
except the sweepstakes prize, where the money offered was 
equally divided among five contestants tied for the position. 
In addition to the above, 55 honorable mention certificates 
were awarded, 30 in the central and 25 in the western district. 

Six prizes ranging from $6 to $16 each were offered in each 
district to persons under eighteen years of age, sons, daughters. 



6 



DAIRY BUREAU. 



[Jan. 



proteges or actual employees of owners of farms eligible in this 
contest. A sweepstakes ribbon was also offered. 

Five prizes, ranging from S4 to $12 each, were offered in 
each district to hired men and women over eighteen years of 
age doing the milking on the eligible farms. A sweepstakes 
ribbon was also offered. Most of the junior and hired help 
prizes were competed for and awarded. 

Other prizes were offered as follows : — 

In Class 2, a prize of $100 was offered for the best system of 
dairy-farm accounting for practical farmers, competition open 
to the world. In this class there were 3 entries. The plans 
submitted by the contestants, practically taken from books 
already published, so far nullified the object of the award that 
upon recommendation of the judge the prize was not awarded. 

In Class 3, three prizes, $100, $60 and $40, were offered for 
the best systems of dairy-farm accounting in actual operation. 
There were 2 entries in this class, and the second and third 
prizes were awarded. 

In Class 4, a prize of $100 was offered for the best plan of 
a practical dairy barn. Two plans were submitted, and the 
prize was equally divided between the two contestants. 

In Class 5, three prizes, $100, $60 and $40, were offered for 
practical dairy barns in actual use. There were 11 entries and 
the three prizes were awarded. Four honorable mention certif- 
icates were also issued. 

In Class 6, three prizes, aggregating $450, were offered for the 
best and most profitable dairy-farm operations. No prize was 
awarded in this class on account of lack of competition. 

The total amount of prizes offered was $4,439; the total 
amount awarded was $3,735.30. A full account of these con- 
tests will be found in "Report on Encouragement of Dairying 
Contests, 1914," issued by the Bureau. 

The police work of the Bureau for 1914 resulted in 129 cases 
in court and 127 convictions. Nine of these were for violation 
of the milk laws, 27 for violation of the renovated butter law, 
and 93 for violation of the oleomargarine laws. 

In the educational work, the chairman addressed two and the 
general agent thirty-one meetings during the year. These lee- 



1915.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 60. 



7 



tures explained the food value of milk, the work of the Bureau 
in conducting the encouragement of practical dairy contest, 
emphasized the necessity for proper remuneration to the pro- 
ducer for milk and other dairy products, also the superior 
worth of clean, fresh milk and the importance of its production 
in Massachusetts. 

Leaflets A, B, C and D on milk, by P. M. Harwood, were 
printed, and many thousand copies were distributed during the 
year. The Bureau has also published Circular No. 11, "Some 
Bacteriological Aspects of Clean Milk Inspection," by Charles 
E. Marshall, Ph.D., and Circular No. 13, "The Clean Milk 
Contest," by P. M. Harwood. 

By appointment of His Excellency Governor Walsh, the gen- 
eral agent spent a portion of the summer in Europe studying 
dairy conditions. His trip w^s cut short on account of the 
European war, nevertheless he obtained much valuable informa- 
tion, which will be of great use to him in the conduct of his 
official duties. 

By invitation, the Bureau co-operated with the Boston 
Chamber of Commerce in its recent milk hearings in Massa- 
chusetts where the chairman of the Bureau presided. The 
general agent attended the following hearings: Boston and 
Worcester, Massachusetts; Portsmouth, New Hampshire; New- 
port, Augusta and Auburn, Maine; and Bellows Falls, Vermont. 

The Bureau takes this opportunity to express its appreciation 
and thanks to Prof. J. A. Foord of the Massachusetts Agri- 
cultural College, who acted without compensation as judge in 
Classes 2, 3, 4 and 5 of the encouragement of practical dairy 
contest, and to Prof. Simeon C. Keith of the Massachusetts 
Institute of Technology, judge in Class 1, both of whom 
showed excellent judgment in the discharge of their duties. 
The Bureau also feels under special obligation to Mr. G. L. 
Berg, milk inspector of Worcester, who did much to make a 
success of the clean milk exhibit at the Worcester meeting, and 
to those milk inspectors of the State who co-operated with the 
Bureau in carrying on the clean milk contest during the year. 



8 



DAIRY BUREAU. 



[Jan. 



The Dairy Situation. 
Much is sometimes made of the fact that there is a decline 
in the number of dairy cows in Massachusetts. That Massa- 
chusetts is no worse off in this respect than some other States, 
and not so badly off as the States immediately north of us, is 
overlooked.^ The elimination of unprofitable dairy cows and 
the dropping out of unsuccessful dairymen, for whatever cause, 
as well as the inevitable reduction of the milk supply to such 
a point as will ultimately bring the price of milk to a profit- 
able figure, are but the natural results of an inadequate price 
for milk. 

The decline in the number of cows is greatest in those lo- 
calities where milk is shipped by rail to large cities for con- 
sumption. It is, therefore, perfectly natural that nearby locali- 
ties are first to be affected. This decline, however, does not 
stop but goes on and on no matter how far the area of milk 
supply is extended, and the near future will, undoubtedly, see 
further decline, especially in northern New England and even 
in Canada, until milk producers come to a realizing sense of 
the great fundamental fact that milk has been too long sold 
below cost price. Milk production will decrease until the great 
law of supply and demand does its share of the work in rectify- 
ing the situation. The remedy, so far as we are concerned, is 
the education of the consumer to the food value of milk as 
compared with other animal foods, together with the educa- 
tion of all to the exact knowledge of the producer's position. 
Greater economy in milk production must be practiced. Better 
cows, more scientific feeding and improved business methods 
are urged of the farmer. Economy in handling, especially in 
the method of distribution, is urged of the distributor, and a 
sense of justice and willingness to pay a fair price for milk is 
urged of the consumer. 

1 The number of cows assessed in Massachusetts in 1905 was 181,920; in 1914, 147,209, showing 
a decrease in ten years of 34,711 fcows, or 19 per cent. 

The number of cows assessed in New Hampshire in 1905 was 113,712; in 1914, 86,438, showing 
a decrease of 24,202, or 24 per cent. 

The number of cows assessed in Maine in 1905 was 165,216; in 1914, 130,661, showing a decrease 
of 34,555 cows, or 20 per cent. 

In Vermont, ten years' figures are not available. Commissioner Brigham writes that the 
falling off of milch cows and other neat stock, 1913-14, was 10,700 head, or 3 per cent. It will be 
seen that this is at the rate of 30 per cent, for ten years. 



1915.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 60. 



9 



Condensed Milk. 
Figures furnished by the Boston Chamber of Commerce con- 
cerning the amount of condensed milk handled in Boston in 
1914 show an increase of 110,718 cases and a decrease of 2,633 
barrels over 1913. Full data concerning this report indicates, 
on the whole, an increase in the consumption of these prod- 
ucts. (See table on page 15.) 

Oleomargarine. 
The number of retail oleomargarine licenses in force in the 
State in November, 1913, was 884, while in 1914 it was 778, 
showing a decrease of 106. In Boston, the number of packages 
reported by the Chamber of Commerce in 1913 was 127,994, 
while in 1914 it was 99,999, showing a decrease of 27,995. 
Oleomargarine produced in the United States in 1913 was 
145,227,872 pounds, while in 1914 it was 144,021,276 pounds, 
showing a decrease of 1,206,596 pounds. This decrease in the 
manufacture of oleomargarine is due in some degree to a falling 
off of export trade, but probably more to the reduced cost of 
genuine butter, for which the majority of people have a decided 
preference. (See tables on pages 12 and 13.) 

Renovated Butter. 
In 1913 there were 38,354,762 pounds of re^iovated butter 
produced in the United States, while in 1914 there were 
32,470,030 pounds, showing a decrease of 5,884,732 pounds in 
twelve months. The high mark for the production of renovated 
butter in the United States was in 1907, when 62,965,613 
pounds were produced. The gradual falling off in the produc- 
tion of renovated butter, with the exception of one year when 
there was an increase (1912), shows that these goods are not 
meeting with the popular favor originally expected by the 
manufacturers. (See table on page 13.) 



10 



DAIRY BUREAU. 



[Jan. 



Butter. 

The average wholesale price of butter in the Boston market 
for 1913, as reported by the Chamber of Commerce, was 31.7 
cents, and in 1914, 29.4 cents, showing a decrease of 2.3 cents. 

The annual consumption of butter, Boston output, during 
1913 was 71,168,283 pounds, and in 1914, 72,922,533 pounds, 
showing an increase of 1,754,250 pounds. (Details will be 
found on page 14.) 

Personnel of the Bureau. 
The personnel of the Bureau is as follows: Charles M. 
Gardner of Westfield, chairman, George W. Trull of Tewks- 
bury and Omer E. Bradway of Monson. The executive force, 
agents, analysts, etc., are as follows: executive officer and sec- 
retary, Wilfrid Wheeler; general agent, P. M. Harwood; an- 
alysts, B. F. Davenport, M.D., Boston, and Gilbert L. Clark, 
Emerson Laboratory, Springfield; agent, A. W. Lombard; and 
three others have been temporarily employed. 



Summary of Police Work. 

Total number of inspections, ^ 6,099 

Number of inspections where no samples were taken, . . . 4,277 

Number of samples of butter, oleomargarine, all purchased, . . 1,816 

Number of samples of milk and cream, 51 

Cases entered in court, 129 

Addresses by general agent and others, 36 



Cases prosecuted during the twelve months ending November 
30, 1914, by months and courts, with law violated, and re- 
sults, are as follows : — 



1 There were 45 extra samples taken during the year, therefore tliis number is less than the 
sum of the next three items. 



1915.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 60. 



11 



Court. 


Month. 


Num- 
ber. 


Law violated. 


Con- 
victed. 


Dis- 
charged. 


Concord, Central Middlesex 


December, . 


6 


6 renovated butter, 


6 




District. 








Fall River, Second Bristol 


December, . 


6 


6 oleomargarine, , 


6 


- 


District. 










Plymouth, Third Plymouth 


December, . 


6 


6 renovated butter, 


6 


_ 


District. 












Haverhill, Northern Essex Dis- 


January, 


4 


2 oleomargarine, 2 


4 


- 


trict. 






renovated butter. 






Westfield, Western Hampden 


January, 


1 


1 milk, . 


1 


- 


District. 










A Kinfft r\n Spponrl "PlvmoiifVi 


03.iiii3.ry, 




4 oleomargarine, 


1 




District. 










Fall River, Second Bristol Dis- 


February, . 


44 


44 oleomargarine, . 


43 


1 


trict. 












New Bedford, Third Bristol 


March, 


8 


8 oleomargarine, . 


8 


- 


District. 










East Brookfield, Western 


March, 


1 


1 milk, . 


1 


- 


Worcester District. 










Taunton, First Bristol District, 




4 


1 


4 




Lynn, South Essex District, 


March, 


4 


2 renovated butter, 


4 


- 






2 oleomargarine. 






^VlAQ+AT A\''AQff*'m TTfl TYl T^Hpn "Did— 




\ 


1 milk 






trict. 










TsTatir'lr 


IMtirchi, 


g 


4 renovated butter. 


g 










2 oleomargarine. 






Boston, Boston Municipal, 


March, 


2 


2 oleomargarine, . 


2 


- 


Cambridge, Third Eastern Mid- 


March, 


4 


4 renovated butter. 


4 


- 


(ilcsGx District/. 










I^awrence Police, 


March, 


2 


2 renovated butter. 


2 


_ 


Lowell Police, .... 


March, 


2 


2 renovated butter. 


2 


- 


Haverhill, Northern Essex Dis- 


May, . 


10 


4 oleomargarine, 5 


10 


- 


trict. 




renovated butter. 












1 milk. 






Salem, First Essex District, 


May, . 


1 


Imilk, . 


1 


- 


Athol, First Northern Worcester 


May, . 


1 


1 milk, . 


1 


- 


District. 








Southbridge, First Southern 


August, 


1 


Imilk, . 


1 


- 


Worcester District. 








Springfield Police, 


September, . 




1 milk, . 


1 




Northampton, Hampshire Dis- 


November, . 




1 milk, . 


1 




trict. 












Cambridge, Third Eastern Mid- 


November, . 


5 


5 oleomargarine, . 


4 


1 


dlesex District. 










Somerville Police, 


November, . 




4 oleomargarine, . 


4 





Note, — The Bureau is indebted to the milk inspectors of Massachusetts for assistance which 
has resulted in court cases. 



The charges in the several cases entered in court for the 
year ending November 30, 1914, have been as follows: — 

Furnishing oleomargarine in restaurants; etc., without notice to 



guests, 82 

Selling renovated butter in unmarked packages, 27 

Selling adulterated milk, 9 

Selling oleomargarine in unmarked ^ packages, 8 

Selling oleomargarine without sign on vehicle, 3 



129 



» In these cases oleomargarine was sold when butter was asked for, but the charge was made 
in this way for convenience. 



12 



DAIRY BUREAU. 



[Jan. 



The following table shows the inspections without samples, 
and the number of samples taken during the past twelve 
years : — 



Years. 


Inspections 
without 
Samples. 


Samples. 


1903-13 (inclusive) 


56,291 


18,127 


1914 


4,277 


1,867 


Total for twelve years, 


60,568 


19,994 




5,047 


1,666 



Tables relating to Oleomargarine. 
The number of United States oleomargarine licenses in force 
in Massachusetts in November, 1913 and 1914, is as follows: — 



1913. 1914. 

Wholesale licenses in Boston, 19 21 

Wholesale licenses in other cities, 12 19 

Totals, 31 40 

Retail licenses in Boston, 121 104 

Retail licenses in other cities and towns, 763 674 

Totals, 884 778 



The following figures, taken from the annual report of the 
United States Commissioner of Internal Revenue for 1914, 
show the production, Avithdrawn tax paid, and withdrawn for 
export of the two classes of oleomargarine, as defined by act 
of May 9, 1902, covering the period of twelve years, since it 
went into effect on July 1, 1902: — 



1915.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 60. 13 



Oleomargarine (Pounds). 





Product taxed at Rate op 
10 Cents per Pound. 


Product taxed at Rate of 
K Cent per Pound. 


Year 


ProducGcl . 


With- 
drawn Tax 
paid. 


With- 
drawn for 
Export. 


Produced. 


With- 
drawn Tax 
paid. 


With- 
drawn for 
Export. 


1903, 


5,710,407 


2,312,493 


3,334,969 


67,573,689 


66,785,796 


151,693 


1904, 


3,785,670 


1,297,068 


2,504,940 


46,413,972 


46,397,984 


123,425 


1905, 


5,560,304 


3,121,640 


2,405,763 


46,427,032 


46,233,691 


137,670 


1906, 


4,888,986 


2,503,095 


2,422,320 


50,545,914 


50,536,466 


78,750 


1907, 


7,758,529 


5,009,094 


2,695,276 


63,608,246 


63,303,016 


129,350 


1908, 


7,452,800 


4,982,029 


2,522,188 


74,072,800 


73,916,869 


109,480 


1909, 


5,710,301 


3,275,968 


2,403,742 


86,572,514 


86,221,310 


112,958 


1910, 


6,176,991 


3,416,286 


2,767,195 


135,685,289 


135,159,429 


97,575 


1911, 


5,830,995 


2,764,971 


3,054,344 


115,331,800 


115,448,006 


91,750 


1912, 


6,235,639 


3,174,331 


3,044,122 


122,365,414 


121,945,038 


106,160 


1913, 


6,520,436 


4,090,658 


2,417,973 


138,707,426 


138,242,848 


59,686 


1914, 


6,384,222 


3,831,706 


2,121,162 


137,637,054 


137,747,982 


22,540 


Totals, 


72,015,280 


39,779,339 


31,693,994 


1,084,941,150 


1,081,928,435 


1,221,017 



Renovated Butter. 
The following figures, from the same source as the preceding 
table, show the production and withdrawn tax paid of renovated 
butter, 1902-14: — 

Renovated Butter (Pounds). 



Year. 



Production. 



Withdrawn Tax 
paid. 



1903, 
1904, 
1905, 
1906, 
1907, 
1908, 
1909, 
1910, 
1911, 
1912, 
1913, 
1914, 

Totals. 



54,658,790 
54,171,183 
60,029,421 
53,549,900 
62,965,613 
50,479,489 
47,345,361 
47,433,575 
39,292,591 
46,387,398 
38,354,762 
32,470,030 



54,223,234 
54,204,478 
60,171,504 
53,361,088 
63,078,504 
50,411,446 
47,402,382 
47,378,446 
39,352,445 
46,413,895 
38,285,114 
32,513,244 



587,138,113 



586,795, 7^ 



14 



DAIRY BUREAU. 



[Jan. 



Butter. 

The following table shows the average quotation for the best 
fresh creamery butter, in a strictly wholesale way, in the Bos- 
ton market for the last ten years, as compiled by the Boston 
Chamber of Commerce : — 





1914. 


1913. 


1912. 


1911. 


1910. 


1909. 


1908. 


1907. 


1906. 


1905. 


Month. 
























Cents. 


Cents. 


Cents. 


Cents. 


Cents. 


Cents. 


Cents. 


Cents. 


Cents. 


Cents. 


January, . 


32.5 


33.9 


36.9 


28.8 


33.5 


30.9 


29.7 


30.4 


25.2 


28.0 


February, 


28.8 


34.9 


32.5 


26.9 


30.5 


30.0 


32.1 


31.7 


25.2 


31.6 


March, 


27.7 


36.4 


32.1 


24.2 


32.0 


29.1 


30.2 


30.2 


25.5 


28.0 


April, 


25.1 


34.5 


32.7 


21.7 


31.5 


27.9 


28.4 


32.2 


22.2 


29.1 


May, 


25.8 


28.7 


30.4 


22.8 


29.0 


26.6 


24.1 


31.4 


19.9 


23.9 


June, 


27.5 


28.2 


27.9 


24.2 


28.2 


26.4 


24.5 


24.3 


20.2 


20.7 


July, 


27.9 


27.5 


28.1 


26.0 


28.6 


27.2 


23.6 


25.9 


21.0 


20.6 


August, . 


30.1 


28.2 


27.1 


27.2 


29.6 


28.2 


24.5 


26.0 


23.8 


21.6 


September, 


30.9 


31.3 


29.1 


27.7 


29.6 


31.3 


25.3 


29.2 


25.6 


21.2 


October, . 


30.9 


31.2 


31.0 


30.4 


29.4 


31.7 


27.5 


29.9 


26.9 


22.1 


November, 


32.4 


31.9 


32.9 


32.5 


30.2 


31.4 


29.5 


27.1 


27.6 


23.0 


Decern per. 


32.7 


33.8 


34.0 


35.0 


30.0 


32.9 


31.0 


27.5 


30.7 


23.9 


Averages, 


29.4 


31.7 


31.2 


27.3 


30.2 


29.5 


27.5 


28.8 


24.48 


24.47 



The Chamber of Commerce figures regarding the butter 
business in Boston for 1913 and 1914 are as follows: — 





1914. 


1913. 




Pounds. 


Pounds. 


Carried over in storage 

Receipts for January, 

February . 

March, ........... 

April, ............ 

May, ............ 

June, 

July 

August, 

September, . 

October, 

November, 

December, 


8,874,204 
3,540,476 
2,910,790 
4,171,261 
4,310,917 
7,326,985 
13,701,274 
12,684,474 
7,457,341 
5,932,317 
4,902,471 
3,208,117 
2,882,011 


8,340,102 
2,314,428 
2,870,790 
3,363,435 
4,433,969 
8,659,092 
12,938,572 
12,323,011 
8,333,419 
6,096,706 
4,241,941 
2,876,134 
3,251,088 


Total supply, . 

Exports for year, deduct 


81,902,638 
16,903 


80,042,687 
200 


Net supply, 

Storage stock December 26, deduct, 


81,885,735 
8,963,202 


80,042,487 
8,874,204 




72,922,533 


71,168,283 



1915.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 60. 



15 



Receipts of Condensed Milk. 
The Chamber of Commerce figures regarding the receipts of 
condensed milk at Boston for 1913 and 1914 are as follows: — 





1914. 

Barrels. 


1914. 

Cases. 


1913. 

Barrels. 


1913. 

Cases. 


January, 


299 


22,030 


147 


19,621 


February, 


72 


32,198 


167 


24,862 


March, 


72 


38,638 


260 


30,670 


April, ....... 


55 


26,362 


170 


22,193 


May, 


15 


29,889 


96 


21,946 


June 




35,766 


320 


38,300 


July, 


50 


47,102 


269 


39,502 




10 


66,127 


137 


22,902 


September, 




35,749 


254 


28,693 


October, 


33 


22,071 


1,328 


25,895 


November, 


40 


34,253 


130 


17,694 


December, 


205 


42,416 


206 


29,605 


Totals, 


815 


432,601 


3,484 


321,883 




Milk. 








Milk brought into Boston by Different Railroads, Dec. 1, 1913, to Nov. 
30, 1914, cts reported by the Public Service Commissioners (Quarts). 


Date. 


Boston & 
Albany. 


Boston & 
Maine. 


New York, 
New Haven 
& Hartford. 


Total. 


1913. 


564,660 


6,290,180 


1,501,612 


8,356,452 


1914. 










January 


296,935 


6,604,900 


1,502,442 


8,404,277 


February, 


288,116 


6,043,261 


1,475,780 


7,807,157 


March, 


372,194 


6,629,606 


1,640,016 


8,641,816 


April 


393,512 


6,373,612 


1,829,712 


8,596,836 


May, 


395,019 


7,091,511 


1,896,857 


9,383,387 


June, 


445,397K 


7,471,728 


1,906,124 


9,823,249>^ 


July, 


395,2571^ 


7,109,790 


1,716,631 


9,221,6781^ 


August, 


506,954 


6,717,219 


1,498,746 


8,722,919 


September, 


652,448 


6,279,826 


1,450,443 


8,382,717 


October, 


306,271 


6,349,448 


1,539,926 


8,195,645 


November, 


293,700 


6,182,944 


1,625,447 


8,102,091 


Totals 


4,910,464 


79,144,025 


19,583,736 


103,638,225 



16 



DAIRY BUREAU. 



[Jan. 



Comparative List of Number of Cows assessed in Massachusetts, May 1, 
1906, April 1, 1913, and May 1, 1914. 



Counties. 


1906. 


1913. 


1914. 


Decrease. 


Increase. 


1906-14. 


1913-14. 


1906-14. 


1913-14. 


Barnstable, .... 


2,448 


2,251 


2,243 


205 


8 


- 


- 


Berkshire 


17,404 


15,317 


14,796 


2,608 


521 


- 


- 


Bristol, .... 


13,702 


12,803 


13,242 


460 


- 


- 


439 


Dukes, .... 


656 


588 


623 


33 






35 


Essex 


17,131 


13,456 


13,151 


3,980 


305 




- 


Franklin 


12,715 


10,986 


10,165 


2,550 


821 






Hampden, .... 


12,096 


9,486 


8,947 


3,149 


539 






Hampshire, 


14,383 


11,467 


10,977 


3,406 


490 






Middlesex, .... 




24 060 


24 053 


5,455 


7 






Nantucket, .... 


378 


453 


423 




30 


45 




Norfolk 


11,200 


9,766 


9,397 


1,803 


369 






Plymouth, .... 


8,465 


7,613 


7,475 


990 


138 






Suffolk, .... 


1,186 


1,138 


922 


264 


216 






Worcester 


40,544 


31,892 


30,795 


9,749 


1,097 






Totals, .... 


181,816 


151,276 


147,209 


34,652 


4,541 


45 


474 



List of Massachusetts Farms making Milk of Superior Quality and 
Cleanliness and selling their Product higher than the Regular Mar- 
ket Price. 







Ap- 








proxi- 




Location, Farm. 


Owner and Manager. 


mate 
Num- 
ber of 
Cows. 


Where marketed. 


Agawam, Reilly Farm, . 


J. J. Reilly, owner and 
manager. 


17 


Springfield. 


Agawam, Colonial Farm, 


H. E. Bodurtha, owner 
and manager. 


12 


Springfield. 


Agawam, Elm Shade Dairy, . 


S. S. & E. F. Bodurtha, 
owners and managers. 


25 


Springfield. 


Amherst, H. M. Thompson's farm, 


H. M. Thompson, owner 
and manager. 


25 


Holyoke. 


Amherst, U. G. Groff's farm. 


U. G. Groff, owner and 
manager. 


34 


Amherst. 


Andover, Arden Farm, . 


Wm. M. Wood, owner; J. 


55 


Andover, Lawrence, 


M. Putnam, superin- 
tendent; Austin C. 




Woburn and Bos- 
ton. 




Huggins, manager of 
creamery. 
F. Shattuck, owner and 
manager. 






Andover, Shattuck Farms, 


50 


Lawrence. 


Auburn, Wellswood Farm, 


George O. Keep, owner 
and manager. 


30 


Worcester. 



1915.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 60. 



17 



List of Massachusetts Farms snaking Milk of Superior Quality and 
Cleanliness and selling their Product higher than the Regular Mar- 
ket Price — Continued. 



Location, Farm. 



Owner and Manager. 



Ap- 
proxi- 
mate 
Num- 
ber of 
Cows. 



Where marketed. 



Barnstable, Bay Farm, . 
Barre, Highland View Farm, . 
Beverly, George R. Wales' farm, 
Bolton, Rocky Dundee Farm, 
Bolton, Wataquodock Farm, . 



Boston, Walker-Gordon Farm, 1106 
Boylston Street. 

Brimfield, Clarence B. Brown's 
farm. 

Brockton, Montello Station, Dutch- 
land Farm. 
Brookline, Louis Cabot estate. 



P. O 



Chilmark, West Tisbury, 
Oakview Farm. 

Dighton, Rock Farm, 

Dorchester, Codman Farm, 

East Lynn, 

East Walpole, Lewis Farm, 

Everett, Joseph H. Cannell's farm, 
Everett, Thomas F. Leavitt's farm, 
Fairhaven, Dana Farm, . 

Fair haven, Lewis F. Blossom's farm, 
Framingham, Millwood Farm, 

Framingham, Waverney Farm, 

Framingham, Cherry Meadow 
Farm. 

Franklin, Ray Farm, 

Gardner, Lakeside Farm, 
Gardner, Otto Wiokman's farm, 
Gloucester, Howard P. Lane's farm, 
Gloucester, H. Wallace Lane's farm, 
Gloucester, Peter Hagstrom's farm, 
Granby, C. W. Ball's farm, . 



H. C. Everett, owner and 

manager. 
D. A. Howe, owner; W. 

E, Howe, manager. 
George R. Wales, owner 

and manager. 
R. H. Randall, lessee and 

manager. 
Paul Cunningham, owner 

and manager. 

Walker-Gordon Laboratory 
Company, owner; John 
Nichols, manager. 

Clarence B. Brown, owner 
and manager. 

Fred F. Field, owner; Earl 
D. Upton, manager. 

Louis Cabot, owner; R. 
Barkhouse, manager. 

J. F. Adams, owner and 
manager. 

J. W. Earle, owner; Ralph 

Earle, manager. 
Watson B. Fearing, owner 

and manager. 
J. D. Coombs, lessee and 

manager. 
Geo. A. Plympton, owner. 



Joseph H. Cannell, owner 

and manager. 
Thomas F. Leavitt, owner 

and manager. 
Eliza N. and Edith Dana, 

owners and managers. 

Lewis F. Blossom, owner 

and manager. 
Mrs. E. F. Bowditch, 

owner; J. P. Bowditch, 

manager; F. E. Barrett, 

superintendent. 
Reginald W. Bird, owner; 

A. E. White, manager. 

D. M, and E. F. Belches, 
owners; E. F. Belches, 
manager. 

E. K. Ray estate, owner; 
Joseph G. Ray, trustee 
and manager. 

J. Henry Ware, owner and 

manager. 
Otto Wickman, owner and 

manager. 
Howard P. Lane, owner 

and manager. 
H. Wallace Lane, owner 

and manager. 
Peter Hagstrom, owner 

and manager. 
C. W. Ball, owner and 

manager. 



100 

21 
70 
10 
17 

15 

125 

3 
80 



52 

12 
178 

50 
35 



Barnstable. 
Worcester. 
Beverly. 
Clinton. 

Boston and vicinity, 
by Alden Brothers 
Company. 

Boston and vicinity. 

West Warren. 

Brockton. 

Brookline. 

Vineyard Haven and 
Edgar town. 

Fall River. 

Boston. 

East Lynn. 

Boston and vicinity, 
by Alden Brothers 
Company. 

Everett. 

Everett. 

Fairhaven, Marion 
and Mattapoisett 
(in summer). 

Fairhaven. 

Boston and Welles- 
ley. 

Boston. 
Framingham. 

Boston, by Elm 
Farm Company. 

Gardner. 

Gardner. 

Gloucester. 

Gloucester. 

Gloucester. 

Holyoke. 



18 



DAIRY BUREAU. 



[Jan. 



List of Massachusetts Farms making Milk of Superior Quality and 
Cleanliness and selling their Product higher than the Regular Mar- 
ket Price — Continued. 



Location, Farm. 



Owner and Manager. 



Ap- 
proxi- 
mate 
Num- 
ber of 
Cows. 



Where marketed. 



Greenfield, Wayside Farm, 
Groton, G. W. Greenhalge's farm, . 
Hamilton, Miles River Farm, 

Hardwick, Mixter Farm, 

Haverhill (Bradford District), J. B. 

Sawyer's farm. 
Haverhill (Bradford District), Cedar 

Crest Farm. 
Haverhill, North Broadway Milk 

Farm. 

Haverhill (P. O. East Haverhill), 
Fred Kimball's farm. 

Holyoke, Whiting Farm, 

Kingston, Miss Helen Holmes' farm, 
Lee, John Goodrich's farm, . 
Leominster, Boutelle Farm, . 
Leominster, Sholan Farm, 

Longmeadow, Hillbrow Farm, 
Lowell, Hood Farm, 
Ludlow, E. E. Chapman's farm 
Lunenburg, Sunnyside Farm, 
Lynnfield, N. F. McCarthy's farm, 
Marlborough, Fairview Farm, 

Medford, Mystic Valley Farm, 75 

Arlington Street. 
Medford, Hillside Farm, 20 Gow 

Street. 

Methuen, Bragdon Farms, 
Methuen, Cox Farms, 
Methuen, Howe Farm, . 
Methuen, Spring Valley Farms, 
Methuen, S. W. Williams' farm, 
Minis, Lowland Farm, 



Frank H. Reed, owner; 
Mr. Purrington, man- 
ager. 

G. W. Greenhalge, owner 
and manager. 

Maxwell Norman, owner 
and manager; C. E. 
Johnson, superintend- 
ent. 

Mary A. Mixter, owner; 
Dr. Samuel J. Mixter, 
manager; S. R. Parker, 
superintendent. 

J. B. Sawyer, owner and 
manager. 

C. Herbert Poore, owner 
and manager. 

E.A.Emerson, owner and 
manager. 

Fred Kimball, owner; 
Leonard Kimball, man- 
ager. 

W. F. Whiting, owner; 

John F. Richardson, 

manager. 
Miss Helen Holmes, owner 

and manager. 
John Goodrich, owner and 

manager. 
E. H. Boutelle, owner and 

manager. 
Paul Washburn, owner; 

A. G. HoUquist, man- 
ager. 

H. M. Burt, owner and 
manager. 

C. I. Hood, owner; J. E. 

Dodge, manager. 
Edward E. Chapman, 

owner and manager. 
George M. Proctor, owner; 

Fred A. Miller, manager. 
N. F. McCarthy, owner; 

Eben Holmes, manager. 
Elmer D. Howe & Son, 

owners and managers. 
John J. Mulkevin, owner 

and manager. 
Alberton Harris, owner 

and manager. 
E. L. Bragdon, owner and 

manager. 
Louis Cox, owner; L. 

Coburn, manager. 
E. D. Taylor, owner and 

manager. 
Fred Miller, owner and 

manager. 
S. W. Williams, owner and 

manager. 
E. F. Richardson, owner 

and manager. 



25 
25 
60 

200 



20 
35 
35 

20 

20 
40 
30 
40 

20 
120 
22 
48 
30 
10 
16 
10 
30 
31 
50 
50 
30 
25 



Greenfield. 



Boston and vicinity, 
by D. Whiting & 
Sons. 

Boston. 



Boston. 

Haverhill. 
Haverhill. 
Haverhill. 
Haverhill. 

Holyoke. 

Kingston. 
Lee. 

Leominster. 
Leominster. 

Springfield. 
Lowell. 

Ludlow and Indian 

Orchard. 
Fitchburg. 

Wakefield. 

Marlborough. 

Medford. 

Medford. 

Lawrence. 

Lawrence. 

Lawrence. 

Lawrence. 

Lawrence. 

Boston. 



1915.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 60. 19 



List of Massachusetts Farms making Milk of Superior Quality and 
Cleanliness and selling their Product higher than the Regidar Mar- 
ket Price — Continued. 



Location, Farm. 



Owner and Manager. 



Ap- 
proxi- 
mate 
Num- 
ber of 
Cows. 



Where marketed. 



Milton, Highland Farm, 



Needham, K. E. Webb's farm, 



Newton (P. O. Waban), W. B 

McMullin's farm. 
Newtonville, Willow Farm, 120 Far 

well Street. 
Norfolk, Meadowside Farm, . 

North Amherst, The Elms, . 

North Attleborough, Halliday Farm 



North Falmouth, Manuel G. White's 
farm. 

North Grafton, Bonnybrook Farm, 
North Tewksbury, Mountjoy, 



Northampton, W. J. LaFleur'sfarm, 
Oak Bluffs, Woodsedge Farm, 
Paxton, E. G. Richard's farm, 
Paxton, Echo Farm, 

Pepperell, George Shattuck's farm, 

Pittsfield, Abby Lodge, . 
Pittsfield, Mr. Bardwell's farm, 
Pittsfield, E. W. Page's farm, 
Revere, Mrs. M. L. Mahoney's farm, 

Saugus, Oaklandvale Farm, . 

South Lincoln, South Lincoln Dairy 
Company. 

South Natick, Carver Hill Farm, 

South ville, Waumesit Farm, . 

Sherborn, H. N. Brown's farm, 
Sherborn, Dexter Farm, . 

Sherborn, J. M. Merriam's farm, 

Sterling, Twin Oaks Farm (P. O 
Pratt's Junction). 



Patriquin & Newton, 
lessees; George Patri- 
quin, manager. 

Kenneth E. Webb, owner 
and manager. 

William B. McMullin, 
owner and manager. 

D. F. Smith, owner and 
manager. 

T. D. Cook & Co., owners 

and managers. 
R. D. Dickinson, owner 

and manager. 
Fred F. Halliday, owner; 

Robert C. Halliday, 

manager. 
Manuel G. White, owner 

and manager. 
Everett N. Kearney, 

owner and manager. 
Miss Florence Nesmith, 

owner; C. E. Lougee, 

manager. 
W. J. LaFleur, owner and 

manager. 
F. W. Chase, owner and 

manager. 

E. G. Richards, owner and 
manager. 

W. J. Woods, owner; 
Joseph Graham, man- 
ager. 

George Shattuck, owner 
and manager. 

A. W. Cooley, owner; Mr. 

Carlson, manager. 
Mr. Bardwell, owner and 

manager. 
E. W. Page, owner and 

manager. 
Mrs. M. L. Mahoney, 

owner; J. J. Mahoney, 

manager. 
Frank P. Bennett, owner 

and manager. 
South Lincoln Dairy Com- 
pany, owner; W. A. 

Blodgett, manager. 
Carver Hill Farms, Inc., 

Austin Potter. 

R. F. Parker, owner and 
manager. 

H. N. Brown, owner and 

manager. 
George T. Dexter, owner 

and manager. 

J. M. Merriam, owner and 

manager. 
James F. Pratt, owner and 



35 
14 
8 
25 

112 

220 

75 
20 
50 



Milton. 



Needham. 

Needham and New- 
ton. 

Newton, Brookline 

and Boston. 
Boston. 

Amherst. 

Pawtucket, R. I. 

North Falmouth. 

Worcester. 

North Tewksbury. 

Northampton. 
Oak Bluffs. 

Worcester,by C. Brig- 
ham Company. 

Worcester.byC. Brig- 
ham Company. 

Boston and vicinity, 
by D. Whiting & 
Sons. 

Boston. 

Pittsfield. 
Pittsfield. 
Maiden. 



Lynn. 

Boston, Cambridge 
and Brookline. 

Wellesley, Boston, 

Natick, Needham 

and Dover. 
Boston and vicinity, 

by C. Brigham 

Company. 
Boston. 

Boston and vicinity, 
by Alden Brothers 
Company. 

Boston. 

Milk, Boston; cream, 
Worcester. 



20 



DAIRY BUREAU. 



[Jan. 



Lid of Massachusetts Farms making Milk of Superior Quality ami 
Cleanliness and selling their Product higher than the Regidar Mar- 
ket Price — Concluded. 



Location, Farm. 


Owner and Manager. 


Ap- 
proxi- 
mate 
Num- 
ber of 
Cows. 


Where marketed. 


otougnton, lobey xarm, 


jzj . ±j . xiiiLcnins, owner 


15 


Tt 1 4. 

ijrocKton. 




and manager. 






-Launton, \jr6org6 ooper s larin, 


George Soper, owner and 


30 


1 aunton. 




manager . 






Waltliam, PlcasantcialB Farm, 




35 


Weston. 


and manager. 








S. N^ Sanders, manager. 


12 


Walt ham 




Edgar L. Gillett, owner j 


12 


If Council^. 


N^. J Weidliaas man~ 






wesLon, \_^iiaries ivierriam s larm, 


diaries IVIerriam owner 


51 






and manager 






Westwood Fox Hill Farm 


Joshua Crane, owner; L. 


100 


Boston. 


W. Jackman, manager. 






West Newton and Barre, Wauwinet 


George H. Ellis, owner; 


400 


Boston, Brookline 


Farm. 


P. F. Staples and R. 




and Newton. 




M. Handy, managers. 






Warren, Maple Farm, 


J. R. Blair, owner and 


27 


Boston, by C. Brig- 


manager. 




ham Company. 


Woburn, John Day's farm. 


John Day, owner and 


18 


Winchester. 




manager. 






Worcester, Pleasant View Farm, . 


Warren C. Jewett, owner 


40 


Worcester. 


and manager. 






Worcester, Lewis J. Kendall's farm, 


Lewis J. Kendall, owner 


40 


Worcester. 




and manager. 






Worcester, Intervale Farm, 


J. Lewis Ellsworth, owner 


14 


Worcester. 




and manager. 






Worcester, Village Farm, 


H. B. Prentice, owner and 


30 


Worcester. 




manager. 







Note. — Deerfoot Farm Dairy, office 9 Bosworth Place, Boston, with milk depots at both 
Southborough and Northborough, sells milk of superior quality and cleanliness at a price above 
that of ordinary market milk, and handles the product of 129 dairy farms, averaging about 10 
cows each, located in Southborough, Northborough, Westborough and Holliston. Most of these 
farms, therefore, at some time during the year come properly within the requirements of this list. 



1915.1 



PUBLIC DOCmiENT — No. 60. 



21 



List of Massachusetts Dairy Farms making Certified Milk. 



Name, Location. 



Owner and Manager. 



Ap- 
proxi- 
mate 
Num- 
ber of 
Cows. 



Certified by — 



Wheie 
marketed. 



Cedar Hill Farm, Waltham, 

Cedar Crest Farm, Wal- 
tham. 

Cherry Hill Farm, Beverly, 
A. D. Davis' farm, Sheffield, 



Indian Bridge Farm, Way- 
land. 



Ledyard Farm, Andover, 



Massachusetts Agiicultural 
College Farm, Amherst. 

Oaks Farm, Cohasset, 



Oliver Prescott's farm , Dart- 
mouth (P. O. North Dart- 
mouth). 

Prospect Hill Farm, Essex, 



Seven Gates Farm, North 
Tisbury. 



Walter A. White' 
Acushnet. 



farm. 



Miss Cornelia War- 
ren, owner; Charles 
Cahill, manager. 

John C. Runkle, 
owner; Louis W. 
Dean, manager. 

H. P. Hood & Sons, 
owners; O. H. 
Perrin, managers. 

A. D. Davis, owner 

and manager. 



Edmund H. Sears, 
owner ; Walter 
Jauncey, Jr., man- 
ager. 

J. A. & W.H.Gould, 
owners and man- 
agers. 

Massachusetts Agri- 
cultural College, 
J. A. Foord. 

C. W. Barron, 
owner; W. E. Stil- 
well, manager. 

Oliver Prescott, 
owner; Harry W. 
Martin, manager. 

J. A. & W.H.Gould, 
owners and man- 
agers. 

W. L. Webb, owner; 
O. L. Curtis, man- 
ager. 

Walter A. White, 
owner and man- 
ager. 



215 
90 
80 
60 



50 
65 
50 
20 
175 

20-25 



30 



Cambridge Medi- 
cal Commission. 

Cambi idge Medi- 
cal Commission. 

Medical Milk 
Commission of 
Boston. 



Cambridge 
Medical Milk 
Commission. 

Maiden Medical 
Commission. 

Medical Milk 
Commission of 
Boston. 

Medical Milk 
Commission of 
Cohasset. 

New Bedford 
Medical Com- 
mission. 

Medical Milk 
Commission of 
Boston. 

Medical Milk 
Commission of 
West Tisbury, 
Inc. 

New Bedford 
Medical Com- 
mission. 



Waltham , Cam- 
bridge, Boston. 

North Shore, 
Cam bridge , 
Boston. 

Boston, North 
Shore, L a w - 
rence. 

Some in Great 
Barrington ; 
balance out- 
side of State. 

Waltham. 



Maiden. 
Boston. 
Cohasset. 
New Bedford. 



Boston, Brook- 
line, Jamaica 
Plain, North 
Shore. 

Martha's Vine- 
yard. 



New Bedford. 



List of Local Milk Inspectors. 

Milk Inspectors for Massachusetts Cities, 1914. 



Attleboro, Caleb E. Parmenter. 

Beverly, Henry E. Dodge, 2d. 

Boston, Prof. James 0. Jordan. 

Brockton, George E. Boiling. 

Cambridge, Dr. W. A. Noonan. 

Chelsea, Dr. W. S. Walkley. 

Chicopee, C. J. O'Brien. 

Everett, E. Clarence Colby. 

Fall River, Henry Boisseau. 

Fitchbui-g, . John F. Bresnahan. 

Gloucester, Dr. G. E. Watson. 

Haverhill, Dr. Homer L. Conner. 



22 DAIRY BUREAU. [Jan. 

Holyoke, Daniel P. Hartnett. 

Lawrence, Dr. J. H. Tobin. 

Lowell, Melvin F. Master. 

Lynn, George A. Flanagan. 

Maiden, J. A. Sandford. 

Marlborough, John J. Cassidy. 

Medford, Winslow Joyce. 

Melrose, R. N. Boyt. 

New Bedford, Herbert Hamilton, D.V.S. 

Newburyport, Dr. R. D. Hamilton. 

Newton, Arthur Hudson. 

North Adams, Henry A. Tower. 

Northampton, George R. Turner. 

Pittsfield, Bernard M. Collins, V.M.D. 

Quincy, Daniel Scourler. 

Revere, Joseph E. Lamb, M.D. 

Salem, John J. McGrath. 

Somerville, Herbert E. Bowman. 

Springfield, Stephen C. Downs. 

Taunton, Lewis I. Tucker. 

Waltham, Arthur L. Stone, M.D. 

Woburn, Edward P. Kelly, M.D. 

Worcester, Gustaf L. Berg. 

Milk Inspectors for Massachusetts Towns, 1914- 

Adams, Dr. A. G. Potter. 

Amesbury, J. L. Stewart. 

Andover, Franklin H. Stace5^ 

Arlington, Dr. L. L. Pierce. 

Athol, John H. Meaney. 

Barnstable, George T. Mecarta. 

Belmont, Thomas F. Harris. 

Brookline, W. E. Ward. 

Canton, R. N. Hoyt. 

Clinton, Gilman L. Chase. 

Cohasset, D. W. Gilbert, D.V.S. 

Concord, Joseph Dee, Jr. 

Dedham, Edward Knobel. 

Easthampton, George L. McEvoj^ 

Fairhaven, Bertha F. Carl Frommell, M.D. 

Framingham, R. N. Hoyt. 

Gardner, Clifford W. Shippee. 

Greenfield, George P. Moore. 

Hudson, William H. Clark. 

Lancaster, George E. Howe. 

Leominster, William H. Dodge. 

Ludlow, A. L. Bennett, D.V.S. 



1915.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 60. 



23 



Marblehead, Andrew W. Stone. 

Middleborough, Dr. William H. Haskell. 

Millbury, Arthur A. Brown. 

Milton, W. C. Tucker. 

Monson, Dr. E. W. Capen. 

Needham, R. N. Hoyt. 

North Attleborough, .... Hugh Gaw, V.S. 

Palmer, Edward P. Brown. 

Peabody, H. S. Pomeroy, M.D. 

Plainville, John C. Eiden. 

Reading, C. H. Playden, M.D. 

Salisbury, John F. Pike. 

Sandwich, J. E. Holway. 

Southbridge, Albert R. Brown. 

South Hadley Falls, George F. Boudreau. 

Spencer, James A. Spencer. 

Stoneham, William M. Balmer. 

Swampscott, Herbert D. Smith. 

Wakefield, Harry A. Simmonds. 

Ware, Fred E. Marsh. 

Watertown, R. N. Hoyt. 

Wellesley, R. N. Hoyt. 

Westborough, Charles H. Reed. 

AVestfield, William H. Porter. 

Weston, R. N. Hoyt. 

West Springfield, Norman T. Smith. 

Williamstown, . . . . . . G. S. Jordan, V.S. 

Winchendon, Dr. G. W. Stanbridge. 

Winchester, Maurice Dinneen. 

Winthrop, Smith A. Mowry. 

Creameries, Milk Depots, etc. 

Co-operative Creavieries. 



Number and Location. 



Name. 



Superintendent or Manager. 



L Aslifield, 

2. Belchertown, 

3. Cummington, 

4. Easthampton, 



5. Egremont (P. O. 

rington). 

6. Monterey, 



7. Northfield, 

8. Shelburne, 

9. Westfield. 



Great 



Bar 



Aahfield Creamery, . 
Belchertown Creamery, 
Cummington Creamery, 
Easthampton Creamery, 
Egremont Creamery, 
Berkshire Hills Creamery 
Northfield Creamery, 
Shelburne Creamery, 
Wyben Springs Creamery 



William Hunter, manager. 
M. G. Ward, president. 

D. C. Morey, superintend- 
ent. 

E. B. Clapp, treasurer. 

E. *G. Tyrell, manager. 

F. A. Campbell, treasurer. 
C. C. Stearns, treasurer. 
Ira Barnard, manager. 

C. H. Kelso, manager. 



24 DAIRY BUREAU. [Jan. 



Proprietary Creameries. 



Number and Loc^\tion. 


Name. 


Owner or Manager. 


1. 


Amherst, .... 


Amherst Creamery Company, . 


R. W. Pease, manager. 


2. 




Fort River Creamery, 


Clarence M. Wood, manager 








(estate of E. A. King, 








ownei). 


3. 




Crystal Brook Creamery, . 


F. N. Lawrence, proprietor. 


4. 


Great Harrington , 


Edge wood Creamery, 


C. W. Freehan, manager. 


5. 


Heath, .... 


Cold Spring Creamery, 


I. W. Stetson & Son. 


6. 


Hinsdale, . . . - . 


Hinsdale Creamery, . 


Walter C. Solomon, pro- 








prietor. 



Educational. 



Location. 


Name. 


Manager. 


Amherst, 


Dairy Industry Cour.se, Massachu- 
.setts Agricultural College. 


W. P. B. Lockwood, pro- 
fessor in charge. 


Principal Milk-distributing Depots. 


Name. 


Location. 


Manager. 


Acton Farms Milk Company, . 
Alden Brothers Company, 

Anderson Brothers, 

Boston Ice Cream Company, . 

Boston Jersey Creamery, 
Brigham, C, Company, . 
Brigham, C, Company, . 
Bristol Creamery Com pan j', . 
Columbia Creamery, 
Deerfoot Farms Daiiy, 

Elm Farm Milk Company, 
Franklin Creamery Company, 
Hampden Creamery Coippany, 
Hood, H. P., & Sons, 


Somerville, Windsor Street, . 

Boston office, 1171 Tremont Street; 
depot, 24-28 Duncan Street. 

Worcester, Eckman Street, 

Roxbury, 40 King Street, 

Boston, 9 Fulton Street, 

Cambridge, 158 Ma.ssachusetts 

Avenue. 
Worcester, 9 Howard Street, . 

Boston, 132 Central Street, . 

Springfield, 117 Lyman Street, 

Boston, 132 Central Street; depots 
at Northborough and Southbor- 
ough. 

Boston, Wales Place, 

Boston, 147 Harri.son Avenue, 
Everett, Orient Avenue, 

Boston, 494 Rutherford Avenue; 
branches, 24 Anson Street, Forest 
Hills; 886 Broadway, Chelsea. 

Lynn, 193 Alley Street. 

Maiden, 425 Main Street. 

Watertown, 479 Pleasant Street. 

Lawrence, 629 Common Street. 


Arthur B. Parker, treas- 
urer. 

Charles L. Alden, presi- 
dent; John Alden, 
treasurer. 

Anderson Brothers. 

Harry M. Hardwick, 
president and treas- 
urer. 

Theo. P. Grant, presi- 
dent and manager. 
John K. Whiting. 

C. Brigham Company. 

William L. John.son. 

H. A. Mosely. 

S. H. Howes. 

James H. Knapp, treas- 
urer. 
Tait Brothers. 

Frank H. Adams, treas- 
urer. 
Charles H. Hood. 



1915.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 60. 25 



Principal Milk-distribiiting Depots — Concluded. 



Name. 


Location. 


Manager. 


Learned, G. S. (Fitchburg 
Creamery). 

Lyndonville Creamery Associa- 
tion. 

Nash, Charles A 

Newhall, J. A., ... 

Perry, A. D., . 

Plymouth Creamery Company, 

Prentice, H. H., & Co. (Berk- 
shire Creamery). 
Rockingham Milk Company, . 

Somers Creamery Company, . 

vSpringfield Creamery, 

Tait Brothers, .... 

Turner Centre Dairying Asso- 
ciation. 
VVachusett Creamery, 

Whiting, D., & Sons, 


Fitchburg, 26 Gushing Street, 
Watertown, 86 Elm Street, . 
Springfield, 120 Oakland Street, . 
Newburyport, 32 Monroe Street, . 
Worcester, Kansas Street, 
Boston, 268-270 State Street, . 
Pittsfield, Crane Avenue, 

Charlestown, Boston office, Han- 
cock Square; depot 330 Ruther- 
ford Avenue. 

Springfield, 178 Dwight Street, 

Springfield, Main Street, 

Springfield, 37 Vinton Street, 

Boston office, 63, 67 and 69 Endicott 
Street. 

Worcester, 6 Lincoln Street, . 
Boston, 570 Rutherford Avenue, . 


G. S. Learned. 

Willis C. Conner, man- 
ager. 

Charles A. Nash, man- 
ager. 
J. A. Newhall. 

A. D. Perry. 

John W. Davies. 

H. H. Prentice. 

Rolan H. Toothaker, 
president. 

W. M. Cushman. 

F. B. Allen, proprietor. 

Tait Brothers, proprie- 
tors. 

Irven L. Smith, man- 
ager. 

E. H. Thayer & Co., 

propi ietors. 
George Whiting. 


Milk Laboratory. 


Walker-Gordon Laboratory, 


Boston, 1106 Boylston Street, 


George W. Franklin. 


Receiving Depot for Milk, for Shipments to New York City. 


Willow Brook Dairy Company, 


Sheffield, 


Frank Percy. 



Encouragement of Practical Dairying Expenses, March 



TO November. 

Agents, expenses, $849 03 

General agent, traveling and necessary expenses, . . . 544 88 

Judge, compensation, 50 00 

Printing, photography, postage and supplies, . . . . 196 47 

Clerical assistance, 3 60 



Total, $1,643 98 

Prizes, 3,735 30 



Total expenditures, $5,379 28 



26 



DAIRY BUREAU. 



[Jan. 1915. 



Regular Bureau Expenses. 
The following is a classified statement of the expenses for 
the year ending November 30, 1914: — 



Bureau, compensation and traveling expenses, .... $761 86 

Agents, compensation, 2,988 66 

Agents, traveling expenses and samples purchased, . . . 2,093 63 

General agent, traveling and necessary expenses, . . . 213 59 

Analysts, analyses, tests, court attendance, .... 686 00 

Printing, photography, postage and supplies, . . . . 913 97 

Clerical assistance, 339 95 



Total, $7,997 66 



P. M. HARWOOD, 

General Agent. 

Accepted and adopted as the report of the Dairy Bureau. 

CHAS. M. GARDNER. 
GEORGE W. TRULL. 
OMER E. BRADWAY. 



Public Document 




No. 60 



TWENTY-FIFTH ANNUAL REPORT 

OF THE 

DAIRY BUREAU 

OF THE 

Massachusehs Board or Ageictiltuee, 

REQUIRED UNDER 

Chapter 89, Section 12, Revised Laws. 



January 5, 1916. 




BOSTON: 

WRIGHT & POTTER PRINTING CO., STATE PRINTERS, 
32 DERNE STREET. 
1916. 



Public Document 



No. 60 



TWENTY-FIFTH ANNUAL REPORT 

OF THE 

"DAIRY BUREAU 

OF THE 

Massachusetts Board of Agriculture, 

REQUIRED UNDER 

Chapter 89, Section 12, Revised Laws. 



January 5, 1916. 




BOSTON : 

AVEIGHT & POTTER PRINTING CO., STATE PRINTERS, 
32 DERNE STREET. 
1916. 



approved by 
The State Board of Publication, 



3 



Dairy Bureau — 1915. 



CHARLES M. GARDNER, Westfield, Chairman. 
GEORGE W. TRULL, Tewksbury, P. 0. Lowell, R. F. D. 
OMER E. BRADWAY, Monson. 



Secretary. 

WILFRID WHEELER, Executive Officer and Secretary of the State 
Board of Agriculture. 



General Agent. 
P. M. HARWOOD, 
Address, Room 136, State House, Boston. 



Ccmmonroealtl) of illasBacljUBettB. 



REPORT OF THE DAIRY BUREAU. 

The three years of effort in carrying out the provisions of the 
1913 resolve, providing for the encouragement of practical 
dairying, show an increased demand for this work. 

In 1913 there were 151 entries in the clean milk contest 
(owners only). In 1914 there were 229 entries in Class A 
(owners); in 1915 there Avere 277 entries. In 1914 there were 
22 entries in Class B (juniors); in 1915 there were 48 entries. 
In 1914 there were 54 entries in Class C (employees); in 1915 
there were G9 entries. The total entries for each year were: 
1913, 151; 1914, 305; 1915, 394. The total entries for the three 
years was 850. Most gratifying of all, the milk samples have 
shown a steady improvement in point of cleanliness year by 
year. 

On the other hand, in the police work there has been found 
a decrease in the number of violations of law in the sale of dairy 
products and their imitations. In 1913 there were 149 cases for 
violations of dairy laws entered in court; in 1914, 129; and in 
1915, 64. The falling off of the number of cases entered in 
court is in no way due to relaxation of effort upon the part of 
the Bureau or its agents, but is entirely due to the fact that 
there were fewer actual violations of laws. 

The total number of inspections of stores, wagons, etc., in 
1915 was 7,090. The average annual inspections for ten years, 
1903 to 1912, inclusive, was 6,556. The average annual cases 
in court for the same period was 196. The annual inspections 
for three years, 1913 to 1915, inclusive, averaged 7,316. The 
cases in court for the same period averaged 121. 

In carrying out the provisions of chapter 96 of the Resolves 
of 1913, appropriating $15,000 for the encouragement of prac- 



6 



DAIRY BUREAU. 



[Jan. 



tical dairying, covering a period of three years, the following 
distribution of funds was made: — 

In 1913 prizes aggregating $3,000 were offered which were 
divided as follows: in clean milk contest, $2,550; in a contest 
of dairies best protected from flies, S450. 

In 1914 prizes aggregating $4,439 were offered which Avere 
divided as follows: in clean milk contest, $3,389; farm account- 
ing, $300; dairy barns, $300; dairy farm operations, $450. 

In 1915 prizes aggregating $4,321 were offered in the clean 
milk contest. 

The total amount of prizes actually paid during the three 
years is, in 1913, $3,000; 1914, $3,735.30; 1915, $4,261, making 
a total of $10,996.30, and leaving for the carrying on of the 
work $4,003.70, all of which has been expended. 

It was found after two years' experience that by far the most 
popular of our efforts in this work was the clean milk contest, 
so called, an educational and financial method of encouraging 
the keeping of dirt out of mill'. On this account it was deemed 
best that the unexpended balance of the money appropriated 
for this purpose on hand at the beginning of 1915 should be 
expended in the clean milk contest. No other State has ever 
undertaken work of this character, and after three years' 
effort in this line, coupled with other work done by the State 
and various organizations within the State, it is a safe assump- 
tion that Massachusetts-produced milk is to-day as clean or 
cleaner than that produced in any other State of the Union. 
This is a matter of vital importance to our dairymen, for unless 
the Massachusetts product is of the highest quality and cleanli- 
ness, and commands the highest price in the market, there is 
small hope for the future of our dairy industry. Unlimited 
competition from those sections possessing great natural 
advantages for milk production on a large scale will prove too 
strong for us to withstand. Quality, cleanliness, freshness, price 
must be the slogan of the Massachusetts milk-producing farmer 
if he will succeed. In the future the size of his business will be 
measured by the consumer's confidence in and willingness to 
buy and pay for milk of this character. Every effort should 
be used to prevent milk produced outside the State, and 
especially long-hauled milk, from getting or keeping any undue 
advantage by reason of rates or otherwise. 



1916.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 60. 



.7 



If this country would restore and maintain her dairy industry 
on a sound and profitable basis, she must protect it by proper 
and reasonable tariff. And if this Commonwealth would 
maintain her milk industry she must commercialize two things, 
viz., freshness and Massachusetts as applied to her milk product. 

Massachusetts should further encourage by a large annual 
appropriation the production of clean milk and the development 
of live-stock husbandry within her borders. A resolve to this 
end, and also an act broadening the powers of the Dairy 
Bureau, have been introduced in the Legislature by Secretary 
Wheeler. 

It is exceedingly gratifying to note the change of opinion 
which is slowly but surely coming over the general public in 
regard to the milk question. A few years ago health cranks 
by their "scare talk" led the public to believe that milk was 
the most dangerous article of food on the market. To-day the 
same public sees clearly the fallacy of such ideas, and is be- 
ginning to appreciate the importance of the common-sense side 
of the question. 

A few years ago reformists were flooding the Legislature with 
bills, thoroughly imbued with the idea that legislation was the 
panacea for all milk evils. To-day it is realized that milk, in 
comparison with other animal foods, is not only the most 
important, but is by far the cheapest, of them all, and is being 
sold by the producer at too low a price. If we look below the 
surface for the reason, we find that dairy cows are and always 
have been kept in connect' on with some other form of agri- 
culture, hence not of necessity on an independent paying basis; 
that the general public has not appreciated the food value of 
milk; and further, that the greatest loss to the dairy farmer 
frequently comes in the price which he obtains for skim milk. 

Milk fat usually sells for somewhere near what it is worth 
because of the great demand for cream, butter, ice cream, etc. ; 
not so with skim milk. Skim milk is used for various purposes 
commanding all the way from 30 to 70 cents per hundred 
pounds in price. When it is realized that the top price of 70 
cents per hundred pounds is only a cent and a half per quart 
for skim milk, it is readily seen that this food is not selling for 
anywhere near its real value. Failure to take this into proper 



8 



DAIRY BUREAU. 



[Jan. 



account is one mistake which the seller of whole milk frequently 
makes. Skim milk skilfully fed to pure-bred stock or to laying 
hens will often net the farmer 3 cents per quart. Now, if the 
consumption of skim milk could be so increased that the 
demand therefor would raise the price to a point where the 
farmer would never have to take less than 3 cents per quart for 
this portion of his milk at the dairy, a long stride would be 
taken towards solving the milk problem. Then, too, many 
farmers who have been in the habit of making summer milk for 
the manufacture of butter and cheese, when changing to selling 
market milk, have not counted the cost of making an even 
production of milk the year around and of reproducing summer 
conditions in midw^inter. These, and many other matters 
which might be mentioned, go a long way in accounting for the 
cost of making milk, particularly in a State where the require- 
ments are so rigid as they are in Massachusetts. 

People often wonder why it is that it costs more to produce 
milk in Massachusetts than in some other sections of the 
country. It costs more to make milk in some sections of 
Massachusetts than it does in other sections of the same 
State. The reasons are to some extent the same in both 
instances. Soil, moisture conditions, small fields, stony fields, 
small herds, etc., are all important factors in this question. 

In educational work the chairman of the Bureau delivered 
six, the general agent twenty-five, and Mr. Lombard two 
lectures. These lectures were all upon subjects relating to 
dairying. The Bureau has made several inspection trips 
covering creameries, milk plants, important dairy farms, etc., 
within the State. The general agent, besides making a trip to 
New York State to see how milk was handled there, made a 
special trip to northern Vermont and Canada, studying the 
conditions in those localities. 

The general agent has made a new revision of the dairy laws 
of Massachusetts, with a Superior Court digest thereon, which 
has been published, and has prepared a new edition of 
"Breeders and Owners of Pure-bred Dairy Cattle in Massa- 
chusetts,'' which is now in the hands of the State printers. 
Leaflet B on milk has been rewritten and published. A new 
map of the milk supply of New England has been prepared and 



1916.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 60. 



9 



is now in the office of the State Board of Agriculture. The 
result of the 1915 clean milk contest is published under separate 
cover. 

Mr. Lombard, agent of the Dairy Bureau, attended the 
meeting of the International Association of Dairy and Milk 
Inspectors at Washington, District of Columbia, where he read 
a paper on "The Clean Milk Contest of Massachusetts." This 
paper was well received, and Mr. Lombard was elected first 
vice-president of the association. 

Dairy Cows. 

There were assessed in Massachusetts on April 1, 1915, 
145,016 cows. On April 1, 1914, there were assessed 147,209 
cows. This shows a decline in twelve months of 2,183 cows. 
There were killed in the meantime on account of foot-and- 
mouth disease 2,109 cattle, a very large proportion of which 
were milch cows. This showing indicates that the actual decline 
in dairy cows, irrespective of the slaughter on account of foot- 
and-mouth disease, was very small. 

The 1915 assessment of dairy cows in Maine, New Hamp- 
shire and Vermont showed a considerable increase over the 
assessment of 1914, which is fully accounted for by the fact 
that shipments of cattle from those States were held up on 
account of quarantine regulations imposed in consequence of 
the outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease. 

Condensed Milk. 

Figures furnished by the Boston Chamber of Commerce con- 
cerning the amount of condensed milk handled in Boston in 
1915 show an increase of 4,561 barrels and a decrease of 23,129 
cases over 1914. Full data concerning this report indicate, on 
the whole, an increase in the consumption of these products. 
(See table on page 15.) 

Oleomargarine. 

The number of oleomargarine licenses in force in the State in 
November, 1914, was 818. The exact number of licenses in 
1915 is not at this date available from the office of the Collector 



10 



DAIRY BUREAU. 



[Jan. 



of Internal Revenue, on account of delay occasioned by the 
removal of that department from one building to another, but 
it is understood to be much less than in 1914. In Boston the 
number of packages reported by the Chamber of Commerce in 

1913 was 127,994; in 1914 it was 99,999; and in 1915 it was 
69,041. This shows clearly that there has been a decline in the 
use of oleomargarine during the last three years in Massa- 
chusetts, notwithstanding the fact that the total production in 
the United States in 1915 exceeded that in 1914 by 1,788,772 
pounds, there being 145,810,048 pounds of oleomargarine pro- 
duced in 1915, while in 1914 there were only 144,021,276 
pounds produced. It should be noted, however, that this 
excess practically measures the excess of export trade during the 
year. (See table on page 13.) 

Renovated Butter. 

In 1914 there were 32,470,030 pounds of renovated butter 
produced in the United States, while in 1915 there were 39,- 
056,180 pounds, showing an increase of 6,585,150 pounds. 
(See table on page 13.) 

Butter. 

The average wholesale price of butter in the Boston market 
for 1914, as reported by the Chamber of Commerce, was 29.4 
cents, and in 1915, 29.2 cents, showing a decrease of only .2 of 
a cent. 

The annual consumption of butter, Boston output, during 

1914 was 72,922,533 pounds, and in 1915, 81,617,503 pounds, 
showing an increase of 8,694,970 pounds. (Details will be 
found on page 14.) 

Personnel of the Bureau. 

The personnel of the Bureau is as follows: Charles M. 
Gardner of Westfield, chairman, George W. Trull of Tewks- 
bury and Omer E. Bradway of Monson. The executive force, 
agents, analysts, etc., are as follows: executive officer and secre- 
tary, Wilfrid Wheeler; general agent, P. M. Harwood; analysts, 



1916.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 60. 



11 



B. F. Davenport, M.D., Boston, and Gilbert L. Clark, Emerson 
Laboratory, Springfield; agent, A. W. Lombard; and four 
others have been temporarily employed. 



Summary of Police Work. 

Total number of inspections, ^ 7,690 

Number of inspections where no samples were taken, . . . 6,287 
Number of samples of butter, oleomargarine and renovated 

butter, all purchased, 1,397 

Number of samples of milk and cream, 55 

Cases entered in court, 64 

Addresses by general agent and others, . - . . . . . 33 



Cases prosecuted during the twelve months ending November 
30, 1915, by months and courts, with law violated, and results, 
are as follows: — 



Court. 



Month. 



Num- 
ber. 



Law violated. 



Con- 
victed. 



Quincy, East Norfolk District, 
Salem, First Essex District, 

New Bedford, Third Bristol 
District. 

Pittsfield, Central Berkshire 
District. 

North Adams, Northern Berk- 
shire District. 

Springfield Police, 

Waltham, Second Eastern Mid- 
dlesex District. 

Fall River, Second Bristol Dis- 
trict. 

Attleboro, Fourth Bristol Dis- 
trict. 

Lowell Police, .... 

Webster, First Southern Worces- 
ter District. 

Southbridge, First Southern 
Worcester District. 

Maiden, First Eastern Middlesex 
District. 

East Brookfield, Western 
Worcester District. 

Worcester, Central Worcester 
District. 

Chicopee Police, 

Ware, Eastern Hampshire Dis- 
trict. 



December, 

January, 

January, 

January, 

January and 
February. 
February, 

February, 

February, 

March, 

March, 

March, 

March, 

April, . 

April, . 

April, . 

April, . 

June and Oc- 
tober. 



6 oleomargarine, 2 
renovated butter. 

2 oleomargarine, 2 
renovated butter. 

1 oleomargarine, . 

8 oleomargarine, . 

4 oleomargarine, 6 
renovated butter. 

2 renovated butter, 

1 milk, . 

1 condensed milk, 

2 renovated butter, 

2 oleomargarine, 6 
renovated butter. 

4 oleomargarine, 2 
renovated butter, 
oleomargarine, 2 
renovated butter, 
renovated butter. 



renovated butter, 
milk, . 

oleomargarine, . 
milk, . . . 



Note. — The Bureau is indebted to the milk inspectors of Massachusetts for assistance which 
has resulted in court cases. 

1 There were 49 extra samples taken during the year, therefore this nimaber is 49 less than the 
sum of the next three items. 



12 DAIRY BUREAU. [Jan. 

The charges in the several cases entered in court for the year 
ending November 30, 1915, have been as follows: — 

Furnishing oleomargarine in restaurants, etc., without notice to 

guests, 33 

Selling renovated butter in unmarked packages, 26 

Selling adulterated milk, 2 

Selling milk below standard, 1 

Selling condensed milk improperly marked, 1 

Selling oleomargarine in unmarked ^ packages, 1 



64 



The following table shows the inspections without samples, 
and the number of samples taken during the past thirteen 
years : — 



Years. 


Inspections 
without 
Samples. 


Samples. 


1903-14 (inclusive) 


66,855 


19,994 


1915 


6,287 


1,452 




73,142 


21,446 


Average, .......... 


5,626 


1,649 



Oleomargarine. 

The following figures, taken from the annual report of the 
United States Commissioner of Internal Revenue for 1915, 
show the production, withdrawn tax paid, withdrawn for ex- 
port, and withdrawn for use of the United States, of the two 
classes of oleomargarine, as defined by act of May 9, 1902, 
covering the period of thirteen years since it went into effect 
on July 1, 1902: — 



1 In these cases oleomargarine was sold when butter was asked for, but the charge was made 
in this way for convenience. 



1916.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 60. • 13 



Oleomargarine (Pounds) . 



Year. 


Product taxed at Rate of 
10 Cents per Pound. 


Product taxed at Rate of 
M Cent per Pound. 


Pro- 
duced. 


With- 
drawn 
Tax 
paid. 


With- 
drawn 

for 
Export. 


With- 
drawn 
Free of 

Tax 
for Use 
of the 
United 
States. 


Produced. 


With- 
drawn Tax 
paid. 


With- 
drawn 

for 
Export. 


With- 
drawn 
Free of 

Tax 
for Use 
of the 
United 
States. 


1903, 
1904, 
1905, 
1906, 
1907, 
1908, 
1909, 
1910, 
1911, 
1912, 
1913, 
1914, 
1915, 

Totals, . 


5,710,407 
3,785,670 
5,560,304 
4,888,986 
7,758,529 
7,452,800 
5,710,301 
6,176,991 
5,830,995 
6,235,639 
6,520,436 
6,384,222 
7,595,141 


2,312,493 
1,297,068 
3,121,640 
2,503,095 
5,009,094 
4,982,029 
3,275,968 
3,416,286 
2,764,971 
3,174,331 
4,090,658 
3,831,706 
3,753,012 


3,334,969 
2,504,940 
2,405,763 
2,422,320 
2,695,276 
2,522,188 
2,403,742 
2,767,195 
3,054,344 
3,044,122 
2,417,973 
2,121,162 
3,081,356 


3,300 
469,340 
734,030 


67,573,689 
46,413,972 
46,427,032 
50,545,914 
63,608,246 
74,072,800 
86,572,514 
135,685,289 
115,331,800 
122,365,414 
138,707,426 
137,637,054 
138,214,907 


66,785,796 
46,397,984 
46,223,691 
50,536,466 
63,303,016 
73,916,869 
86,221,310 
135,159,429 
115,448,006 
121,945,038 
138,242,848 
137,747,982 
137,693,610 


151,693 
123,425 
137,670 
78,750 
129,350 
109,480 
112,958 
97,575 
91,750 
106,160 
59,686 
22,540 
31,172 


110,020 


79,610,421 


43,532,351 


34,775,350 


1,206,670 


1,223,156,057 


1,219,622,045 


1,252.209 


110,020 



Renovated Butter. 

The following figures, from the same source as the preceding 
table, show the production and withdrawn tax paid of renovated 
butter, 1902-15: — 

Renovated Butter (Pounds). 



Year. 



Production. 



Withdrawn Tax 
paid. 



1903, 
1904, 
1905, 
1906, 
1907, 
1908, 
1909, 
1910, 
1911, 
1912, 
1913, 
1914, 
1915, 



54,658,790 
54,171,183 
60,029,421 
53,549,900 
62,965,613 
50,479,489 
47,345,361 
47,433,575 
39,292,591 
46,387,398 
38,354,762 
32,470,030 
39,056,180 



Totals, 



626,194,293 



54,223,234 
54,204,478 
60,171,504 
53,361,088 
63,078,504 
50,411,446 
47,402,382 
47,378,446 
39,352,445 
46,413,895 
38,285,114 
32,513,244 
38,924,828 



625,720,608 



14 



DAIRY BUREAU. 



[Jan. 



Butter. 

The following table shows the average quotation for the best 
fresh creamery butter, in a strictly wholesale way, in the 
Boston market for the last ten years, as compiled by the 
Boston Chamber of Commerce: — 







1915. 


1914. 


1913. 


1912. 


1911. 


1910. 


1909. 


1908. 


1907. 


1906. 


Month. 


Cents. 


Cents. 


Cents. 


Cents. 


Cents. 


Cents. 


Cents. 


Cents. 


Cents. 


Cents. 


January, . 


32.5 


32.5 


33.9 


36.9 


28.8 


33.5 


30.9 


29.7 


30.4 


25.2 


February, 


31.1 


28.8 


34.9 


32.5 


26.9 


30.5 


30.0 


32.1 


31.7 


25.2 


March, 


30.3 


27.7 


36.4 


32.1 


24.2 


32.0 


29.1 


30.2 


30.2 


25.5 


April, 


30.1 


25.1 


34.5 


32.7 


21.7 


31.5 


27.9 


28.4 


32.2 


22.2 


May, 


28.7 


25.8 


28.7 


30.4 


22.8 


29.0 


26.6 


24.1 


31.4 


19.9 


June, 


28.5 


27.5 


28.2 


27.9 


24.2 


28.2' 


26.4 


24.5 


24.3 


20.2 


July, 


27.3 


27.9 


27.5 


28.1 


26.0 


28.6 


27.2 


23.6 


25.9 


21.0 


August, . 


26.0 


30.1 


28.2 


27.1 


27.2 


29.6 


28.2 


24.5 


26.0 


23.8 


September, 


27.1 


30.9 


31.3 


29.1 


27.7 


29.6 


31.3 


25.3 


29.2 


25.6 


October, . 


28.5 


30.9 


31.2 


31.0 


30.4 


29.4 


31.7 


27.5 


29.9 


26.9 


November, 


29.1 


32.4 


31.9 


32.9 


32.5 


30.2 


31.4 


29.5 


27.1 


27.6 


December, 


31.2 


32.7 


33.8 


34.0 


35.0 


30.0 


32.9 


31.0 


27.5 


30.7 


Averages, 


29.2 


29.4 


31.7 


31.2 


27.3 


30.2 


29.5 


27.5 


• 28.8 


24.48 



The Chamber of Commerce figures regarding the butter 
business in Boston for 1914 and 1915 are as follows: — 





1915. 


1914. 




Pounds. 


Pounds. 


July, 

September, 

October 


8,963,202 
3,353,765 
3,089,346 
3,996,912 
5,674,340 
7,797,597 
16,267,690 
14,473,792 
10,149,845 
7,882,845 
4,273,764 
2,943,272 
2,178,513 


8,874,204 
3,540,476 
2,910,790 
4,171,261 
4,310,917 
7,326,985 
13,701,274 
12,684,474 
7,457,341 
5,932,317 
4,902,471 
3,208,117 
2,882,011 


Exports for year, deduct, . 


91,044,883 
308,380 


81,902,638 
16,903 


Storage stock' January 1, deduct 


90,736,503 
9,119,000 


81,885,7.35 
8,963,202 




81,617,503 


72,922,533 



I Stock in Boston. Terminal Refrigerating Company not included January 1, 1916. 



1916.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 60. 



15 



Receipts of Condensed Milk. 

The Chamber of Commerce figures regarding the receipts of 
condensed milk at Boston for 1914 and 1915 are as follows: — 





1915. 


1915. 


1914. 


1914. 




Barrels. 


Cases. 


Barrels. 


Cases. 


January, 


60 


24,915 


299 


22,030 




226 


41,733 


72 


32,198 


March, .' 


201 


40,436 


72 


38,638 


April, 


302 


39,980 


55 


26,362 




237 


27,491 


15 


29,889 


June, 


264 


37,407 




35,766 


July, 


940 


33,428 


50 


47,102 


August 


1,223 


22,515 


10 


66,127 




470 


28,692 




35,749 




1,222 


29,877 


33 


22,071 


November, . . 

December, 


167 


51,748 


40 


34,253 


64 


31,250 


205 


42,416 


Totals 


5,376 


409,472 


815 


432,601 



Milk. 

Milk brought into Boston by Different Railroads, December 1, 1914, to 
November 30, 1915, as reported by the Public Service Commissioners 
{Quarts). 



Date. 



Boston & 
Albany. 



Boston & 
Maine. 



New York, 
New Haven 
& Hartford. 



1914. 

December, . 

1915. 

January, 
February, . 
March, 
April, . 
May, . 
June, . 
July, . 
August, 
September, 
October, 
November, 

Totals, . 



583,223 



672,084 
538,597 
714,541 
819,769 
885,380 
914,337 
1,213,561 
1,046,415^ 
1,088,075 
696,494 
642,164 



6,427,270 



6,568,973 
5,877,597 
6,390,660 
6,356,709 
6,820,640 
7,106,681 
7,109,316 
6,648,682 
6,506,376 
6,908,152 
6,927,651 



1,743,196 



1,838,451 
1,687,272 
1,875,512 
1,830,534 
1,605,044 
1,818,819 
1,661,538 
1,697,976 
1,543,696 
1*389,855 
1,352,710 



,814,640^ 



79,648,707 



20,044,603 



16 



DAIRY BUREAU. 



[Jan. 



Milk brought into Boston annually by Railroads for the Years ending Novem- 
ber 30, 1906, to November 30, 1915, inclusive (Quarts). 



1906, ...» 114,233,976 

1907, 109,882, 190i 

1908, 103,831,278^ 

1909, 108,082,936 

1910, 100,606,362i 

1911, 90,092,772 

1912, 104,019,234 

1913, 107,306,849 

1914, 103,638,225 

1915, 109,507,9501 



Comparative List of Number of Cows assessed in Massachusetts, May 1, 
1906, April 1, 1914, and April 1, 1915. 



Counties. 


1906. 


1914. 


1915. 


Decrease. 


Increase. 


1906-15. 


1914-15. 


1906-15. 


1914-15. 


Barnstable, 


2,448 


2,243 


2,249 


199 






6 


Berkshire 


17,404 


14,796 


14,113 


3,291 


683 






Bristol, .... 


13,702 


13,242 


12,447 


1,255 


795 






Dukes, .... 


656 


623 


637 


19 






14 


Essex, 


17,131 


13,151 


12,776 


4,355 


375 






Franklin, .... 


12,715 


10,165 


10,382 


2,333 






217 


Hampden, .... 


12,096 


8,947 


9,302 


2,794 






355 


Hampshire, 


14,383 


10,977 


11,433 


2,950 






456 


Middlesex, .... 


29,508 


24,053 


22,892 


6,616 


1,161 






Nantucket, .... 


378 


423 


420 




3 


42 




Norfolk 


11,200 


9,397 


9,235 


1,965 


162 






Plymouth, .... 


8,465 


7,475 


7,477 


988 






2 


Suffolk, .... 


1,186 


922 


837 


349 


85 






Worcester, .... 


40,544 


30,795 


30,816 


9,728 






21 


Totals 


181,816 


147,209 


145,016 


36,842 


3,264 


42 


1,071 



1916.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 60. 



17 



List of Massachusetts Farms making Milk of Superior Quality and 
Cleanliness and selling their Product -higher than the Regular Mar- 
ket Price. 



Location, Farm. 



Owner and Manager. 



Ap- 
proxi- 
mate 
Num- 
ber of 
Cows. 



Where marketed. 



Agawam, Reilly Farm, . 
Agawam, Colonial Farm, 
Agawam, Elm Shade Dairy, . 
Amherst, H. M. Thompson's farm, 
Amherst, U. G. Groff's farm, 
Andover, Arden Farm, . 



Andover, Shattuck Farms, 
Auburn, Wellswood Farm, 
Barnstable, Bay Farm, . 
Barre, Highland View Farm, . 
Beverly, George R. Wales' farm, 
Bolton, Wataquodock Farm, . 

Boston, Walker-Gordon Farm, 1106 
Bolyston Street. 

Brim field, Clarence B. Brown's 
farm. 

Brockton, Montello Station, Dutch- 
land Farm. 
Brookline, Louis Cabot estate, 

Chilmark, West Tisbury, P. 

Oakview Farm. 
Dighton, Rock Farm, 

Dorchester, Codman Farm, . 

East Lynn, .... 

East Walpole, Lewis Farm, 



Everett, Joseph H. Cannell's farm, 
Everett, Thomas F. Leavitt's farm, 
Fairhaven, Dana Farm, . 

Fairhaven, Lewis F. Blossom's farm, 
Framingham, Millwood Farm, 

Framingham, Waverney Farm, 

Framingham, Cherry Meadow 
Farm. 



J. J. Reilly, owner and 

manager. 
H. E. Bodurtha, owner 

and manaser. 
S. S. & E. F. Bodurtha, 

owners and managers. 
H. M. Thompson, owner 

and manager. 
U. G. Groff, owner and 

manager. 
Wm. M. Wood, owner; J. 

M. Putnam, superin- 
tendent; Austin C. 

Huggins, manager of 

creamery. 
F. Shattuck, owner and 

manager. 
George O. Keep, owner 

and manager. 
H. C. Everett, owner and 

manager. 
D. A. Howe, owner; W. 

E. Howe, manager. 
George R. Wales, owner 

and manager. 
Paul Cunningham, owner 

and manager. 

Walker-Gordon Labora- 
tory Company, owner; 
John Nichols, manager. 

Clarence B. Brown, owner 
and manager. 

Fred F. Field, owner; Earl 
D. Upton, manager. 

Louis Cabot, owner; R. 
Barkhouse, manager. 

J. F. Adams, owner and 
manager. 

J. W. Earle, owner; Ralph 
Earle, manager. 

Watson B. Fearing, owner 
and manager. 

J. D. Coombs, lessee and 
manager. 

Geo. A. Plympton, owner. 



Joseph H. Cannell, owner 

and manager. 
Thomas F. Leavitt, owner 

and manager. 
Eliza N. and Edith Dana, 

owners and managers. 

Lewis F. Blossom, owner 

and manager. 
Mrs. E. F. Bowditch, 

owner; J. P. Bowditch, 

manager; F.E.Barrett, 

superintendent. 
Reginald W. Bird, owner; 

A. E. White, manager. 
D. M. and E. F. Belches, 

owners; E. F. Belches, 

manager. 



17 
12 
25 
25 
34 
55 

50 
30 

25 
20 
35 

100 

21 
70 
10 
17 
15 
125 
3 



52 

12 
178 

50 
35 



Springfield. 

Springfield. 

Springfield. 

Holyoke. 

Amherst. 

Andover, Lawrence, 
Woburn and Bos- 
ton. 

Lawrence. 

Worcester. 

Barnstable. 

Worcester. 

Beverly. 

Boston and vicinity, 
by Alden Brothers 
Company. 

Boston and vicinity. 

West Warren. 

Brockton. 

Brookline. 

Vineyard Haven and 

Edgartov/n. 
Fall River. 

Boston. 

East Lynn. 

Boston and vicinity, 
by Alden Brothers 
Company. 

Everett. 

Everett. 

Fairhaven, Marion 
and Mattapoisett 
(in summer). 

Fairhaven. 

Boston and Welles- 
ley. 



Boston. 
Framingham. 



18 



DAIRY BUREAU. 



[Jan. 



List of Massachusetts Farms making Milk of Superior Quality and 
Cleanliness and selling their Product higher than the Regular Mar- 
ket Price — Continued. 



Location, Farm. 



Owner and Manager. 



Ap- 
proxi- 
mate 
Num- 
ber of 
Cows. 



Where marketed. 



Franklin, Ray Farm, 

Gardner, Lakeside Farm, 
Gardner, Otto Wickman's farm, 
Gloucester, Howard P. Lane's farm 
Gloucester, H. Wallace Lane's farm 
Gloucester, Peter Hagstrom's farm 
Granby, C. W. Ball's farm, . 
Greenfield, Wayside Farm, 

Groton, G. W. Greenhalge's farm, 

Hamilton, Miles River Farm, 

Hardwick, Mixter Farm, 



Haverhill (Bradford District), J. B 

Sawyer's farm. 
Haverhill, North Broadway Milk 

Farm. 

Haverhill (P. O. East Haverhill) 
Fred Kimball's farm. 

Holyoke, Whiting Farm, 



Kingston, Miss Helen Holmes' farm 
Lee, John Goodrich's farm, 
Leominster, Boutelle Farm, . 
Leominster, Sholan Farm, 

Longmeadow, Hillbrow Farm, 
Lowell, Hood Farm, 
Ludlow, E. E. Chapman's farm, 
Lunenburg, Sunnyside Farm, 
Lynnfield, N. F. McCarthy's farm 
Marlborough, Fairview Farm, 

Medford, Mystic Valley Farm, 75 

Arlington Street. 
Medford, Hillside Farm, 20 Gow 

Street. 

Methuen, Bragdon Farms, 



E. K. Ray estate, owner; 

Joseph G. Ray, trustee 

and manager. 
J. Henry Ware, owner and 

manager. 
Otto Wickman, owner and 

manager. 
Howard P. Lane, owner 

and manager. 
H. Wallace Lane, owner 

and manager. 
Peter Hagstrom, owner 

and manager. 
C. W. Ball, owner and 

manager. 
Frank H. Reed, owner; 

Mr. Purrington, man- 
ager. 

G. W. Greenhalge, owner 
and manager. 

Maxwell Norman, owner 
and manager; C. E. 
Johnson, superintend- 
ent. 

Mary A. Mixter, owner; 
Dr. Samuel J. Mixter, 
manager; S. R. Parker, 
superintendent. 

J. B. Sawyer, owner and 
manager. 

E. A. Emerson, owner and 
manager. 

Fred Kimball, owner; 
Leonard Kimball, man- 
ager. 

W. F. Whiting, owner; 

John F. Richardson, 

manager. 
Miss Helen Holmes, owner 

and manager. 
John Goodrich, owner and 

manager. 
E. H. Boutelle, owner and 

manager. 
Paul Washburn, owner; 

A. G. HoUquist, man- 
ager. 

H. M. Burt, owner and 
manager. 

C. I. Hood, owner; J. E. 

Dodge, manager. 
Edward E. Chapman, 

owner and manager. 
George M. Proctor, owner; 

Fred A. Miller, manager. 
N. F. McCarthy, owner; 

Eben Holmes, manager. 
Elmer D. Howe & Son, 

owners and managers. 
John J. Mulkerin, owner 

and manager. 
Alberton Harris, owner 

and manager. 
E. L. Bragdon, owner and 

manager. 



100 

7 

5 

50 
30 
5 

29 
25 

25 

60 

200 



35 
35 

20 

20 
40 
30 
40 

20 
120 
22 
48 
30 
10 
16 
10 
30 



Boston, by Elm 
Farm Company. 

Gardner. 

Gardner. 

Gloucester. 

Gloucester. 

Gloucester. 

Holyoke. 

Greenfield. 



Boston and vicinity, 
by D. Whiting & 
Sons. 

Boston. 



Boston." 

Haverhill. 
Haverhill. 
Haverhill. 

Holyoke. 

Kingston. 
Lee. 

Leominster. 
Leominster. 

Springfield. 
Lowell. 

Ludlow and Indian 

Orchard. 
Fitchburg. 

Wakefield. 

Marlborough. 

Medford. 

Medford. 

Lawrence. 



1916.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 60. 



19 



List of Massachusetts Farms making Milk of Superior Quality and 
Cleanliness and selling their Product higher than the Regular Mar- 
ket Price — Continued. 



Location, Farm. 



Owner and Manager. 



Ap- 
proxi- 
mate 
Num- 
ber of 
Cows. 



Where marketed. 



Methuen, Cox Farms, 
Methuen, Howe Farm, 
Methuen, Spring Valley Farms, 
Methuen, S. W. Williams' farm, 
Millis, Lowland Farm, 
Milton, Highland Farm, 

Needham, K. E. Webb's farm, 

Newton (P. O. Waban), W. B 

McMullin's farm. 
Newtonville, Willow Farm, 120 Far 

well Street. 
Norfolk, Meadowside Farm, . 

North Amherst, The Elms, . 

North Attleborough, Halliday Farm 



North Falmouth, Manuel G. White',? 
farm. 

North Grafton, Bonnybrook Farm, 
North Tewksbury, Mountjoy, 



Northampton, W. J. LaFleur's farm, 
Oak Bluffs, Woodsedge Farm, 
Paxton, E. G. Richards' farm, 

Paxton, Echo Farm, 

Pepperell, George Shattuck's farm, 

Pittsfield, Abby Lodge, . 
Pittsfield, Mr. Bardwell's farm, 
Pittsfield, E. W. Page's farm. 
Revere, Mrs. M. L. Mahoney's farm, 

Saugus, Oaklandvale Farm, . 

South Lincoln, South Lincoln Dairy 
Company. 

South Natick, Carver Hill Farm, . 
South ville, Waumesit Farm, . 



Louis Cox, owner; L. 

Coburn, manager. 
E. D. Taylor, owner and 

manager. 
Fred Miller, owner and 

manager. 
S. W. Williams, owner and 

manager. 

E. F. Richardson, owner 
and manager. 

Patriquin & Newton, 
lessees; George Patri- 
quin, manager. 

Kenneth E. Webb, owner 
and manager. 

William B. McMullin, 
owner and manager. 

D. F. Smith, owner and 
manager. 

T. D. Cook & Co., owners 

and managers. 
R. D. Dickinson, owner 

and manager. 
Fred F. Halliday, owner; 

Robert C. Halliday, 

manager. 
Manuel G. White, owner 

and manager. 
Everett N. Kearney, 

owner and manager. 
Miss Florence Nesmith, 

owner; C. E. Lougee, 

manager. 
W. J. LaFleur, owner and 

manager. 

F. W. Chase, owner and 
manager. 

E. G. Richards, owner and 
manager. 

W. J. Woods, owner; 
Joseph Graham, man- 
ager. 

George Shattuck, owner 
and manager. 

A. W. Cooley, owner; Mr. 

Carlson, manager. 
Mr. Bardwell, owner and 

manager. 
E. W. Page, owner and 

manager. 
Mrs. M. L. Mahoney, 

owner; J. J. Mahoney, 

manager. 
Frank P. Bennett, owner 

and manager. 
South Lincoln Dairy Com- 
pany, owner; W. A. 

Blodgett, manager. 
Carver Hill Farms, Inc., 

Austin Potter. 

R. F. Parker, owner and 
manager. 



60 
50 

11 

20 
40 

40 

75 

35 
14 

8 
25 

112 

220 

75 
20 



Lawrence. 

Lawrence. 

Lawrence. 

Lawrence. 

Boston. 

Milton. 

Needham. 

Needham and New- 
ton. 

Newton, Brookline 

and Boston. 
Boston. 

Amherst. 

Pawtucket, R. I. 

North Falmouth. 

Worcester. 

North Tewksbury. 

Northampton. 
Oak Bluffs. 



by C. 
Com- 

by C. 
Com- 



Worcester, 

Brigham 

pany. 
Worcester, 

Brigham 

pany. 
Boston and vicinity, 

by D. Whiting & 

Sons. 
Boston. 

Pittsfield. 

Pittsfield. 

Maiden. 



Lynn. 

Boston, Cambridge 
and Brookline. 

Wellesley, Boston, 

Natick, Needham 

and Dover. 
Boston and vicinity, 

by C. Brigham 

Company. 



20 



DAIRY BUREAU. 



[Jan. 



List of Massachusetts Farms making Milk of Superior Quality and 
Cleanliness and selling their Product higher than the Regular Mar- 
ket Price — Concluded. 



Location, Farm. 


Owner and Manager. 


Ap- 
proxi- 
mate 
Num- 
ber of 
Cows. 


Where marketed. 


Sherborn, H. N. Brown's farm, 


H. N. Brown, owner and 


50 


Boston. 




ixiR ns-^ G r . 






Sherborn, Dexter Farm, . 


George T. Dexter, owner 


23 


Boston and vicinity, 


and manager. 




by Alden Brothers 






Company. 


Sherborn, J. M. Merriam's farm, 


J. M. Merriam, owner and 


40 


Boston. 




manager. 






Sterling, Twin Oaks Farm (P. O. 


James F. Pratt, owner and 


75 


Milk, Boston; cream, 


Pratt's Junction). 


manager. 




Worcester. 


Stoughton, Tobey Farm, 


E. B. Hutchins, owner 


15 


Brockton. 




and manager. 






Taunton, George Soper's farm. 


George Soper, owner and 


30 


Taunton. 




manager. 






Waltham, Pleasantdale Farm, 


C. U. Hubbard, owner 


35 


Weston. 


and manager. 






Warren, Maple Farm, 


J. R. Blair, owner and 


27 


Boston, by C. Brig- 


manager. 




ham Company. 


Wayland, Perkins' estate. 


S. N. Sanders, manager, . 


12 


Waltham. 


Westfield, Woronoak Farm, 


Edgar L. Gillett, owner; 


12 


Westfield. 


N. J. Weidhaas, man- 








ager. 






Weston, Charles Merriam's farm, . 


Charles Merriam, owner 


51 


Waltham. 


and manager. 






Westwood, Fox Hill Farm, 


Joshua Crane, owner; L. 


100 


Boston. 


W. Jackman, manager. 






West Newton and Barre, Wauwinet 


George H. EUis, owner; 


400 


Boston, Brookline 


Farm. 


P. F. Staples and R. 




and Newton. 




M. Handy, managers. 




Winchester. 


Woburn, John Day's farm. 


John Day, owner and 


18 




manager. 






Worcester, Pleasant View Farm, 


Warren C. Jewett, owner 


40 


Worcester. 


and manager. 






Worcester, Lewis J. Kendall's farm. 


Lewis J. Kendall, owner 


40 


Worcester. 


and manager. 






Worcester, Intervale Farm, 


J. Lewis Ellsworth, owner 


14 


Worcester. 




and manager. 






Worcester, Village Farm, 


H. B. Prentice, owner and 


30 


Worcester. 




manager. 







Note. — Deerfoot Farms Dairy, office at 172 Tremont Street, wholesale distributing house at 
132 Central Street, Boston, milk received from milk depots at Southborough and Northborough, 
sells milk of superior quality and cleanliness at a price above that of ordinary market milk, and 
handles the product of 129 dairy farms, averaging about 10 cows each, located in Southborough, 
Northborough, Westborough and HoUiston. Most of these fatms, therefore, at some time during 
the year come properly within the requirements of this list. 



1916.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 60. 

List of Massachusetts Dairy Farms making Certified Milk. 



21 



Name, Location. 



Owner and Manager. 



Ap- 
proxi- 
mate 
Num- 
ber of 
Cows. 



Certified by - 



Where 
marketed. 



Cedar Hill Farm, Waltham, 

Cedar Crest Farm, Wal- 
tham. 

Cherry Hill Farm, Beverly, 
A. D. Davis' farm, Sheffield, 



Indian Bridge Farm, Way- 
land. 



Ledyard Farm, Ando\ 



Massachusetts Agricultural 
College Farm, Amherst. 

Oaks Farm, Cohasset, 



Oliver Prescott's farm, Dart- 
mouth (P. O. North Dart- 
mouth). 

Prospect Hill Farm, Essex, 



Seven Gates Farm, North 
Tisbury. 



Walter A. White's farm, 
Acushnet. 



Miss Cornelia War- 
ren, owner; Charles 
Cahill, manager. 

John C. Runkle, 
owner; Louis W. 
Dean, manager. 

H. P. Hood & Sons, 
owners; O. H. 
Perrin, manager. 

A. D. Davis, owner 
and manager. 



Edmund H. Sears, 
owner; Walter 
Jauncey, Jr., man- 
ager. 

J.A.& W.H.Gould, 
owners and man- 
agers. 

Massachusetts Agri- 
cultural College, 
J. A. Foord. 

C. W. Barron, 
owner; W. E. Stil- 
well, manager. 

Oliver Prescott, 
owner; Harry W. 
Martin, manager. 

J.A.&W. H.Gould, 
owners and man- 
agers. 

W. L. Webb, owner; 
O. L. Curtis, man- 
ager. 

Walter A. White, 
owner and man- 
ager. 



215 
90 
80 



50 
65 
50 
20 
175 

20-25 

30 



Cambridge Medi- 
cal Commission. 

Cambridge Medi- 
cal Commission. 

Medical Milk 
Commission of 
Boston. 



Cambridge 
Medical Milk 
Commission. 

Maiden Medical 
Commission. 

Medical Milk 
Commission of 
Boston. 

Medical Milk 
Commission of 
Cohasset. 

New Bedford 
Medical Com- 
mission. 

Medical Milk 
Commission of 
Boston. 

Medical Milk 
Commission of 
West Tisbury, 
Inc. 

New Bedford 
Medical Com- 
mission. 



Waltham, Cam- 
bridge, Boston. 

North Shore, 

Cambridge, 

Boston. 
Boston, North 

Shore, L a w - 

rence. 
Some in Great 

Barrington; 

balance o u t - 

side of State. 
Waltham. 



Maiden. 
Boston. 
Cohasset. 
New Bedford. 



Boston, Brook- 
line, Jamaica 
Plain, North 
Shore. 

Martha's Vine- 
yard. 



New Bedford. 



List of Local Milk Inspectors. 
Milk Inspectors for Cities and Towns. 
Barnstable County. 
Barnstable, .... George T. Mecarta. 
Provincetown, . ... John Dennis. 
Sandwich, . . . . J. E. Holway. 



Berkshire County. 



Adams, Dr. A. G. Potter. 

Clarksburg, .... Cassius Quackenbush, North Adams. 

Dalton, H. Ward Ford. 

Florida, Cassius Quackenbush, North Adams. 

Great Barrington, . . . Dewitt Smith. 



22 



DAIRY BUREAU. 



[Jan. 



Hinsdale, Alfred N. Warren. 

Housatonic, . . . . J. J. Barr. 

Lenox, ..... Thomas Briant. 

North Adams, . . . Cassius Quackenbush. 

Pittsfield, Dr. Bernard M. Collins. 

Williamstown, . . . G. S. Jordan, V.S. 

Bristol County. 

Attleboro, .... Caleb E. Parmenter. 

Berkley, Alan A. Haskell. 

Fairhaven, .... Bertha F. Carl Frommell, M.D. 

Fall River, .... Henry Boisseau. 

New Bedford, .... Herbert Hamilton, D.V.S. 

North Attleborough, . Hugh Gaw, D.V.S. 

Norton, Edmmid H. EUiot, Chartley. 

Taunton, Lewis I. Tucker. 

Westport, .... George A. Tripp. 

Dukes County. 

Gosnold, John T. Cornell, Cuttyhunk. 

Tisbury, Chas. S. Norton. 

Essex County. 

Amesbury, .... James L. Stewart. 

Andover, Franklin H. Stacey. 

Beverly, Henry E. Dodge, 2d. 

Danvers, Wm. Hugo Nappe. 

Gloucester, .... Dr. G. E. Watson. 

Hamilton, .... Chas. S. Moore, Danvers. 

Haverhill, .... Dr. Homer L. Conner. 

Ipswich, George W. Smith. 

Lawrence, .... Dr. J. H. Tobin. 

Lynn, George A. Flanagan. 

Lynnfield, .... Dr. F. W. Freeman, Lynnfield Center. 

Marblehead, . . . . A. M. Stone. 

Nahant, Robert L. Cochrane. 

Newburyport, . . . . R. D. Hamilton. 

Peabody, Edward F. McHugh. 

Salem, John J. McGrath. 

Salisbury, .... John F. Pike. 

Topsfield, .... Charles S. Moore, Danvers. 



1916.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 60. 



23 



Frayiklin Coimty. 

Gill, George L. Marshall, Beniardston, R. F. D. 

Montague, .... Frank Dubie, Turners Falls. 

Northfield, ... . E. C. Field, Northfield Farms. 

Shelburne, . G. J. Tower, Shelburne Falls. 

Warwick, O. W. Cole. 

Hampden County. 

Brimfield, .... George W. Sherman. 

Chicopee, C. J. O'Brien. 

East Longmeadow, Henry S. Ashley. 

Holyoke, Daniel P. Hartnett. 

Ludlow, A. L. Bennett, D.V.S. 

Monson, Dr. E. W. Capen. 

Palmer, M. H. Davitt, V.S. 

Springfield, .... Stephen C. Downs. 

West Springfield, Norman T. Smith. 

Westfield, .... William H. Porter. 

Hampshire County. 

Amherst, Dr. N. C. Haskell. 

Easthampton, .... George L. McEvoy. 

Hadley, Henry S. Shipman. 

Northampton, . George R. Turner. 

South Hadley, George F. Boudreau. 

Ware, Fred E. Marsh. 

Middlesex County. 

Arhngton, . li. L. Pierce, D.V.S. 

Ashland, H. H. Piper. 

Ayer, Edward E. Sanger. 

Bedford, Dr. I. Pfeiffer, Jr. 

Belmont, Thomas F. Harris. 

Billerica, A. H. Jones. 

Cam.bridge, .... Wilham A. Noonan, M.D. 

Carhsle, Benjamin F. Blaisdell. 

Concord, Joseph Dee, Jr. 

Everett, E. Clarence Colby. 

Framingham, . . . . R. N. Hoyt, Wellesley. 

Groton, Herbert Rockwood. 

Hudson, Wilham H. Clark. 

Lexington, . . . . L. L. Pierce, D.V.S., Arhngton. 



24 



DAIRY BUREAU. 



[Jan. 



Lowell, Melvin F. Master. 

Maiden, J. A. Sanford. 

Marlboro, . . . . John J. Cassidy. 

Medford, ..... Winslow Joyce. 

Melrose, R. N. Hoyt, Wellesley. 

Natick, Thomas A. Doyle, D.V.M. 

Newton, Arthur Hudson. 

North Reading, ... A. Herbert Batchelder. 

Pepperell, .... Dr. Fred A. Davis. 

Somerville, .... Herbert E. BoAMnan. , 

Stoneham, .... Roy Doucett. 

Wakefield, .... Carl M. Smith, Reading. 

Waltham, .... Arthur L. Stone, M.D. 

Watertown, . . R. N. Hoyt, Wellesley. 

Weston, R. N. Hoyt, Wellesley. . 

Winchester, .... Maurice Dinneen. 

AVoburn, Edward P. Kelly, M.D. 

Norfolk County. 

Avon, R. A. Elliott, M.D. 

Braintree, . F. H. Gile. 

Brookline, . W. E. Ward. 

Canton, R. N. Hoyt, Wellesley. 

Dedham, Edmand Knobel. 

Franklin, J. Newton Blanchard. 

Medway, N. P. Quint, M.D., West Medway. 

Milton, Wallace C. Tucker, Mattapan. 

Needham, . . R. N. Hoyt, Wellesley. 

Plainville, .... John C. Eiden. 

Quincy, Daniel Scouler, Jr. 

Stoughton, .... William E. Ferrin. 

WeUesley, . . R. N. Hoyt. 

Weymouth, .... George B. Bayley, South Wevinoutlu 

Plymouth County. 

Bridgewater, .... Joseph Brennan. 

Brockton, .... George E. Bolhng. 

Hingham, . C. A. Dorr, M.D., South Hingham. 

Hull, Carroll A. Cleveriy. 

Marion, Austin L. Pierce. 

Middleborough, . F. F. Conway, D.V.S. 

Scituate, George T. Otis. 

Wareham, .... John J. Beaton. 

Whitman, . . . . E A. Dyer. 



1916.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 60. 



Suffolk County. 

Boston, Professor James 0. Jordan. 

Chelsea, Dr. W. S. Walkley. 

Revere, Joseph E. Lamb, M.D. 

Winthrop, . . . . S. A. Mowry. 



Ashburnham, 
Athol, 
Chnton, 
Fitchburg, 
Gardner, . 
Lancaster, 
Leominster, 
Lunenburg, 
Millbury, . 
Northborough, 
North Brookfield, 
North Dana, . 
Southborough, 
Southbridge, 
Warren, . 
West Boylston, 
West Brookfield, 
Westborough, . 
Winchendon, . 
Worcester, 



Worcester County. 

James F. Hare. 
John H. Meany, V.S. 
Oilman L. Chase. 
John F. Bresnahan. 
Harry 0. Knight. 
George E. Howe. 
Wilham H. Dodge. 
C. E. Woods. 
Fred A. Walkius. 
E. C. Valentine. 
Windsor R. Smith, M.D.Y. 
Francis B. Crawford. 
John W. Robinson, D.V.M. 
Albert R. Brown. 
Joseph St. George. 
A. M. Tyler, M.D., Oakdale. 
John W. Houghton. 
Charles H. Reed. 
Dr. G. W. Stanbridge. 
Gustaf L. Berg. 



Each of the following towns has reported that milk inspectic 
is done by its local board of health: — 



Berkshire County : — 
Lanesborough. 
Stockbridge. 

Middlesex County : — 
Hopkinton. 
Sherborn. 



Norfolk County: - 
Foxborough. 
Sharon. 

Worcester County 
Hardwick. 
Rutland. 
Sturbridge. 



26 



DAIRY BUREAU 



[Jan. 



Creameries, Milk Depots, etc. 

Co-operative Creameries . 



Number anij Location. 


Name. 


Superintendent or Manager. 


1. Ashfield, .... 

2. Belchertown, 

3. Cumminoiton, 

4. Easthampton, 

5. Monterey, .... 
(i. Northfield, .... 
7. Shelburne, .... 


Ashfield Creamery, . 
Belchertown Creamery, 
Cummington Creamery, . 
Easthampton Creamery, . 
Berkshire Hills Creamery, 
Northfield Creamery, 
Shelburne Creamery, 


William Hunter, manager. 
M. G. Ward, president. 

D. C. Morey, superintend- 
ent. 

E. B. Clapp, treasurer. 

F. A. Campbell, treaisurer. 
C. C. Stearns, treasurer. 
Ira Barnard, manager. 


Proprietary Creameries. 


Number and Location. 


Name. 


Owner or Manager. 


L" Amherst, .... 

2. Amherst, .... 

3. Brimfield, .... 

4. Great BarriiiKton, 

5. Heath, 

6. Hinsdale, .... 


Amherst Creamery Company, . 
Fort River Creamery, 

Crystal Brook Creamery, . 
Edgewood Creamery, 
Cold Spring Creamery, 
Hinsdale Creamery, . 


R. W. Pease, manager. 

Clarence M. Wood, manager 
(estate of E. A. King, 
owner). 

F. N. Lawrence, proprietor. 

C. W. Freehan, manager. 

I. W. Stetson & Son. 

Walter C. Solomon, pro- 
prietor. 


Educational. 


Location. 


Name. 


Manager. 




Dairy Industry Course, Massachu- 
setts Agricultural College. 


W. P. B. Lockwood, pro- 
fessor in charge. 


Principal Milk-distributing Depots. 


Name. 


Location. 


Manager. 


Acton Farms Milk Company, . 
Alden Brothers Company, 

Anderson Brothers, 

Bonnie Brook Farms, 

Boston Ice Cream Company, . 


Somerville, Windsor Street, . 

Boston office, 1171 Tremont Street; 
depot, 24-28 Duncan Street. 

Worcester, Eckman Street, . 

South Sudbury, .... 

Roxbury, 40 King Street, 


Arthur B. Parker, treas- 
urer. 

Charles L. Alden, presi- 
dent; John Alden, 
treasurer. 

Anderson Brothers. 

Norman E. Borden. 

Harry M. Hardwick, 
president and treas- 
urer. 



]91() 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 60. 



27 



Principal Milk-distributing Depots — Concluded. 



Name. 



Location. 



Manager. 



Boston Jersey Creamery, 
Brigham, C, Company, . 
Brigham, C, Company, . 
Bristol Creamery Company, 
Columbia Creamerj^ 
Deerfoot Farms Dairy, 

Elm Farm Milk Company, 
Farmers Milk Company, . 
Franklin Creamery Company 
Hampden Creamery Companj' 
Hood, H. P., & Sons, 



Learned, G. S. (Fitcliburg 

Creamery). 
Llanwhitkell Farms Creamer j-, 

liyndonville Creamery Associa- 
tion. 

Nash, Charles A 

Newhall, J. A.. 

Perry, A. D., . 

Plj'mouth Creamery Company, 

Prentice, H. H., & Co. (Berk- 
shire Creamery). 
Rockingham Milk Company, . 

Soniers Creamery Compaii\ , . 

Springfield Creamery, 

Tait Brotiiers 

Turgeon, Fi-ank H., . 

Turner Center Dairying Asso- 
ciation. 
Wachusett Creamery, 

Whiting, D., & Sons, 



Boston, 9 Fulton Street, 

Cambridge, 158 Massachusetts Av- 
enue. 

Worcester, 9 Howard Street, . 

Boston, 132 Central Street, . 

Springfield, 117 Lyman Street, 

Boston, 132 Central Street; depots 
at Northborough and Southbor- 
ough. 

Boston, Wales Place, . . 

Charlestown, 484 Rutherford Av- 
enue. 

Boston, 147 Harrison Avenue, 

Everett, Orient Avenue, 

Boston, 494 Rutherford Avenue; 
branches, 24 Anson Street, Forest 
Hills; 886 Broadway, Chelsea; 
298 Dorchester Avenue, South 
Boston. 

Brookline, 130 Westbourne Terrace, 
liawrence, 629 Common Street. 
Lynn, 193 Alley Street 
Maiden, 425 Main Street. 
Medford, 452 High Street. 
Watertown, 479 Pleasant Street. 
Fitchburg, 26 Cushing Street, 

Boston, 23 Ferry Street, 

Watertown, 86 Elm Street, . 

Springfield, 120 Oakland Street, 

Newburyport, 32 Monroe Street, 

Worcester, Kansas Street, 

Boston, 268-270 State Street, 

Pittsfield, Crane Avenue, 

Charlestown, Boston office, Han- 
cock Square; depot 330 Ruther- 
ford Avenue. 

Springfield, 178 Dwight Street, . 

Springfield, Main Street, 

Springfield, 37 Vinton Street, 

Boston, 213 Camden Street, . 

Boston office, 63, 67 and 69 Endicott 
Street. 

Worcester, 6 Lincoln Street, . 
Boston, 570 Rutherford Avenue, . 



Theo. P. Grant, presi- 
dent and manager. 
John K. Whiting. 

C. Brigham Company. 

William L. Johnson. 

H. A. Mosely. 

S. H. Howes. 



James H. Knapp, treas- 
urer. 

Oscar R. Lang, treasurer. 

Tait Brothers. 

Frank H. Adams, treas- 
urer. 
Charles H. Hood. 



G. S. Learned. 

Nelson P. Cook, man- 
ager. 

Willis C. Conner, man- 
ager. 

Charles A. Nash, man- 
ager. 
J. A. Newhall. 

A. D. Perry. 

John W. Davies. 

H. H. Prentice. 

Rolan H. Toothaker, 
president. 

W. M. Cushman. 

F. B. Allen, proprietor. 

Tait Brothers, proprie- 
tors. 

Frank H. Turgeon. 

Irven L. Smith, man- 
ager. 

E. H. Thayer & Co., 

proprietors. 
George Whiting. 



Modified Milk Laboratory. 



H. p. Hood & Sons, 
Walker-Gordon Laboratorj-, 



28 DAIRY BUREAU. [Jan. 1916. 

Receiviiig De-pot for Milk, for Shipments to New Rochelle. 



Name. 



Willow Brook Dairy Company, 
Willow Brook Dairy Company, 



Ijocation. 



Sheffield, 

North Egremont, 



Manager. 



Frank Percy. 
George Wyble. 



Encouragement of Practical Dairying Expenses. 



Agents, compensation, 
Agents, expenses, 
Judge's expenses. 
Engraved certificates (two years), 
Engrossing certificates (two years) 
Printing, 
Supplies, 

Total, . 
Cash prizes, 



Total expenditures. 



$391 00 
723 63 
5 51 

150 00 

151 73 
76 41 
26 63 



$1,524 91 
4,261 00 



$5,785 91 



Regular Bureau Expenses. 



The following is a classified statement of the expenses for the 
year ending November 30, 1915: — 



Bureau, compensation. 
Bureau, traveling expenses, . 
Agents, compensation, 
Agents, expenses, 
Samples purchased, . 
General agent, traveling expenses, 
Analysts, analyses, . 
Analysts, tests, .... 
Analysts, court attcnidance, . 
Printing, 
Photography, 
Postage, 
Telephone, 
Supplies, 

Total, . 



$295 00 

335 77 
2,565 00 
2,385 98 

179 71 
325 95 

336 50 
62 50 

156 82 
412 33 

49 89 
300 00 

19 71 
548 13 



$7,973 29 



. P. M. HARWOOD, 

General Agent. 

Accepted and adopted as the report of the Dairy Bureau. 

CHARLES M. GARDNER. 
GEORGE W. trull. 
O. E. BRADWAY. 



Public Document 



No. 60 



TWENTY-SIXTH ANNUAL EEPOET 

OF THE 

DAIRY BUREAU 

OF THE 

Massachusetts Boaed of Ageicultuee, 

REQUIRED UNDER 

Chapter 89, Section 12, Revised Laws. 



January 13, 1917. 




BOSTON: 

WRIGHT & POTTER PRINTING CO., STATE PRINTERS, 
32 DERNE STREET. 
1917. 



Public Document 



No. 60 



TWENTY-SIXTH ANNUAL EEPORT 



OP THE 

"DAIRY BUREAU 



OF THE 



Massachusetts Board of Agricultdee, 



REQUIRED UNDER 



Chapter 89, Section 12, Revised Laws. 



January 13, 1917. 




BOSTON: 

WRIGHT & POTTER PRINTING CO., STATE PRINTERS, 
32 DERNE STREET. 
1917. 

C 



Publication of this Document 

approved by the 
Supervisor of Administration. 



(c\^,:2>zivi'b 



Dairy Bureau — 1916. 



OMER E. BRADWAY, Monson, Chairman. 

GEORGE W. TRULL, Tewksbury, P. 0. Lowell, R. F. D. 

GEORGE E. TAYLOR, Jr., Shelburne. 



Secretary. 

WILFRID WHEELER, Executive Officer and Secretary of the State 
Board of Agriculture. 



General Agent. 
P. M. HARWOOD, 
Address, Room 136, State House, Boston. 



®[)e €0mtn0ntoealtt) of illa00acl)ii0ett0* 



REPORT OF THE DAIRY BUREAU. 



The work of the Bureau for 1916 has been notable on account 
of the interest, manifested by the large number of entries, in the 
clean milk contest; and the increased call for demonstrations, 
lectures, pamphlets, etc., relating to the food value of milk; also 
by the small number of violations of oleomargarine and reno- 
vated butter laws. The Legislature of 1916 was asked by the 
State Board of Agriculture to appropriate $50,000 annually for 
three years to encourage and improve the dairy and live-stock 
interests of the State. The committee on agriculture reported 
the resolve, but reduced the amount to $15,000 annually. The 
ways and means committee, however, still further reduced the 
amount appropriated to $5,000 per year, which left the matter 
virtually to be a call for continuation of the special work already 
begun by the Dairy Bureau of the Board and continued during 
the three previous years. In pursuance of this resolve $2,700 
was offered in prizes for a clean milk contest. A new plan of 
awarding prizes was adopted because the time had come when 
the difference in results was so slight in individual cases that it 
could be determined only with the use of a high-power magnify- 
ing glass. Heretofore the prizes had been awarded in one, two, 
three order. This year the prizes were awarded in three classes, 
namely, superior merit, merit and honorable mention. There 
were three divisions of contestants, namely, (a) owners, (6) 
juniors, and (c) employees. The total number of applicants was 
653, of which 578 competed in the contest. Out of this number 
132 won superior merit; 101 merit; and 81 honorable mention; 
a total of 314, or more than one-half the total contestants. It 
should be remembered that the object of this contest is to edu- 
cate and encourage clean milking, a fundamental necessity in 
securing a clean product. In addition to the foregoing prizes 
$250 was offered co-operative creameries for excellence in con- 
dition of cream as delivered. 



6 



DAIRY BUREAU. 



[Jan. 



Food Value of Milk. 

In 1910 the secretary of the State Board of Agriculture, at 
the request of the Dairy Bureau, asked Professor Washburn of 
Vermont to deliver a lecture on "Food Value of Milk" at its 
Public Winter Meeting. This lecture was later repeated in 
Worcester at the expense of the Bureau. Shortly afterwards the 
general agent wrote "Circular No. 1," of which several editions 
were issued and rapidly exhausted, and the subject "Food 
Value of Milk" was added to his list of lectures. In 1914 and 
1915 several editions of "Leaflet A" were issued. In 1916 an 
illustrated folder was published and nearly 100,000 copies have 
already been distributed. We believe this work has been pro- 
ductive of good results. » 

Lectures. 

The general agent has delivered 19 lectures upon dairy sub- 
jects during the year, and has attended several dairy conferences 
at Washington and represented the secretary at the organiza- 
tion of the National Association of Commissioners and Secre- 
taries of Agriculture. 

Bacteriological Laboratory. 

The Bureau has equipped a bacteriological laboratory in 
Greenfield which will be operated for the present by the 
Franklin County Farm Bureau. The establishment of this 
laboratory is an experiment, and from the present outlook it 
appears that it will be found to be of great benefit to the 
farmers in its locality. 

National Dairy Show. 

The National Dairy Show was held at the Eastern States 
Exposition grounds, Springfield, and was perhaps the most 
notable event of the year. The Dairy Bureau contributed and 
Mr. A. W. Lombard had general charge of Massachusetts build- 
ing exhibits, which were highly commended by visitors. Mr. 
Lombard presided at the meetings of the International Associa- 
tion of Dairy and Milk Inspectors and was re-elected first vice- 



1917.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 60. 



7 



president for the ensuing year. The show as a whole was 
splendid and the effect upon the dairy industry of the State 
should be the awakening of new enthusiasm and endeavor. 

Dairy Situation. 

It is with pleasure that we note an increase of 2,618 cows 
taxed in 1916 over 1915, and also the increased price which the 
dairyman is now receiving for his milk. Best of all is the fact 
that apparently the time has come when an increase in the 
price of milk is not so seriously objected to as formerly. To be 
sure, some consumers are using less milk as the price advances, 
but that milk is relatively cheap as compared with other forms 
of animal food is coming to be realized. Milk receipts in 
Boston indicate increased consumption. (See page 14.) The 
year now ending discloses the situation of a comparative milk 
shortage acknowledged even by the milk contractors them- 
selves. This is largely due to the enormous demand for evapo- 
rated and powdered milk abroad. Milk in Massachusetts 
towns is now selling at 8 and 9 cents per quart and in some 
instances (as on the Cape) at 12 to 14 cents. The price of 
ordinary market milk in Boston is 10 cents per quart, fancy 
grades ranging from 12 cents upward, and in most instances at 
an advance over former prices. 

In the early part of the year the Interstate Commerce Com- 
mission held an investigation of the railroad rates pertaining to 
the milk supply of several large centers in this country. The 
first of these meetings was held in Boston. The result of this 
investigation is that the former unsatisfactory condition has 
been straightened out and fair and just rates established. These 
rates increase with each 20-mile circuit distance from Boston, 
applicable only to interstate traffic. The abolishment of the so- 
called leased-car system was accomplished. Nearly every dairy 
interest in the State, and in fact in New England, was repre- 
sented at this hearing which was thoroughly exhaustive in its 
investigation. The Board of Agriculture was efficiently repre- 
sented by the Attorney-General of the Commonwealth. The 
general agent attended the hearings and offered several wit- 
nesses, and the testimony of the one accepted, Mr. Clifton E. 
Walcott of Barre, proved of great value. We congratulate all 



8 



DAIRY BUREAU. 



[Jan. 



concerned on the outcome of this investigation. We are pleased 
to note further that there are now on foot definite and well-con- 
sidered plans for solid co-operation of milk producers in both 
small and large units in this State. Such co-operation, if 
effected and carried out in proper spirit, can but be of material 
and lasting benefit to the milk producers. More and more it is 
settling into the minds of our people that the solution of the 
milk producer's troubles is not so much a matter of legislation 
as it is a matter of co-operation and business efficiency. 

Condensed Milk. 

The Boston Chamber of Commerce reports that the amount 
of condensed milk handled in Boston in 1916 was 2,945 barrels 
and 762,446 cases. This is a decrease of 1,616 barrels from the 
number of barrels handled in 1915 and an increase of 739,317 
cases. (See table on page 13.) 

Oleomargarine. 

The number of licenses in force in the State in 1915 was 
1,089, and in November, 1916, was 916, including two manu- 
facturers' licenses. In Boston the number of packages handled 
as reported by the Chamber of Commerce in 1915 was 69,041; 
the number in 1916 was 40,998, a decrease of 28,053 cases. 
(For additional statistics see table on page 11.) 

Renovated Butter. 

In 1915 there were 39,056,180 pounds of renovated butter 
produced in the United States, while in 1916 there were 34,- 
514,527 pounds, showing a decrease of 4,541,653 pounds. (See 
table on page 12.) 

Butter. 

The Chamber of Commerce reports the average wholesale 
price of butter in Boston market for 1916 as 33.7 cents, an 
increase of 4.5 cents per pound over that of 1915. The con- 
sumption of butter, Boston output, during 1915 was 81,617,503 
pounds, while in 1916 it was 79,279,456, showing a decrease of 
2,338,047 pounds, due undoubtedly to the increased price. It 
is unusual to note an apparent decrease in consumption of 



1917.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 60. 



9 



butter, oleomargarine and renovated butter all in one year. So 
far as butter is concerned this should never be the case in a 
community where the population is increasing. Butter is a 
relatively cheap, heat and energy producing food even at 
present prices. 

Local Milk Inspectors. 

The number of local milk inspectors in this State is increasing 
each year, there now being one hundred more than in 1910. 
Most of these men are doing excellent work in their respective 
localities. They are intelligent, enthusiastic and ready to co- 
operate and this Bureau has found them of great assistance in 
promoting any work tending to improve the condition of the 
milk supply. They have a strong State association. 

Personnel of the Bureau. 

The personnel of the Bureau is as follows: Omer E. Bradway 
of Monson, chairman, George W. Trull of Tewksbury and 
George E. Taylor, Jr., of Shelburne. The executive force, 
agents, analysts, etc., are as follows: executive officer and secre- 
tary, Wilfrid Wheeler; general agent, P. M. Harwood; analysts, 
B. F. Davenport, M.D., Boston, and Gilbert L. Clark, Emerson 
Laboratory, Springfield; agent, A. W. Lombard; and five others 
have been employed temporarily. 

Mr. Charles M. Gardner of Westfield, who served as chairman 
of the Bureau for several years, retired at the beginning of 
1916. The State owes a debt of gratitude to Mr. Gardner 
for his efficient service during the troublesome years of dairy 



agitation. 

Summary of Police Work. 

Total number of inspections, 5,661^ 

Number of inspections where no samples were taken, . . .4,759 
Number of samples of butter, oleomargarine and renovated 

butter, all purchased, 752 

Number of samples of milk and cream, 80 

Cases entered in court, 19 

Convictions, 19 

Addresses by general agent, 19 



1 There were 70 extra samples taken during the year, therefore this number is 70 less than the 
sum of the next three items. 



10 



DAIRY BUREAU. 



[Jan. 



Cases prosecuted during the twelve months ending November 
30, 1916, by months and courts, with law violated, and results, 
are as follows: — 



Court. 


Month. 


Num- 
ber. 


Law violated. 


Con- 
victed. 


Nol- 
prossed. 


Dedham, Northern Norfolk Dis- 
trict. 

East Brookfield.Western Worces- 
ter District. 
Lowell Police, .... 


December, . 

January, 

January, 


1 

6 


1 milk, . 
1 milk, . 

6 renovated butter, 


6 




Worcester, Central Worcester 
District. 

Attleboro, Fourth Bristol Dis- 
trict. 

Barre, Trial Justice, . 


February, . 
February, . 
February, . 


2 
2 
1 


2 milk, . 

2 renovated butter, 
1 milk, . 


2 
2 
1 




Fitchburg Police, 


March, 


6 


4 oleomargarine, 2 
renovated butter. 


6 




Total, 




19 


19 





Note. — The Bureau is indebted to the milk inspectors of Massachusetts for assistance which 
has resulted in court cases. 



The charges in the several cases entered in court for the year 
ending November 30, 1916, have been as follows: — 

Furnishing oleomargarine in restaurants, etc., without notice to 

guests, 2 

Selling renovated butter in unmarked packages, 10 

Selling adulterated milk, 5 

Selling oleomargarine in unmarked packages, 2 

19 



The following table shows the inspections without samples, 
and the number of samples taken during the past fourteen 
years : — 





Inspections 




Years. 


without 


Samples. 




Samples. 


1903-15 (inclusive), 


73,142 


21,446 


1916, 


4,759 


902 




77,901 


22,348 


Average, 


5,564 


1,596 



1917'.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 60. 



11 



Oleomargarine. 

The following figures, taken from the annual report of the 
United States Commissioner of Internal Revenue for 1916, show 
the production, withdrawn tax paid, withdrawn for export, and 
withdrawn for use of the United States, of the two classes of 
oleomargarine, as defined by act of May 9, 1902, covering the 
period of fourteen years since it went into effect on July 1, 
1902: — 



Oleomargarine (Pounds) . 





Product taxed at Rate op 
10 Cents per Pound. 


Product taxed at Rate 
M Cent per Pound. 


OF 


Years. 


Pro- 
duced. 


With- 
drawn 
Tax 
paid. 


With- 
drawn 

for 
Export. 


With- 
drawn 

Free of 
Tax 

for Use 
of the 

United 

States. 


Produced. 


With- 
drawn Tax 
paid. 


With- 
drawn 

for 
Export. 


With- 

Htc» wn 

KJLl d W 11 

Free of 

Tax 
for Use 
of the 
United 
States. 


1903, . . 


5,710,407 


2,312,493 


3,334,969 




67,573,689 


66,785,796 


151,693 




1904, . . 


3,785,670 


1,297,068 


2,504,940 




46,413,972 


46,397,984 


123,425 




1905, . . 


5,560,304 


3,121,640 


2,405,763 




46,427,032 


46,223,691 


137,670 




1906, . . 


4,888,986 


2,503,095 


2,422,320 




50,545,914 


50,536,466 


78,750 




1907, . . 


7,758,529 


5,009,094 


2,695,276 




63,608,246 


63,303,016 


129,350 




1908, . . 


7,452,800 


4,982,029 


2,522,188 




74,072,800 


73,916,869 


109,480 




1909, . . 


5,710,301 


3,275,968 


2,403,742 




86,572,514 


86,221,310 


112,958 




1910, . . 


6,176,991 


3,416,286 


2,767,195 




135,685,289 


135,159,429 


97,575 




1911, . . 


5,830,995 


2,764,971 


3,054,344 




115,331,800 


115,448,006 


91,750 




1912, . . 


6,235,639 


3,174,331 


3,044,122 




122,365,414 


121,945,038 


106,160 




1913, . . 


6,520,436 


4,090,658 


2,417,973 


3,300 


138,707,426 


138,242,848 


59,686 




1914, . . 


6,384,222 


3,831,706 


2,121,162 


469,340 


137,637,054 


137,747,982 


22,540 


110,020 


1915, . . 


7,595,141 


3,753,012 


3,081,356 


734,030 


138,214,907 


137,693,610 


31,172 




1916, . . 


6,748,940 


3,403,287 


2,561,613 


746,281 


145,760,973 


145,443,578 


26,076 


2,250 


Totals, . 


86,359,361 


46,935,638 


37,336,963 


1,952,951 


1,368,917,030 


1,365,065,623 


1,278,285 


112,270 



Renovated Butter. 

The following figures, from the same source as the preceding 
table, show the production and withdrawn tax paid of renovated 
butter, 1902-16: — 



12 



DAIRY BUREAU. 

Renovated Butter (Pounds), 



[Jan. 



Years. 



Production. 



Withdrawn Tax 
paid. 



1904. 
1905, 
1906, 
1907, 
1908, 
1909. 
1910. 
1911, 
1912. 
1913, 
1914, 
1915. 
1916, 

Totals. 



KA CEO 7Qn 


KA 009 00/1 


riA 171 100 


KA On A A*7Q 




ftft 1*71 tLt\A 

DU,1< 1,0(14 


K9 KAQ QAA 


^0 0<?1 AQO 

Oo,ool,Uoo 




RO n70 RA/l 

0o,U/o,0U4 




K(\ A-t 1 Ai.fi 


47,345.361 


47,402,382 


47,433,575 


47,378,446 


39,292,591 


39,352,445 


46,387,398 


46,413,895 


38,354,762 


38,285,114 


32,470,030 


32,513,244 


39,056,180 


38,924,828 


34,514,527 


34,572,335 


660,708.820 


660,292,943 



Butter. 

The following table shows the average quotation for the best 
fresh creamery butter, in a strictly wholesale way, in the 
Boston market for the last ten years, as compiled by the 
Boston Chamber of Commerce: — 



Months. 


1916. 

Cents. 


1915. 

Cents. 


1914. 

Cents. 


1913. 

Cents. 


1912. 

Cents. 


1911. 

Cents. 


1910. 

Cents. 


1909. 

Cents. 


1908. 

Cents. 


1907. 

Cents. 


January, . 


32.0 


32.5 


32.5 


33.9 


36.9 


28.8 


33.5 


30.9 


2«.7 


30.4 


February, 


32.0 


31.1 


28.8 


34.9 


32.5 


26.9 


30.5 


30.0 


32.1 


31.7 


March, 


34.5 


30.3 


27.7 


36.4 


32.1 


24.2 


32.0 


29.1 


30.2 


30.2 


April, 


35.9 


30.1 


25.1 


34.5 


32.7 


21.7 


31.5 


27.9 


28.4 


32.2 


May, 


35.4 


28.7 


25.8 


28.7 


30.4 


22.8 


29.0 


26.6 


24.1 


31.4 


June. 


29.7 


28.5 


27.5 


28.2 


27.9 


24.2 


28.2 


26.4 


24.5 


24.3 


July, 


29.0 


27.3 


27.9 


27.5 


28.1 


26.0 


28.6 


27.2 


23.6 


25.9 


August, . 


31.2 


26.0 


30.1 


28.2 


27.1 


27.2 


29.6 


28.2 


24.5 


26.0 


September, 


33.6 


27.1 


30.9 


31.3 


29.1 


27.7 


29.6 


31.3 


25.3 


29.2 


October, . 


35.1 


28.5 


30.9 


31.2 


31.0 


30.4 


29.4 


31.7 


27.5 


29.9 


November, 


37.6 


29.1 


32.4 


31.9 


32.9 


32.5 


30.2 


31.4 


29.5 


27.1 


December, 


38.5 


31.2 


32.7 


33.8 


34.0 


35.0 


30.0 


32.9 


31.0 


27.5 


Averages, . 


33.7 


29.2 


29.4 


31.7 


31.2 


27.3 


30.2 


29.5 


27.5 


28.8 



1917.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 60. 



13 



The Chamber of Commerce figures regarding the butter 
business in Boston for 1915 and 1916 are as follows: — 





1916. 

Pounds. 


1915. 

Pounds. 


Carried over in storage, 

Receipts for January, 

February, 

March, 

April 

May 

June, 

July, ............ 

August, 

September, 

October, 

November, 

December, 

Total supply, 

Exports for year, deduct, 

Net supply, 

Storage stock » January 1, deduct 

Consumption for year, 


9,119,100 

3,769,297 
2,911,830 
t nso 94.0 

8,863,803 
16,361,341 

1 Q^K AAR. 
li>,0/0,440 

9,680,632 
6,629,484 
5,188,022 
3,148,953 
2,475,818 


8,963,202 

O,o0o,/D{> 

3,089,346 
3,996,912 

{),D/'*,<j4U 

7,797,597 
16.267,690 
14,473,792 
10,149,845 
7,882,845 
4,273,764 
2,943,272 
2,178,513 


88,424,634 
698,1* 


91,044.883 
308,380 


87,726,492 
8,447.036 


90,736,503 
9,119 000 


79,279,456 


81,617,503 


^ Stock of Terminal Refrigerating Company not included January 1, 1917. 

Receipts of Condensed Milk. 



The Chamber of Commerce figures regarding the receipts of 
condensed milk at Boston for 1915 and 1916 are as follows: — 





1915. 


1916. 




Barrels. 


Cases. 


Barrels. 


Cases. 


January, 


60 


24,915 


102 


28,588 


February, 


226 


41,733 


71 


36,339 


March, 


201 


40,436 


130 


52,484 


April, 


302 


39,980 


233 


46,987 


May, 


237 


27,491 


342 


124,630 


June, 


264 


37,407 


998 


113,489 


July, 


940 


33,428 


304 


70,044 


August, 


1,223 


22,515 


53 


70,780 


September, 


470 


28,692 


125 


79,595 


October, 


1,222 


29,877 


49 


68,745 


November, 


167 


51,748 


465 


44,145 


December, 


64 


31,250 


73 


26,620 




5,376 


409,472 


2,945 


762,446 



14 



DAIRY BUREAU. 



[Jan. 



Milk. 

Milk brought into Boston by Different Railroads, December 1, 1915, to 
November 30, 1916, as reported by the Public Service Commissioners 
(Quarts) . 



Date. 


Boston & 
Albany. 


Boston & 
Maine. 


New York, 
New Haven 
& Hartford. 


Totals. 


1915. 


615,403 


6,808,526 


1,521,927 


8,945,856 


1916. 


701,161 


6,957,325 


1,627,965 


9,286,451 




727,720 


6,686,546 


1,496,699 


8,910,965 




382 592 


7 271 876 


1 614 443 


9 268 911 




718,742 


7,028,386 


1,669,509 


9,416,637 




845,125M 


7,957,182 


1,814,785 


10,617,092^ 




820,126 


7,353,317 


2,084,549 


10,257,992 


July 


1,073,899 


7,316,241 


2,125,203 


10,515,343 




1,107,427 


7,123,805 


2,110,465 


10,341,697 




966,061 


6,787,075 


2,022,766 


9,775,902 




896,028 


7,847,783 


1,863,593 


10,607.404 




757,767 


8,514,086 


1,300, '11 


10.571,964 


Totals 


9,612,051M 


87,652,148 


21,252,015 


118,516,214^ 



Milk brought into Boston annually by Railroads for the Years Ending 
November 30, 1906, to November 30, 1916, inclusive {Quarts). 



1906, 114,233,967 

1907, 109,882,190^ 

1908, 103,831,278^ 

1909, 108,082,936 

1910, 100,606,362^ 

1911, 90,092,772 

1912, 104,019,234 

1913, 107,306,849 

1914, 103,638,225 

1915, 109,507,9501 

1916, 118,516,2141 



1917.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 60. 



15 



Comparative List of Number of Cows assessed in Massachusetts, May 1, 
1906, April 1, 1915, and April 1, 1916. 



^ r» TT'WT T TP Cl 


1906. 


1915. 


1916. 


Decrease. 


Increase. 


1906-16. 


1915-16. 


1906-16. 


1915-16. 


Barnstable, .... 


2,448 


2,249 


2,200 


248 


49 


- 


- 


Berkshire, .... 


17,404 


14,113 


14,509 


2,895 


- 


- 


396 


Bristol 


13,702 


12,447 


13,477 


225 


- 


- 


1,030 


Dukes, .... 


656 


637 


681 


- 


- 


25 


44 


Essex, . . . 


17,131 


12,776 


12,573 


4.558 


203 


- 


- 


Franklin, .... 


12,715 


10,382 


10,757 


1,958 


- 


- 


375 


Hampden, .... 


12,096 


9,302 


9,118 


2,978 


184 






Hampshire, 


14,383 


11,433 


11,585 


2,798 






152 


Middlesex, .... 


29,508 


22,892 


23,800 


5,708 






908 


Nantucket, .... 


378 


420 


359 


19 


61 






Norfolk 


11,200 


9,235 


9,246 


1,954 






11 


Plymouth, .... 


8,465 


7,477 


7,663 


802 






186 


Suffolk 


1,186 


837 


812 


374 


25 






Worcester, .... 


40,544 


30,816 


30,854 


9,690 






38 


Massachusetts, 


181,816 


145,016 


147,634 


34,207 


522 


25 


3,140 





Net increase for State, 1915-16, 2,618. 



List of Massachusetts Farms making Milk of Superior Quality and 
Cleanliness and selling their Product higher than the Regular Market 
Price. 



Location, Farm. 



Owner and Manager. 



Ap- 
proxi- 
mate 
Num- 
ber of 
Cows. 



Where marketed. 



Agawam, Reilly Farm, . 
Agawam, Colonial Farm, 
Agawam, Elm Shade Dairy, . 
Amherst, H. M. Thompson's farm, 
Amherst, U. G. Groff's farm, 
Andover, Arden Farm, . 

Andover, Shattuck Farms, 
Arlington, L. M. Dolloff's farm. 



J. J. Reilly, owner and 
manager. 

H. E. Bodurtha, owner 
and manager. 

S. S. & E. F. Bodurtha, 
owners and managers. 

H. M. Thompson, owner 
and manager. 

U. G. Groff, owner and 
manager. 

Wm. M. Wood, owner; J. 
M. Putnam, superin- 
tendent; Austin C. Hug- 
gins, manager of cream- 
ery. 

F. Shattuck, owner and 

manager. 
L. M. Dolloff, owner and 

manager. 



Springfield. 

Springfield. 

Springfield. 

Holyoke. 

Amherst. 

Andover, Lawrence, 
Woburn and Bos- 
ton. 

Lawrence. 
Arlington. 



16 



DAIRY BUREAU. 



[Jan. 



List of Massachusetts Farms making Milk of Superior Quality and 
Cleanliness and selling their Product higher than the Regular Market 
Price — Continued. 



Location, Farm. 



Ashland, H. W. Chadbourne's farm, 
Auburn, Wellswood Farm, 
Barnstable, Bay Farm, . 
Barre, Highland View Farm, . 
Beverly, Bull Rush Farm, 
Beverly, Cherry Hill Farm, . 
Bolton, Wataquodock Farm, . 

Braintree, F. H. Sanford's farm, . 

Brimfield, Clarence B. Brown's 
farm. 

Brockton (Montello Station), Dutch- 
land Farm. 
Brookline, Louis Cabot estate, 

Charles River, Needham, Walker- 
Gordon Farm. 

Chilmark (West Tisbury P. O.), 

Oak view Farm. 
Concord, Middlesex School Farm, . 

Concord, Alfred Curtis farm, . 

Concord, Jens Michelson farm, 

Dighton, Rock Farm, 

Dorchester, Codman Farm, . 

East Lexington, Geo. C. Hatch farm, 

East Lexington, Chester Lawrence 
farm. 

East Longmeadow, Peter Kronvall 
farm. 

East Lynn 



East Walpole 

Everett, Joseph H. Cannell's farm 
Everett, Thomas F. Leavitt'a farm 
Fairhaven, Dana Farm, . 

Fairhaven, Lewis F. Blossom's farm 
Framingham, Millwood Farm, 

Framingham, Waveney Farm, 



Framingham, Cherry Meadow 
Farm. 



Owner and Manager. 



H. W. Chadboume, owner 

and manager. 
George O. Keep, owner 

and manager. 
H. C. Everett, owner and 

manager. 
D. A. Howe, owner; W. 

E. Howe, manager. 
George R. Wales, owner 

and manager. 
H. P. Hood & Sons, 

Paul Cunningham, owner 
and manager. 

F. H. Sanford, owner and 

manager. 
Clarence B. Brown, owner 

and manager. 
Fred F. Field, owner; Earl 

D. Upton, manager. 
Louis Cabot, owner; R. 

Barkhouse, manager. 
Walker-Gordon Labora- 
tory Company, owner; 

John Nichols, manager. 
J. F. Adams, owner and 

manager. 
Middlesex School, . 

Alfred Curtis, owner and 

manager. 
Jens Michelson, owner and 

manager. 
J. W. Earle, owner; Ralph 

Earle, manager. 
Watson B. Fearing, owner 

and manager. 
George C. Hatch, owner 

and manager. 
Chester Lawrence, owner 

and manager. 
Mrs. Peter Kronvall, man- 
ager. 

J. D. Coombs, lessee and 
manager. 

Geo. A. Plympton, owner; 
Eben Voorhees, man- 
ager. 

Joseph H. Cannell, owner 

and manager. 
Thomas F. Leavitt, owner 

and manager. 
Eliza N. and Edith Dana, 

owners and managers. 

Lewis F. Blossom, owner 

and manager. 
Mrs. E. F. Bowditch, 

owner; J. P. Bowditch, 

manager; F.E.Barrett, 

superintendent. 
Reginald W. Bird, owner; 

A. E. White, manager. 

D. M. and E. F. Belches, 
owners; E. F. Belches, 
manager. 



Ap- 
proxi- 
mate 
Num- 
ber of 
Cows. 



37 



25 
26 
156 
35 

20 
21 
70 
10 
100 

17 
40 
25 
20 
15 

158 
20 
10 
8 
3 

100 

7 
8 
52 

12 
300 

50 
35 



Where marketed. 



Brookline, Newton 

and Boston. 
Worcester. 

Barnstable. 

Worcester. 

Beverly. 

Brookline and Bos- 
ton. 

Boston and vicinity, 
by Alden Brothers 
Company, 

Braintree. 

West Warren. 

Brockton. 

Brookline. 

Boston and vicinity. 

Vineyard Haven and 

Edgartown. 
Concord. 

Concord. 

Concord. 

Fall River. 

Boston. 

Arlington and Lex- 
ington. 

Arlington and Lex- 
ington. 

Springfield. 

East Lynn. 

Boston and vicinity, 
by Elm Farm Milk 
Company. 

Everett. 

Everett. 

Fairhaven, Marion 
and Mattapoisett 
(in summer). 

Fairhaven. 

Boston and Welles- 
ley. 



Boston, by Alden 
Brothers Com- 
pany. 

Framingham. 



1917.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 60. 



17 



List of Massachusetts Farms making Milk of Superior Quality and 
Cleanliness and selling their Product higher than the Regular Market 
Price — Continued. 



Location, Farm. 



Owner and Manager. 



Ap. 
proxi- 
mate 
Num- 
ber of 
Cows. 



Where marketed. 



Franklin, Ray Farm, 

Gardner, Lakeside Farm, 
Gardner, Rockland Farm, 
Gardner, Otto Wickman's farm, 
Gloucester, Howard P. Lane's farm, 
Gloucester, H. Wallace Lane's farm, 
Gloucester, Peter Hagstrom's farm, 
Granby, C. W. Ball's farm, . 
Great Barrington, Lone Pine Farm, 

Greenfield, Wayside Farm, 

Groton, G. W. Greenhalge's farm, . 

Hamilton, Miles River Farm, 

Hardwick, Louis H. Ruggles' farm, 
Hardwick, Mixter Farm, 



Haverhill (Bradford District), J. B. 

Sawyer's farm. 
Haverhill, North Broadway Milk 

Farm. 

Haverhill (P. O. East Haverhill), 
Fred Kimball's farm. 

Holyoke, Whiting Farm, 



Ipswich, Albert Elwell's farm, 
Ipswich, Upland Farm, . 

Kingston, Miss Helen Holmes' farm, 
Lee, John Goodrich's farm, . 
Leominster, Boutelle Farm, . 
Leominster, Sholan Farm, 

Lexington, H. Swenson's farm, 

Lexington, Kelsey Ranch, 



E. K. Ray estate, owner; 

Joseph G. Ray, trustee 

and manager. 
J. Henry Ware, owner and 

manager. 
Willis E. Knight, owner 

and manager. 
Otto Wickman, owner and 

manager. 
Howard P. Lane, owner 

and manager. 
H. Wallace Lane, owner 

and manager. 
Peter Hagstrom, owner 

and manager. 
C. W. Ball, owner and 

manager. 
W. B. Nisbet, owner; 

Michael Conden, man- 
ager. 

Frank H. Reed, owner; 
Mr. Purrington, man- 
ager. 

G. W. Greenhalge, owner 
and manager. 

Maxwell Norman, owner 
and manager; C. E. 
Johnson, superintend- 
ent. 

Louis H. Ruggles, owner 

and manager. 
Mary A. Mixter, owner; 

Dr. Samuel J. Mixter, 

manager; J. S. Clark, 

superintendent. 
J. B. Sawyer, owner and 

manager. 

E. A. Emerson, owner and 
manager. 

Fred Kimball, owner; 
Leonard Kimball, man- 
ager. 

W. F. Whiting, owner; 

John F. Richardson, 

manager. 
Albert Elwell, owner and 

manager. 

F. P. Frazier & S o n , 
owner; Benj. F. Barnes, 
manager. 

Miss Helen Holmes, owner 
and manager. 

John Goodrich, owner and 
manager. 

E. H. Boutelle, owner and 
manager. 

Paul Washburn, owner; 
A. G. Hollquist, man- 
ager. 

H. Swenson, owner and 
manager. 

Harry S. Kelsey, owner; 
S. H. Parks, superin- 
tendent. 



100 

7 

25 
5 
50 
30 
5 
29 
20 



25 



75 



60 



50 

20 

19 
100 

20 
40 
30 
40 

40-50 

52 



Boston, by Elm 
Farm Milk Com- 
pany. 

Gardner. 

Gardner. 

Gardner. 

Gloucester. 

Gloucester. 

Gloucester. 

Holyoke. 

Great Barrington. 
Greenfield. 



Boston and vicinity, 
by D. Whiting & 
Sons. 

Boston. 



Boston. 
Boston. 

Haverhill. 
Haverhill. 
Haverhill, 

Holyoke. 

Ipswich and Essex. 

Boston, Manchester, 
Magnolia, Beverly 
and Beverly 
Farms. 

Kingston. 

Lee. 

Leominster. 
Leominster. 



ArHngton, C a m - 
bridge and Somer- 
ville. 

Boston. 



18 



DAIRY BUREAU. 



[Jan. 



List of Massachusetts Farms making Milk of Superior Quality and 
Cleanliness and selling their Product higher than the Regular Market 
Price — Continued. 



Ap- 
proxi- 
mate 
Num- 
ber of 
Cows. 


Where marketed. 


20 


Springfield. 


120 


Lowell. 


22 
60 


Ludlow and Indian 

Orchard. 
Fitchburg. 


48 


Fitchburg. 


30 


Wakefield. 


10 


Marlborough. 


10 


Medford. 


16 
30 


Medford and Arling- 
ton. 
Lawrence. 


31 


Lawrence. 


50 


Lawrence. 


50 


Lawrence. 


30 


Lawrence. 


25 


Boston. 


65 


Milton. 


31 


Needham. 


30 
17 
60 
35 


Brookline and New- 
Need ham and New- 
ton. 

Newton, Brookline 

and Boston. 
Boston. 


30 


Amherst. 


35 




14 


Northampton. 


12 
9 


Northampton. 
Pawtucket, R. I. 


20-30 
6 


Springfield. 
North Falmouth. 


60 


Worcester. 


50 


North Tewksbury. 


135 


Lowell. 



Location, Farm. 



Owner and Manager. 



Longmeadow, Hillbrow Farm, 

Lowell, Hood Farm, 

Ludlow, E. E. Chapman's farm 

Lunenburg, Clover Hill Farm, 

Lunenburg, Sunnyside Farm, 

Lynnfield, N. F. McCarthy's farm, 

Marlborough, Fair view Farm, 

Medford, Hillside Farm, 20 Cow 
Streets 

Medford, Mystic Valley Farm, 75 

Arlington Street. 
Methuen, Bragdon Farms, 

Methuen, Cox Farms, 

Methuen, Howe Farm, . 

Methuen, Spring Valley Farms, 

Methuen, S. W. Williams' farm, 

Millis, Lowland Farm, . 

Milton, Highland Farm, 

Needham, K. E. Webb's farm, 
Newton, Greenwood Farm, 

Newton (P. O. Waban), W. B. 
McMuUin's farm. 

Newtonville, Willow Farm, 120 Far- 
well Street. 

Norfolk, Meadowside Farm, . 

North Amherst, The Elms, . 

North Amherst, E. C. Harlow's farm, 

Northampton, W. J. LaFleur's farm, 

Northampton (Florence), Straw- 
berry Hill Farm. 

North Attleborough, Halliday Farm, 

North Brookfield, Blanchard Farm, 

North Falmouth, Manuel G. White's 
farm. 

North Grafton, Bonnybrook Farm, 
North Tewksbury, Mountjoy, 

North Tewksbury, Hood Farm, 



H. M. Burt, owner and 
manager. 

C. I. Hood, owner; J. E. 
Dodge, manager. 

Edward E. Chapman, 

. owner and manager. 
W. J. Fish, owner and 

manager. 
George M . Proctor, owner ; 

Fred A- Miller, manager. 
N. F. McCarthy, owner; 

Eben Holmes, manager. 
Elmer D. Howe & Son, 

owners and managers. 
Alberton Harris, owner 

and manager. 
John J. Mulkerin, owner 

and manager. 
E. L. Bragdon, owner and 

manager. 
Louis Cox, owner; L. 

Coburn, manager. 
E. D. Taylor, owner and 

manager. 
Fred Miller, owner and 

manager. 
S. W. Williams, owner and 

manager. 
E. F. Richardson, owner 

and manager. 
Patriquin & Newton, 

lessees ; George Patri- 
quin, manager. 
Kenneth E. Webb, owner 

and manager. 
M. Barry, owner and man- 
ager. 

William B. McMullin, 
owner and manager. 

D. F. Smith, owner and 
manager. 

T. D. Cook & Co., owners 

and managers. 
R. D. Dickinson, owner 

and manager. 

E. C. Harlow, . 

W. J. LaFleur, owner and 

manager. 
Mrs. E. K. Learned, 

owner; Wilfred H. 

Learned, manager. 
Fred F. Halliday, owner; 

Robert C. Halliday, 

manager. 
O. W. Means, owner and 

manager. 
Manuel G. White, owner 

and manager. 
Everett N. Kearney, 

owner and manager. 
Miss Florence Nesmith, 

owner; C. E. Lougee, 

manager. 
C. I. flood, owner; J. E. 

Dodge, manager. 



1917.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 60. 



19 



List of Massachusetts Farms making Milk of Superior Quality and 
Cleanliness and selling their Product higher than the Regular Market 
Price — Continued. 



Location, Farm. 



Owner and Manager. 



Ap- 
proxi- 
mate 
Num- 
ber of 
Cows. 



Where marketed. 



North Reading, H. A. Upton's farm. 
North Heading, Maple Leaf Farm, 
Oak Bluffs, Woodsedge Farm, 
Paxton, E. G. Richards' farm, 

Paxton, Echo Farm, 

Pepperell, George Shattuck's farm, 

Pittsfield, Abby Lodge, . 
Pittsfield, Mr. Bardwell's farm, 
Pittsfield, E. W. Page's farm, 
Pittsfield, Sampson Farm, 
Reading, Hillcrest Farm, 
Revere, Mrs. M. L. Mahoney's farm, 

Saugus, Oaklandvale Farm, . 

South Hadley, Joseph A. Skinner's 
farm. 

South Hadley, Frank H. Metcalf's 
farm. 

South Hadley, H. B. Lang's farm. 

South Hadley, John E. Lyman's 
farm. 

South Hadley, James H. Jones' 
farm. 

South Lincoln, South Lincoln Dairy 
Company. 

South Natick, Carver Hill Farm , . 



South ville, Waumesit Farm, . 

Sherborn, H. N. Brown's farm, 
Sherborn, Dexter Farm, . 

Sherborn, J. M. Merriam's farm, . 

South Franklin, Ellersie Farm, 

Sterling, Twin Oaks Farm (P. O. 
Pratt's Junction). 

Stoneham Valley Farm, . 
Stoughton, Tobey Farm, 
Swansea, Meadow Spring Farm, 



H. A. Upton, owner and 

manager. 
W. P. Turner, owner and 

manager. 
F. W. Chase, owner and 

manager. 
E. G. Richards, owner and 

manager. 

W. J. Woods, owner ; 
Joseph Graham, man- 
ager. 

George Shattuck, owner 
and manager. 

A. W. Cooley, owner; Mr. 

Carlson, manager. 
Mr. Bardwell, owner and 

manager. 
E. W. Page, owner and 

manager. 
Mrs. Charles Wilson, owner 

and manager. 
Lawrence B. Lewis, owner; 

Wm. Shaw, manager. 
Mrs. M. L. Mahoney, 

owner; J. J. Mahoney, 

manager. 
Frank P. Bennett, owner 

and manager. 
Joseph A. Skinner, owner 

and manager. 
Frank H. Metcalf, owner; 

E. W. Turner, manager. 
H. B. Lang, owner and 

manager. 
John E. Lyman, owner 

and manager. 
James H. Jones, owner 

and manager. 
South Lincoln Dairy Com- 
pany, owner; W. A. 

Blodgett, manager. 
Carver Hill Farms, Inc., 

owners; Austin Potter, 

manager. 

R. F. Parker, owner and 
manager. 

H. N. Brown, owner and 

manager. 
George T. Dexter, owner 

and manager. 

J. M. Merriam, owner and 

manager. 
Oscar Swanson, owner; 

R. A. Messerli, manager. 
James F. Pratt, owner and 

manager. 



John P. Hylan, owner and 

manager. 
E. B. Hutchins, owner 

and manager. 
Jas. H. Gildard, owner 

and manager. 



12 
27 
20 
40 

40 

75 

35 
14 
8 
24 
40 
25 

112 
16 
30 
36 
14 

175 
75 

20 

40 

23 

40 
75 
100 

11-12 
15 



by C. 
C o m - 

by C. 
C o m - 



Peabody. 
Everett. 
Oak Bluffs. 

Worcester, 

Brigham 

pany. 
Worcester, 

Brigham 

pany. 
Boston and vicinity, 

by D. Whiting & 

Sons. 
Boston. 

Pittsfield. 

Pittsfield. 

Pittsfield. 

Maiden. 

Maiden. 

Lynn. 

Holyoke. 

Holyoke. 

Holyoke. 

Holyoke. 



Boston, Canibridge 
and Brookline. 

Wellesley, Boston, 
Natick, Needham, 
Brookline and 
Dover. 

Boston and vicinity, 
by C. Brigham 
Company. 

Boston. 

Boston and vicinity, 
by Alden Brothers 
Company. 

Boston. 

Rhode Island and 
Boston. 

Milk, Boston, by Al- 
den Brothers Com- 
pany; crea m, 
Worcester. 

Stoneham. 

Brockton. 
Fall River. 



20 



DAIRY BUREAU. 



[Jan. 



List of Massachusetts Farms making Milk of Superior Quality and 
Cleanliness and selling their Product higher than the Regular Market 
Price — Concluded. 



Location, Farm. 



Owner and Manager. 



Ap- 
proxi- 
mate 
Num- 
ber of 
Cows. 



Where marketed. 



Taunton, George Soper'a farm, 
Templeton, Dolbear Hill Farm, 
Waltham, Pleasantdale Farm, 
Warren, Maple Farm, 
Wayland, Perkins' Estate, 
Westfield, Woronoak Farm, 

Weston, Charles Merriam's farm, 

Weston, Ferndale, . 

Westwood, Fox Hill Farm, . 

West Newton and Barre, Wauwinet 
Farm. 

Woburn, John Day's farm, 
Worcester, Pleasant View Farm, 
Worcester, Lewis J. Kendall's farm 
Worcester, Intervale Farm, . 
Worcester, Village Farm, 



George Soper, owner and 

manager. 
Harvey O. Winch, owner 

and manager. 
C. U. Hubbard, owner 

and manager. 
J. R. Blair, owner and 



S. N. Sanders, manager, . 

Edgar L. Gillett, owner; 
N. J, Weidhaas, man- 
ager. 

Charles Merriam, owner 

and manager. 
Frank H. Pop, owner and 

manager. 
Joshua Crane, owner; L. 

W. Jackman, manager. 
George H. Ellis, owner; 

P. F. Staples and R. M. 

Handy, managers. 
John Day, owner and 

manager. 
Warren C. Jewett, owner 

and manager. 
Lewis J. Kendall, owner 

and manager. 
J. Lewis Ellsworth, owner 

and manager. 
H. B. Prentice, owner and 

manager. 



30 
25 
35 
27 
12 
55 

51 
70 
132 
400 

18 
40 
40 
14 

30 



Taunton. 
Gardner. 
Weston. 

Boston, by C. Brig- 
ham Company. 
Waltham. 

Westfield. 



Waltham. 

Weston and Newton. 
Boston. 

Boston, Brookline 
and Newton. 

Winchester. 

Worcester. 

Worcester. 

Worcester. 

Worcester. 



Note. — Deerfoot Farms Dairy, office at 172 Tremont Street, wholesale distributing house at 
132 Central Street, Boston, milk received from milk depots at Southborough and Northborough, 
sells milk of superior quality and cleanliness at a price above that of ordinary market milk, and 
handles the product of 129 dairy farms, averaging about 10 cows each, located in Southborough, 
Northborough, Westborough and HoUiston. Most of these farms, therefore, at some time during 
the year come properly within the requirements of this list. 



1917.1 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 60. 



21 



List of Massachusetts Dairy Farms making Certified Milk. 



Name, Location. 



Owner and Manager. 



Certified by ■ 



Ap- 
proxi- 
mate 
Num- 
ber of 
Cows. 



Where 
marketed. 



Birchfield Farm, South 
Dartmouth. 

Cedar Crest Farm, Wal- 
tham. 

Cedar Hill Farm, Waltham, 



Cherry Hill Farm, Beverly, 



A. D. Davis' farm, Shef- 
field. 



Gilbert Farms, Brookfield, 



Indian Bridge Farm, Way- 
land. 



Ledyard Farm, Andover, . 



Massachusetts Agricultural 
College Farm, Amherst, 

Oaks Farm, Cohasset, 



Oliver Prescott's farm, 
Dartmouth (P. O. North 
Dartmouth). 

Prospect Hill Farm, Essex, 



Seven Gates Farm, North 
Tisbury. 



Walter A. White's farm, 
Acushnet. 



Lawrence Grinnell, 
owner and man- 
ager. 

John C. Runkle, 

owner; Louis W. 

Dean, manager. 
Miss Cornelia War- 

ren, owner; 

Charles Cahill, 

manager. 
H. P. Hood & Sons, 

owners; O. H. 

Perrin, manager. 
A. D. Davis, owner 

and manager. 



A. W. Gilbert, owner 
and manager. 

Edmund H. Sears, 
owner; Walter 
Jauncey, Jr., man- 
ager. 

J. A. & W.H.Gould, 
owners and man- 
agers. 

Massachusetts Agri- 
cultural College, 
J. A. Foord. 

C. W. Barron, 
owner; W. S. Kerr, 
manager. 

Oliver Prescott, 
owner; Harry W. 
Martin, manager. 

J. A. & W.H.Gould, 
owners and man- 
agers. 

W. L. Webb, owner; 
O. L. Curtis, man- 



Walter A. White, 
owner and man- 



Medical Milk 
Commission of 
New Bedford. 

Medical Milk 
Commission of 
Cambridge. 

Medical Commis- 
sion of Cam- 
bridge. 

Medical Milk 
Commission of 
Boston. 



Medical Milk 
Commission of 
Springfield. 

Medical Milk 
Commission o 
Cambridge. 

Medical Milk 
Commission of 
Maiden. 

Medical Milk 

Commission of 

Boston, 
Medical Milk 

Commission of 

Cohasset. 
Medical Milk 

Commission of 

New Bedford. 
Medical Milk 

Commission of 

Boston. 

Medical Milk 
Commission of 
West Tisbury, 
Inc. 

Medical Milk 
Commission of 
New Bedford. 



24 
90 
124 

300 
60 

20-25 
16 

50 

65 
125 

25 
175 

20-25 

30 



New Bedford. 



North Shore, 
Cambridge 
and Boston. 

Waltham, Cam- 
bridge and 
Boston. 

Boston, North 
Shore and 
Lawrence. 

Some in Great 
Barrington; 
balance out- 
side of State. 

Springfield. 



Waltham. 



Maiden, Mel- 
rose, Wake- 
field and Ev- 
erett. 

Boston. 



Cohasset,Brook- 
line and Bos- 
ton. 

New Bedford. 



Boston, Brook- 
line, Jamaica 
Plain and 
North Shore. 

Marthas Vine- 
yard. 



New Bedford. 



List of Local Milk Inspectoks. 

Milk Inspectors for Cities and Towns. 



Adams, Dr. A. G. Potter. 

Amesbury, . . . . ' James L. Stewart. 

Amherst, Nelson C. Haskell. 

Andover, Franklin H. Stacey. 

Arlington, L. L. Pierce, D.V.S. 

Ashburnham, .... James F. Hare. 

Ashland, Ralph W. Bell. 

Athol, John H. Meany, V.S. 

Attleboro, Solomon Fine. 



22 


DAIKY rJUKJbAU. [Jan. 


Avon, .... 


. R. A. Elliott, M.D. 


Barnstable, 


. George T. Mecarta. 


Bedford, 


. Dr. Immanuel Pfeiffer. 


Bellingham, 


. Dr. Norman P. Qumt, West Medway. 


Belmont, . 


. Thomas F. Harris. 


Berkley, 


. Alton A. Haskell. 


Bernardston, 


. G. P. Morton. 


Beverly, 


. Henry E. Dodge, 2d. 


Billerica, . 


. Albert H. Jones. 


Boston, 


Professor James 0. Jordan. 


Braintree, . " . 


. F. Herbert Gile, M.D. 


Bridgewater, 


Joseph Brennan. 


Brimfield, . 


J. Walter Brown. 


Brockton, . 


. George E. Boiling. 


Brookline, . 


. W. E. Ward. 


Cambridge, 


. William A. Noonan, M.D. 


Canton, 


. H. E. Berger, Jr., Wellesley Hills. 


Carlisle, 


Benjamin F. Blaisdell. 


Charlemont, 


Charles E. Graves. 


Chelsea, 


Dr. W. S. Walkley. 


Chicopee, . 


. C. J. O'Brien. 


Clarksburg, 


. Cassius Quackenbush, North Adams. 


Clinton, 


. Gilman L. Chase, M.D. 


Cohasset, . 


. Darius W. Gilbert, V.S. 


Colrain, 


J. D. Gilchrist, Griswoldville. 


Concord, . 


. Harry E. Tuttle. 


Conway, 


A. J. Patterson. 


Dalton, 


. H. Ward Ford. 


Dana, .... 


Chas. W. Robertson, M.D., North Dana. 


Danvers, . 


Wm. Hugo Nappe. 


Dedham, 


Edmand Knobel. 


East Douglas, . 


Frank E. Correll. 


Easthampton, . 


George L. McEvoy. 


East Longmeadow, . 


Henry S. Ashley. 


Everett, 


E. Clarence Colby. 


Fairhaven, 


. Andrew N. Bruckshaw, M.D. 


Fall River, 


Henry Boisseau. 


Fitchburg, . 


John F. Bresnahan. 


Framingham, 


. Fred S. Dodson. 


Franklin, . 


. J. Newton Blanchard. 


Gardner, . 


Harry 0. Knight. 


Gill, .... 


George L. Marshall. 


Gloucester, 


. Dr. G. E. Watson. 


Gosnold, 


. John T. Cornell, Cutty hunk. 


Great Barrington, 


Dewitt Smith. 


Greenfield, 


. George P. Moore. 



1917.] ' PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 60. 



23 



Groton, . . . . 


Herbert Rockwood. 


Hadley, . . . . 


Henry S. Shipman. 


Hamilton, . . . . 


. Dr. C. S. Moore.i 


Haverhill, . . . . 


Dr. Homer L. Conner. 


Hingham, . . . . 


Quincy Bicknell. 


Hinsdale, . 


Alfred N. Warren. 


Holyoke, . . . . 


Daniel P. Hartnett. 


Housatonic, 


J. J. Barr. 


Hudson, . . . . 


. William H. Clark. 


Hull, 


Carroll A. Cleverly. 


Lancaster, . . . . 


George E. Howe. 


Lawrence, . . . . 


. Dr. J. H. Tobin. 


Lenox, . . . . 


Joseph J. Kirby. 


Leominster, 


William H. Dodge. 


Lexington, . . . . 


L. L. Pierce, D.V.S., ArUngton. 


Littleton, . . . . 


. N. B. Conant. 


Lowell, . . . . 


Melvin F. Master. 


Ludlow, . . . . 


. A. L. Bennett, D.V.S. 


Lunenburg, 


. Dr. Charles E. Woods. 


Lynn, 


George A. Flanagan. 


Lynnfield, .... 


Franklin W. Freeman. 


Maiden, . . . . 


J. A. Sanford. 


Mansfield,2 


- - 


Marblehead, 


Andrew M. Stone. 


Marlborough, 


John J. Cassidy. 


Marion, .... 


Chester A. Vose. 


Medford, . . . . 


Winslow Joyce. 


Medway, .... 


Norman P. Quint, West Medway. 


Melrose, .... 


. H. E. Berger, Jr., Wellesley Hills. 


Middleborough, 


Dr. F. A. Robinson. 


Milton, .... 


. Wallace C. Tucker. 


Millbury, .... 


Fred A. Watkins. 


Monson, .... 


. Dr. E. W. Capen. 


Montague, 


Frank Dubie, Turners Falls. 


Nahant, .... 


Robert L. Cochrane. 


Natick, .... 


. Thomas A. Doyle, D.V.M. 


Needham, .... 


. H. E. Berger, Jr., Wellesley Hills. 


New Bedford, . 


Herbert Hamilton, D.V.S. 


Newburyport, 


. Dr. R. D. Hamilton. 


Newton, .... 


Arthur Hudson. 


North Adams, . 


C. T. Quackenbush. 


Northampton, . 


George R. Turner. 


North Attleborough, 


. Hugh Gaw, D.V.S. 


Northborough, . 


Everett C. Valentine. 


North Brookfield, . 


. Dr. Windsor R. Smith. 



1 Inspector of dairies. 2 Milk samples taken to Attieboro for inspection. 



24 



DAIRY BUREAU. 



[Jan. 



North Dana, 

Northfield, 

North Reading, 

Norton, 

Oxford, 

Palmer, 

Pax ton, 

Peabody, 

Pelham, 

Pepperell, . 

Pittsfield, . 

Plain ville, . 

Plymouth, . 

Provincetown, 

Quincy, 

Reading, 

Revere, 

Rutland, . 

Salem, 

Salisbury, . 

Sandwich, . 

Saugus, 

Scituate, 

Shelburne, . 

Shirley, 

Shrewsbury, 

Somerville, 

South Hadley, 

Southborough, 

Southbridge, 

Springfield, 

Sterling, 

Stoneham, . 

Stoughton, 

Stow, . 

Sutton, 

Swampscott, 

Taunton, . 

Tisbury, 

Topsfield, . 

Wakefield, . 

Waltham, . 

Ware, . 

Wareham, . 

Warren, 



Chas. W. Robertson, M.D. 
E. C. Field, Northfield Farms. 
J. H. Spear. 

Edmund H. Elliot, Chartley. 

Richard C. Taft. 

M. H. Davitt, V.S. 

H. S. Robinson. 

Edward F. McHugh. 

Charles H. Jones. 

Dr. Fred A. Davis, East Pepperell. 

Dr. Bernard M. Collins. 

John C. Eiden. 

Walton E. Briggs. 

Antone Dennis. 

Daniel Scouler, Jr. 

Carl M. Smith. 

Joseph E. Lamb, M.D. 

Lewis Drury. 

John J. McGrath. 

John F. Pike. 

J. E. Hoi way. 

A. W. Sawyer. 

George T. Otis. 

G. J. Tower, Shelburne Falls. 

John H. Riley. 

C. I. Rich. 

Herbert E. Bowman. 

George F. Boudreau. 

Dr. John W. Robinson. 

Albert R. Brown. 

Stephen C. Downs, Fred L. Robertson. 
Arthur S. Wilder, Sterling Junction. 
Lawrence E. Doucett. 
William E. Ferrin. 
Fred E. Whitcomb. 
Charles A. Hough. 
Clarence W. Horton. 
Lewis I. Tucker. 

Charles S. Norton, Vineyard Haven. 

Charles S. Moore, Danvers. 

Carl M. Smith, Reading. 

Charles M. Hennelly. 

Fred E. Marsh. 

John J. Beaton. 

Joseph St. George. 



1917.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 60. 



25 



Warwick, . 
Watertown, 
Wellesley, . 
Wendell, . 
Wenham, . 
Westborough, 
West Boylston, 
Westfield, . ^ 
West port, . 
Weston, 

West Springfield 
Weymouth, 
Whitman, . 
Williamstown, 
Winchendon, 
Winchester, 
Winthrop, . 
Woburn, 
Worcester, . 



Charles E. Stone. 
E. B. Johnson. 
H. E. Berger, Jr. 
Chas. A. Fiske. 

C. W. Patch. 
Charles H. Reed. 
Dr. A. M. Tyler. 
Wniiam H. Porter. 
George A. Tripp. 

H. E. Berger, Jr., Wellesley Hills. 
J. A. Morrill. 

George B. Bayley, South Weymouth. 

E. A. Dyer. 

G. S. Jordan, V.S. 

Dr. G. W. Stanbridge. 

Maurice Dinneen. 

S. A. Mowry. 

D. F. Callahan. 
Gustaf L. Berg. 



Each of the following towns has reported that milk inspection 
is done by its local board of health: — 



Sherborn. 

Stockbridge. 

Sturbridge. 



Walpole. 

West Brookfield. 



The following towns report that the animal inspector of their 
town inspects the dairies : — 



Foxborough. 



Sturbridge. 



Creamekies, Milk Depots, etc. 

Co-operative Creameries. 



Number and Location. 



Name. 



Superintendent or Manager. 



1. Ashfield, 

2. Belchertown, 

3. Cummington, 

4. Easthampton, 

5. Monterey, 

6. Northfield, . 

7. Shelburne. . 



Ashfield Creamery, . 
Belchertown Creamery, 
Cummington Creamery, 
Hampton Creamery, 
Berkshire Hills Creamery 
Northfield Creamery, 
Shelburne Creamery, 



William Hunter, manager. 
M. G. Ward, president. 

m. 

D. C. Morey, superintend- 
ent. 

E. B. Clapp, treasurer. 

F. A. Campbell, treasurer. 
C. C. Stearns, treasurer. 
E. P. Andrews, treasurer. 



26 



DAIRY BUREAU. 



[Jan. 



Proprietary Creameries. 



Number and Location. 


Name. 


Owner or Manager. 


1. Amherst, .... 


Amherst Creamery Company, . 


R. W. Pease, manager. 


2. Amherst, .... 


Fort River Creamery, 


Clarence M. Wood, manager 






(estate of E. A. King, 






owner). 


3. Heath 


Cold Spring Creamery, . 


L. J. Fontaine, Waltham. 


4. Hinsdale 


Hinsdale Creamery, . 


Walter C. Solomon, pro- 






prietor. 



Educational. 



Location. 


Name. 


Manager. 




Dairy Industrj' Course, Massachu- 
setts Agricultural College. 


W. P. B. Lockwood, pro- 
fessor in charge. 


Principal Milk-distributing Depots. 


Name. 


Location. 


Manager. 


Acton Farms Milk Company, . 
Alden Brothers Company, 

Anderson Brothers, . 
Bonnie Brook Farms, 
Mohawk Dairy Company, 
Boston Jersey Creamery, 
Brigham, C, Company, . 
Brigham, C, Company, . 
Bristol Creamery Company, . 
Columbia Creamery, 
Deerfoot Farms Pairy, . 

Elm Farm Milk Company, 
Elm Spring Farm, . 
Franklin Creamery Company, 
Hampden Creamery Company, 
Hood, H. P., & Sons, 


Somerville, Windsor Street, . 

Boston office, 1171 Tremont Street; 
depot, 24-28 Duncan Street. 

Worcester, Eckman Street, . 

South Sudbury 

Boston office, 1047 Kimball Build- 
ing 

Boston, 9 Fulton Street, 

Cambridge, 158 Massachusetts Av- 
enue. 

Worcester, 9 Howard Street, . 
Boston, 132 Central Street, . 
Springfield, 117 Lyman Street, 

Boston, 132 Central Street; depots 
at Northborough and Southbor- 
ough. 

Boston, Wales Place, 

Waltham, Ellison Road, 

Boston, 147 Harrison Avenue, 

Everett, Orient Avenue, 

Boston, 494 Rutherford Avenue; 
branches, 24 Anson Street, Forest 
Hills; 886 Broadway, Chelsea; 
298 Dorchester Avenue, South 
Boston. 

Brookline, 13G Westbourne Terrace. 
Law rence, 629 Common Street. 
Lynn, 193 Alley Street. 
Maiden, 425 Main Street. 
Medford, 452 High Street. 
Watertown, 479 Pleasant Street. 


Arthur B. Parker, treas- 
urer. 

Charles L. Alden, Presi- 
dent; John Alden, 
treasurer. 

Anderson Brothers. 

Norman E. Borden. 

Claude E. Davis, treas- 
urer. 

Theo. P. Grant, presi- 
dent and manager. 
John K. Whiting. 

C. Brigham Company. 

William L. Johnson. 

H. A. Mosely. 

S. H. Howes. 

James H. Knapp, treas- 
urer. 
G. W. Barrow. 

Tait Brothers. 

Frank H. Adams, treas- 
urer. 
Charles H. Hood. 



1917. 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 60. 



27 



Principal Milk-distributing Depots — Concluded. 



Name. 



Location. 



Manager. 



Learned, G. S. (Fitchburg 

Creamery). 
Llanwhitkell Farms Creamery, 

Lyndonville Creamery Associa- 
tion. 

Nash, Charles A., . 
New hall, J. A., 

Perry, A. D., . . . . 

Plymouth Creamery Company, 

Prentice, H. H., & Co. (Berk- 
shire Creamery). 
Rockingham Milk Company, 

Somers Creamery Company, 

Springfield Creamery, 

Tait Brothers, . 

Turgeon, Frank H., . 

Turner Center Dairying Asso 

ciation. 
Wachusett Creamery, 

Whiting, D., & Sons, 



Fitchburg, 26 Cushing Street, 
Boston, 23 Ferry Street, 
Watertown, 86 Elm Street, . 
Springfield, 120 Oakland Street, 
New bury port, 32 Monroe Street, 
Worcester, Kansas Street, 
Boston, 268-270 State Street, 
Pittsfield, Crane Avenue, 

Charlestown, Boston office, Han- 
cock Square; depot 330 Ruther- 
ford Avenue. 

Springfield, 178 Dwight Street, . 

Springfield, Main Street, 

Springfield, 37 Vinton Street, 

Boston, 213 Camden Street, . 

Boston office, 63, 67 and 69 Endicott 
Street. 

Worcester, 6 Lincoln Street, . 
Boston, 570 Rutherford Avenue, . 



G. S. Learned. 

Nelson P. Cook, man- 
ager. 

Willis C. Conner, man- 
ager. 

Charles A. Nash, man- 
ager. 
J. A. Newhall. 

A. D. Perry. 

John W. Davies. 

H. H. Prentice. 

Rolan H. Tcothaker, 
president. 

W. M. Cushman. 

F. B. Allen, proprietor. 

Tait Brothers, proprie- 
tors. 

Frank H. Turgeon. 

Irven L. Smith, man- 
ager. 

E. H. Thayer & Co., 

proprietors. 
George Whiting. 



Modified Milk Laboratory. 



H. P. Hood & Sons, 


Boston, 494 Rutherford Avenue, . 


C. H. Hood. 


Walker-Gordon Laboratory, 


Boston, 1106 Boylston Street, 


George W. Franklin. 


D. Whiting & Sons, . 


Boston, 570 Rutherford Avenue, . 


George Whiting. 



Receiving Depot for Milk, for Shipments to New Rochelle. 



Borden Condensed Milk Com- 


West Stockbridge. 




pany. 






Willow Brook Dairy Company, 


Sheffield 


Frank Percy. 


Willow Brook Dairy Company, 


North Egremont, .... 


George Wyble. 



Encouragement of Dairying Expenses. 



Agents, compensation, $294 00 

Agents, expenses, 605 72 

Total, $899 72 

Cash prizes, 2,836 38 

Total expenditures, . . . . ■ $3,736 10 



28 



DAIRY BUREAU. 



[Jan. 1917. 



Regular Bureau Expenses. 

The following is a classified statement of the expenses for the 
year ending November 30, 1916: — 

Agents, expenses, $1,547 06 

Agents, compensation, 2,684 00 

Bureau, expenses, 389 11 

Bureau, compensation, 330 00 

Samples purchased, 157 28 

General agent, traveling expenses, 341 45 

Analysts, analyses, 300 50 

Analysts, court attendance, 60 00 

Photography, lantern slides, etc., 183 40 

Mileage, 360 00 

Postage, 100 00 

Assistants at PubHc Service Commission hearing, ... 17 78 

Telephone, 35 65 

Printing, 967 21 

Supplies, 226 56 

Bacteriological laboratory, 300 00 



Total, $8,000 00 

P. M. HARWOOD, 

General Agent. 

Accepted and adopted as the report of the Dairy Bureau. 

OMER E. BRADWAY. 
GEORGE W. TRULL. 
GEORGE E. TAYLOR, Jk. 



Public Document 



No. 60 



TWENTY-SEVENTH ANNUAL EEPOET 

OF THE 

DAIRY BUREAU 

OF THE 

Massachusetts Boaed of Ageictjltuee, 

REQUIRED UNDER 

Chapter 89, Section 12, Revised Laws. 

January 12, 1918. 




BOSTON: 

WRIGHT & POTTER PRINTING CO., STATE PRINTERS, 
32 DERNE STREET. 
1918. 



Public Document 



No. 60 



TWENTY-SEVENTH ANNUAL EEPORT 

OF THE 

"DAIRY BUREAU 

OF THE 

Massachusetts Boaed of Ageicultuee, 

REQUIRED UNDER 

Chapter 89, Section 12, Revised Laws. 



January 12, 1918 




BOSTON: 

WRIGHT & POTTER PRINTING CO., STATE PRINTERS, 

32 DERNE STREET. 
^ 1918. 

C 

8 



Publication of this Document 

approved by the 
Supervisor of Administration. 



2> 



Dairy Bureau — 1917. 



OMER E. BRADWAY, Monson, Chairman. 

GEORGE W. TRULL, Tewksbury, P. 0. Lowell, R. F. D. 

GEORGE E. TAYLOR, Jr., Shelburne. 



Secretary. 

WILFRID WHEELER, Executive Officer and Secretary of the State 
Board of Agriculture. 



General Agent. 
P. M. HARWOOD, 
Address, Room 136, State House, Boston. 



REPORT OF THE DAIRY BUREAU. 



The European war, in which this country is at present 
engaged, has not been without its effect on the work of the 
Dairy Bureau. Resulting high prices have led to increased law 
violations on the one hand, while on the other, scarcity of labor 
on dairy farms has caused a decreased number of entries in the 
clean milking contest. 

The number of prosecutions for violations of dairy laws was 
93, convictions being obtained in all cases; 40 of these were for 
violations of oleomargarine laws, 49 for violation of the reno- 
vated butter law, and 4 for selling adulterated milk. Sales of 
condensed and evaporated milk have been investigated, but no 
violation was found to warrant prosecution. The total number 
of inspections of stores, wagons, etc., for the year was 6,540. 

The number of entries in the clean milking contest was 352, 
and 138 prizes were awarded. Details of this contest will be 
found in a special report upon the subject. 

Publications. 

A new illustrated folder on the food value of milk, prepared 
by the general agent, was published, and 35,000 copies have 
been distributed. Leaflets E, F, G, H, I and J, by the same 
author, and all relating to milk, its food value, its products or 
its production, have been published, and approximately 
250,000 copies have been distributed. 

Supplements of the dairy laws, embodying 1916 and 1917 
legislation, have been published. A list of Massachusetts 
dairymen owning three or more cows is being prepared. 



6 



DAIRY BUREAU. 



[Jan. 



Lectuees, Conferences and Conventions. 
The general agent has delivered fifteen lectures on dairy 
subjects during the year. He represented the Board of Agri- 
culture at two conferences on food production with the Fed- 
eral Food Administration and the Department of Agriculture, 
at Washington, District of Columbia. He also represented 
the Dairy Bureau at a mass meeting of Dairy Interests, held 
at Columbus, Ohio, in connection with the National Dairy 
Show. 

Agent A. W. Lombard attended the annual meeting of the 
International Association of Dairy and Milk Inspectors at 
Washington, District of Columbia, where he read a paper and 
was elected president of the association for the ensuing year. 

INVESTIGATIONS. 

The chairman of the Bureau, with one member and the 
general agent, spent several days investigating creameries, milk 
stations and dairies in Vermont, with a view to obtaining first- 
hand information as to the result of co-operation as practiced 
in that State. The following cities and towns were visited: 
Brattleboro, Wardsboro, South Londonderry, Peru, Pawlet, Ira, 
Rutland, Bridport, Vergennes, Burlington, St. Albans, Enos- 
burg Falls, East Berkshire, Alberg, South Hero, Richmond, 
Bolton, Stow, East Hardwick and St. Johnsbury. At Rich- 
mond the Bureau found an ideal milk plant, a real model of its 
kind. A similar plant has just been completed at East Berk- 
shire, and we were informed that one was to be built this 
winter at Newport. What was once pronounced by a Federal 
inspector as the cleanest creamery in the United States is at 
Wardsboro, and is operated by a woman, Miss Hanna Halonen. 
The product of this creamery is sold in North Adams, Mas- 
sachusetts. We were especially impressed with the excellent 
butter made at Mount Mansfield Creamery in Stow, a sample 
of which won first prize at the recent Eastern States Exposi- 
tion held in Springfield, Massachusetts. The Lamoile Valley 
Creamery at East Hardwick was particularly interesting from 
the fact that it is the largest creamery in New England. No 
one can travel over the State of Vermont without being im- 



1918.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 60. 



7 



pressed with its wonderful adaptability for dairying. Thou- 
sands of acres by the shores of Lake Champlain, along the 
river valleys and up and down the hillsides of the State show 
wonderful natural fertility of goil, and produce an abundance of 
sweet grasses necessary for dairy production of quality. Several 
cheese factories were visited, notably those at Paw^let and Ira, 
also two condensaries, one at St. Albans, owned by H. P. Hood 
& Sons of Boston, and the other at Enosburg Falls, owned by 
the Federal Packing Company of Philadelphia. Many of the 
farmers keep from forty to fifty cows, and some have dairies of 
one hundred or more each. Other sources of income for the 
farmers of the State are livestock, hay, potatoes, sweet corn 
and string beans sold to canneries and maple sugar. 

Dairy Exhibits. 
The Bureau made an exhibit of the results of the 1916 clean 
milking contest, together with a display of food value of milk, 
chemical analysis of milk, and photographs relating to dairy 
and country life, at the Public Winter Meeting of the State 
Board of Agriculture at Springfield. This exhibit attracted 
much attention and favorable comment. The Bureau also 
aided in the milk show which was conducted by the Allied 
Dairy Interests. The Bureau furnished an exhibit for health 
w^eek in Winchendon in February; also for farmers' week at 
Amherst in March, at Palmer Fair in September, and at the 
Eastern States Exposition at Springfield in October. The agri- 
cultural exhibit at the latter show, and the general show held 
in connection with the Public Winter Meeting of the State 
Board of Agriculture, were superintended by Agent A. W. 
Lombard. 

Leqislation. 

The Bureau proposed no milk legislation, but labored to 
secure the passage of the following general acts, viz.: chapter 
112, prohibiting the charging of fees for dairy, milk and live- 
stock inspection; chapter 189, harmonizing the relationship of 
total milk solids and milk fat in the legal standard; chapter 
224, permitting the incorporation of agricultural and horti- 
cultural organizations under laws relating to business corpora- 
tions; chapter 256, establishing Grade A Massachusetts milk; 



8 



DAIRY BUREAU. 



[Jan. 



and chapter 259, defining pasteurized milk and regulating its 
sale. Chapter 256 we believe to be a step in the right direc- 
tion, but as amended and finally passed its usefulness was 
greatly impaired. 

The Dairy Situation. 
It has been the policy of this department for years to make 
clear to the consumer the food value of milk in the hope that 
increased consumption would ultimately result in making milk 
production independently profitable. We have opposed all 
schemes which tended to discourage people from using milk, or 
to encumber the business with needless expense. During the 
early autumn months of 1917 the Massachusetts public, becom- 
ing accustomed to the general advance in food prices, ap- 
parently viewed with a fair degree of equanimity the proposed 
advance in milk prices, and it looked as though the milk busi- 
ness might, at last, be placed on a satisfactory basis. The New 
England Milk Producers' Association had demanded 8 cents a 
quart delivered in Boston, and that price was approved by the 
Food Administrator. Suddenly one of the large dealers made a 
proposition to sell milk in some 50 stores for 10 cents a quart, 
provided 10 tickets costing $1 were purchased. This propo- 
sition, which was at first agreed to by the Food Administrator, 
was later canceled. Previously, in both New York and Chicago, 
the producers had made unreasonable demands which resulted 
in prejudicing the public mind against paying advanced prices 
for milk anywhere. The Federal Food Administration finally 
called for the establishment of regional boards to investigate 
the cost of milk production and milk distribution, and to fix 
prices. The contracts made between the dealers and the New 
England Milk Producers' Association for milk to be delivered in 
Boston at 8 cents per quart were suspended, and 7J cents per 
quart was decided upon as the price to be paid producers, 
pending the investigations, and the assurance was given that 
the prices would be made on a basis of reasonable profit to the 
producer. (Since the above was written the regional board has 
fixed the price to producers at 8i cents per quart for milk de- 
livered in Boston during January, February and March, and the 
retail price to family trade, delivered, at 14^ cents per quart.) 



1918.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 60. 



9 



In view of danger of future shortage of cows this depart- 
ment last spring pubHshed a statement and distributed it 
among farmers, urging them not to sell their stock and to raise 
all the good heifer calves possible, because the prices of both 
dairy cattle and milk would steadily increase. We are now 
officially informed that the world's shortage of cattle is up- 
wards of 28,000,000 head. On account of the shortage of hired 
men on dairy farms we have also urged that, whenever possible, 
milking machines be used on the larger farms, while on the 
smaller farms women and children unite with the older men to 
relieve the situation. 

When considering the milk question it should be borne in 
mind that even at 15 cents a quart milk is one of the cheapest 
animal foods obtainable; that children cannot thrive well with- 
out it; that market-milk production is not and never has been 
over profitable; and that the dairy farmer must realize a profit 
in order that he may continue in business. The consumer 
should always remember that he caimot well do without milk, 
and that the producer can earn his living in some other way; 
that, food value considered, butter at 60 cents a pound is 
cheaper than any butter substitute, and that milk, cream, 
butter and cheese contain growth-promoting factors which 
either do not exist at all, or exist in far less degree, in their 
substitutes. At the recent National Dairy Show at Columbus, 
Ohio, experiments with growing rats were in progress, showing 
that animals fed on rations containing milk fat thrived, while 
others fed on rations in which vegetable oils had been substi- 
tuted were wasting and dying. Yet some food economics 
teachers are encouraging the use of butter substitutes. Slowly 
but surely the consuming public is coming to appreciate the 
real facts concerning the food value of milk and milk products, 
their vitamines, ready digestibility and general all-round superi- 
ority. To deprive children or even grown people of an abun- 
dance of milk, cream, butter and cheese is poor economy, while 
depriving children of these essentials, especially milk, is near 
criminal. By substituting milk and milk products for meats in 
daily rations a material financial saving can be made. 



10 



DAIRY BUREAU. 



[Jan. 



Dairy Statistics. 

The number of dairy cows assessed in this Commonwealth 
April 1, 1917, was 149,077, which, compared with 147,634 
assessed in 1916, shows an increase of 1,443. This condition is 
gratifying, for, excepting the loss by foot and mouth disease in 
1915, there has been no decrease due to adverse dairy condi- 
tions in the last three years. 

For the year ending November 30, 1917, 142,474,364 quarts 
of milk were shipped into Boston by rail, and the year previous 
118,516,214j quarts of milk were shipped into Boston, showing 
the large increase in 1917 of 23,958,149j quarts. 

Proposed Grade Heifer Contest. 
The Legislature of 1916 placed at the disposal of the State 
Board of Agriculture a sum not exceeding $5,000 annuall}^ for 
three years, to be expended in the encouragement of practical 
dairying and the production of milk and dairy products of 
superior cleanliness, and in developing the live-stock industry 
of the State. 

For several years we have conducted clean milking and other 
contests. We now propose to encourage the rearing of grade 
heifers from good milking strains of dairy animals. 

For best heifers sired by pure-bred Ayrshire, Brown Swiss, 
Guernsey, Holstein-Friesian, Jersey or Shorthorn bulls, and 
from high-producing grade dams of any breed, heifers to be 
born between April 1, 1917, and July 31, 1918, inclusive, prizes 
aggregating $3,000 are offered. 



1918.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 60. 



11 



Clasa. 




First Prize. 


Second Prize. 


Third Prize. 


Fourth Prize. 1 


Fifth Prize. | 


Sixth Prize. | 


Seventh Prize. 


Eighth Prize. 


I. 


Bost 6 §r3r(iG AyrshirG heifers 


$60 


$50 


$40 


$35 


$30 


$25 


$20 


$10 


II. 


Best 6 grade Brown Swiss heifers, . 


60 


50 


40 


35 


30 


25 


20 


10 


III. 


Best 6 grade Guernsey heifers, 


60 


50 


40 


35 


30 


25 


20 


10 


IV. 


Best 6 grade Holstein-Friesian heifers, . 


60 


50 


40 


35 


30 


25 


20 


10 


V. 


Best 6 grade Jersey heifers. 


60 


50 


40 


35 


30 


25 


20 


10 


VI. 


Best 6 grade Shorthorn heifers. 


60 


50 


40 


35 


30 


25 


20 


10 


VII. 


JiJesi o ^r&cie Ayrsiiire xieiiersj • 


35 


30 


25 


20 


15 


13 


10 


7 


VIII. 


Best 3 grade Brown Swiss heifers, . 


35 


30 


25 


20 


15 


13 


10 


7 


IX. 


Best 3 grade Guernsey heifers, 


35 


30 


25 


20 


15 


13 


10 


7 


X. 


Best 3 grade Holstein-Friesian heifers, . 


35 


30 


25 


20 


15 


13 


10 


7 


XI. 


Best 3 grade Jersey heifers. 


35 


30 


25 


20 


15 


13 


10 


7 


XII. 


Best 3 grade Shorthorn heifers. 


35 


30 


25 


20 


15 


13 


10 


7 


XIII. 


Best single grade Ayrshire heifer. 


15 


14 


12 


10 


9 


6 


5 


4 


XIV. 


Best single grade Brown Swiss heifer, . 


15 


14 


12 


10 


9 


6 


5 


4 


XV. 


Best single grade Guernsey heifer. 


15 


14 


12 


10 


9 


6 


5 


4 


XVI. 


Best single grade Holstein-Friesian heifer. 


15 


14 


12 


10 


9 


6 


5 


4 


XVII. 


Best single grade Jersey heifer. 


15 


14 


12 


10 


9 


6 


5 


4 


XVIII. 


Best single grade Shorthorn heifer, 


15 


14 


12 


10 


9 


6 


5 


4 



Gratuities. 

In meritorious instances gratuities may be recommended by 
the judges, and may equal but shall not exceed the amount 
offered as the eighth prize in each class, and the payment of 
such gratuities will depend upon money made available as un- 
used prize money. 

Rules. 

1. These prizes are open for contest only for animals owned 
by practical dairy farmers who superintend their own dairies 
and gain their principal livelihood from their farm, and for 
animals owned by wives, sons or unmarried daughters of such 
eligible farmers, provided their animals are kept upon said farm 
and the owners live upon said farm and are mainly dependent 
on the farm for a livelihood. 



12 



DAIRY BUREAU. 



[Jan. 



2. All heifers eligible for entry must have been sired by pure- 
bred bulls which are either registered ' or eligible for registry. 
Satisfactory proof must be furnished in each instance. In case 
of registered bulls the certificate of registry will be accepted. 
In case of pure-bred bulls eligible for registry satisfactory affi- 
davits must be filed at the time of entry. 

3. All animals must have been bred and raised by the exhib- 
itor. 

4. No animal will be eligible in more than one class. 

5. All entries must be made on or before July 31, 1918. 

6. All animals must be exhibited at the 1918 annual exhibi-* 
tion of an agricultural society receiving bounty from the State, 
or such other place as shall be approved by the Dairy Bureau 
of the State Board of Agriculture, and the exhibit may be 
made at the society's grounds or approved place most con- 
venient for the exhibitor. 

7. Animals will be scored and judged by competent experts, 
and the decision of these judges shall be final. 

8. No prize shall be allowed for unmeritorious animals. 

9. The right to reject or cancel any and all entries is reserved 
by the Dairy Bureau. 

10. Results will be announced as soon as possible after the 
close of the contest. 

11. A certificate of award will accompany each cash prize. 

Condensed Milk. 
The reports of the Boston Chamber of Commerce show that 
the amount of condensed milk handled in Boston in 1917 was 
50,337 barrels and 880,072 cases. This shows an increase over 
1916 of 47,392 barrels and 117,626 cases. (See table on page 18.) 

Oleomargarine. 
The United States licenses for the sale of oleomargarine in 
force in Massachusetts November 30, 1917, were: manufac- 
turers, 3; wholesale dealers, 73; and retail dealers, 3,078; 
making a total of 3,154, or more than three times the number 
(916) reported for November, 1916. The manufacturers are as 
follows: Swift & Co., Gore Street, East Cambridge; Sam C. 



1918.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 60. 



13 



Smith, 179 Dale Street, Waltham; and Sweet Nut Butter Com- 
pany, rear of 159 Green Street, Jamaica Plain. An oleomar- 
garine made of vegetable oils churned in milk has come upon 
the market in considerable quantities during the year. 

The number of packages handled in Boston in 1916 as re- 
ported by the Chamber of Commerce was 40,998, and in 1917, 
75,662, an increase of 34,664 packages. 

For the year ending June 30, 1917, there has been a total in- 
crease in the production of oleomargarine in the United States 
of 80,660,198 pounds over that of the year ending June 30, 

1916. This increase in the manufacture of oleomargarine is 
caused by a slightly increased export demand, by the increased 
price of butter, and by the boost given consumption by govern- 
ment propaga